History of Warren County - Table of Contents

CHAPTER I - OUR SUBJECT SOMEWHAT EXPLAINED.

The Beginning of Warren County's History - Date of Organization - It s Boundaries - Its Area and Streams - Origin of its Name - The System to be Pursued in Succeeding Chapters


CHAPTER II - NATURAL FEATURES, ETC.

Topography - Character of Forests - The Soil - Its Products - Minerals - The Animal Kingdom - The Eries-The Kahquahs, or Neuter Nation - The Hurons - The Iroquois - Earlier Occupants - Inferences


CHAPTER III - EUROPEAN DISCOVERIES, ETC., 1534-1655.

The French in New France - The Puritans in New England o- The Dutch in New Netherlands - Activity of the French - Dutch Progress - The Jesuits - The Company of a Hundred Partners-Capture and Restoration of New France--Great Extent of the Province of Massachusetts Bay - Breboeuf and Chaumonot - Destruction of the Kahquahs and Eries - Seneca Tradition - French Account - Indian Hatchets 21


CHAPTER IV - THE IROQUOIS.

Their Name as Applied by Themselves - System of Clans-Its Importance - Its Probable Origin o- The Grand Council - Sachems and War-chiefs - Line of Descent - Choice of Sachems - Religious Belief - Natural Attributes - Family Relations, etc


CHAPTER V - FROM 1655 TO 1680.

The Iroquois Triumphant - Obliteration of Dutch Power - French Progress - La Salle Visits the Senecas - Greenhalgh's Estimates - La Salle on the Niagara - Building of the Griffin - Its First and Last Voyage - La Salle's Subsequent Career


CHAPTER VI - THE PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Europeans Struggle for Supremacy Along the Atlantic Coast - Quakers Settle in New Jersey - William Penn Appointed a Trustee - His Labors in Their Behalf - An Early Description of the New Country - Admiral Penn - A Province Granted to His Son - I t is Named Pennsylvania - Its Extent - A Miscalculation - Penn Purchases the Lower Counties - Outlines His Policy - Sends Governor Markham to Take Possession - Names Commissioners - Their Duties - An Address to the Indians - The Site for a New City Selected


CHAPTER VII - PENN IN PENNSYLVANIA.

William Penn Sails for America - His Advice to His Family - The Voyage - Warmly Received at New Castle-The] First Assembly- Penn Visits New York and Maryland - Unsatisfactory Conference with Lord Baltimore - The Great Treaty with the Indians - The Walking Purchase - Great Influx of Colonists - Counties Formed - Meeting of the First General Assembly - Sitting of the First Grand Jury - First Conviction - Another Fruitless Interview with Lord Baltimore - Baltimore's Demand - Penn's Anxiety - His Liberal Offer - Baltimore's Adherents Invade the Lower Counties - Penn Determines to Return to England - His Farewell to His Colonists.


CHAPTER VIII -  FRENCH DOMINION.

A Slight Ascendency - De Nonville Attacks the Senecas - Origin of Fort Niagara - Count Frontenac in the Field - Treaty of Ryswick - Queen Anne's War - The Iroquois Neutral - The Tuscaroras - Joncaire - Fort Niagara Rebuilt - French Power Increasing - Conflicting Claims - Secret Instructions - DeCeleron Takes Possession of the Allegheny Valley - Buries a Lead Plate at Mouth of the Conewango - The Six Nations Alarmed - French Establish a Line of Forts - The Ohio Company - Virginia's Claim - Washington as an Envoy - French Build Fort DuQuesne - Washington and his Virginians Captured - Braddock's Disastrous Campaign - The Final Struggle - French Defeated all Along the Line - Their Surrender of Power in the New World


CHAPTER IX - ENGLISH DOMINION.

Pontiac's Conspiracy - The Devil's Hole - A Fight at Black Rock - Bradstreet's Expedition- Sulky Senecas - The Troops Composing Bradstreet's Command - Israel Putnam - The Revolution - Four Iroquois Tribes Hostile - The Treaty at Oswego - A Price for American Scalps - Brant, the Mohawk-Principal Seneca Chiefs-Wyoming- Cornplanter Conspicuous - His Many Names, etc. - Cherry Valley - Americans Retaliate - Brodhead's Expedition-Sullivan's Indian Campaign - Results - Close of the War, and of English Rule


CHAPTER X - FROM 1783 TO 1790.

Forlorn Condition of the Senecas at the Close of the Revolutionary War -Willing to Cede the Remainder of their Lands in Pennsylvania - Commissioners Appointed to Treat with Them - A Sum Appropriated to Purchase Indian Goods - Quantity and Kind of Goods with which Purchase was Made - Treaty of Port Stanwix - Boundaries of the Tract Acquired by Pennsylvania - Cornplanter the Friend of the Whites - Subsequent Indignation of His Tribe - General Irvine Explores the New Purchase - Extracts from His Report - Running the Boundary Line Between New York and Pennsylvania - Interesting Details - Early Names of Warren County Streams - Indian Villages - Pertinent Suggestions - A Tract of Land Granted to Cornplanter - Survey of Lands of the Mouth of the Conewango - An Account of the First Official Exploration of the Head Waters of the Allegheny


CHAPTER XL - CORNPLANTER AND OTHER INDIANS-1790-91.

The Seneca Chieftain Invited to Visit Philadelphia - Letter from Thomas Mifflin - Ensign Jeffers's Letter - The Journey - Arrival in the Quaker City - Subsequent Proceedings- Cornplanter's Speech to the Supreme Executive Council - President Mifflin's Reply - Cornplanter Meets President Washington - Returns to His Forest Home with Gifts and Various Supplies - Attempts on the Part of Pittsburgh Thieves to Steal the Same - Colonel Brodhead's Opinion of Early Pittsburgh Residents - Cornplanter Makes Choice of the Lands Granted Him - Their Location, etc. - Sketch of His Life


CHAPTER XII - FROM 1791 TO 1800.

Troublous Times on the Border - Baneful British Influence - Uneasy Iroquois - Colonel Proctor Visits Them - Interesting Details Gathered From His Journal - His Mission a Failure - St. Clair Defeated - The Iroquois Become Insolent-Their Arrogant Demands - Cornplanter Joins the Malcontents - Extracts from Letters Written by Andrew Ellioott, Brant the Mohawk, and John Adlum - Wayne's Victory - Salutary Effects - Iroquois Ardor Cooled - The Treaty at Canandaigua - The British Retire from American Territory - Cornplanter's Speech at Franklin - The Holland Land Company - Town of Warren Laid Out by State Commissioners - Survey of Lands West of the Allegheny River - Advent of the First Settlers - A Block-house at Warren - Navigable Waters - Origin of the Reserve Tracts and Academy Lands


CHAPTER XIII - THE ERA OF FORMATION, EARLY SETTLEMENTS, ETC., FROM 1800 TO 1819.

Formation of Warren County - Its Original Boundaries - Temporarily Attached to Crawford County - Crawford County Organized - Erection of Brokenstraw Township - It Becomes the First Election District of Crawford - Warren County Annexed to Venango in 1805--Brokenstraw Still Continues as the Sole Township of Warren County - Its Taxable Inhabitants in 1806 - Who were the First Settlers - A Mooted Question - An Order to Erect New Townships - Early Inn-Keepers - Division of the County into Two Townships - Their Names and Boundaries - Their Taxable Inhabitants in 1808 - Visited by Western Indians - A Want of Confidence - Council Held with Cornplanter - Veterans of the War of 1812-15 - A Transfer of Lands by the Holland Land Company - Cornplanter as He Appeared in 1816 - The Taxables of the County During the Same Year - Subsequent Rapid Increase in Population.


CHAPTER XIV - FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY UNTIL 1830.

Onerous Duties Imposed Upon Early Inhabitants - Passage of the Act of Organization - Its Provisions - Initial Proceedings of County Commissioners - The First Term of Court - Its Officers - Jurors - Attorneys - Early Inn-keepers - Reminiscences Concerning the First Term of Court-Population of the County in 1820 - New Townships formed in 1821 - The Attempts to Collect Taxes from Cornplanter - The Old Chief Victorious - The Hook Murder Trial - Incidents Connected Therewith - Results - Other Early Events


CHAPTER XV - FROM 1830 TO 1861.

The First Steamboat on the Upper Waters of the Allegheny - An Account of the Trip - Cornplanter a Passenger - Merchants and Inn-keepers in 1830 - National Character of Early Settlers - The Scotch-Irish at First in the Ascendency - Origin of the Term Scotch-Irish - Those of English Descent in Final Control - Early Routes of Travel - A Remarkable Journey - Barefooted in Midwinter - An Influx of Alsatians - Death of Cornplanter - Incorporators of Various Associations - Lumbering - River Navigation - Store Goods - Prices - Routes Pursued in Transit - Part of McKean County Annexed to Warren - The Whigs and Democrats - The First Telegraph Line - Merchants of the County in 1850 - The Whigs Disband - Organization of the American Party - Temporary Success - Causes Leading to the Formation of the Republican Party - An Incident in the Career of Jeff. Davis - Republicans Gain Control of the County in 1856 - New County Scheme - Petroleum Discoveries - Titusville to the Front - Warren Men Also - Railroad Completed from Erie to Warren - Tidioute Oil Field - Election in 1860


 CHAPTER XVI - DURING AND SINCE THE LATE WAR.

Mutterings of the Coming Storm - The Outbreak - Call for Troops- Citizens of Warren in Council - Their Proceedings - The First Two Companies of Volunteers - Others in Readiness - Leaving Home for the Front - Brief Allusion to Other Organizations - Number of Warren County Men in the Field to November 1, 1862 - Events of 1863 - Tribulations of the Stay-at-Homes in 1864 - Relieved by Rebel Recruits - The Draft of 1865 - Probable Total Number of Troops Furnished - Victorious Rejoicings - Ladies' Aid Society - Dedication of Cornplanter's Monument - An Influx of Scandinavians - Another New County Project Defeated - Gradual Development of Oil Interests - Conclusion of Continuous History


CHAPTER XVII - THIRTY-NINTH REGIMENT - TENTH RESERVE.

Where Recruited-The Warren Guards - Regimental Rendezvous - Organization of the Regiment - I t Proceeds to Harrisburg - Thence to Washington - Brigade Assignment- General Ord in Command - The Fight at Dranesville - A Weary March to Fredericksburg - Transferred to the Peninsula - In Fitz John Porter's Command - Battle of Mechanicsville - Gaines's Mill-Gallant Behavior of the Tenth Reserve - I t Sustains Heavy Loss - White Oak Swamp - Men Completely Exhausted - Close of the "Seven Days' Fight" - The Reserves at Second Bull Run - South Mountain - Antietam - Fredericksburg - Gettysburg - Winter Quarters 1863-64 - In the Wilderness - On Hand at Spottsylvania Court-House - Bethesda Church the Tenth Reserve's Last Battle-Field-Muster Out-Roster of its Members from Warren County


CHAPTER XVIII - FORTY-SECOND REGIMENT - BUCKTAIL RIFLES.

Manner of Recruiting Its First Companies - The Unique Material of Which It Was  Composed- Woodsmen to the Front- Floating Down the Susquehanna - Captain Stone's Raftmen - The First Company to Leave Warren - To Pittsburgh in Boats of Their Own Make - By Rail to Harrisburg - Regimental Organization - Captain Stone Promoted - The First March - On the Upper Potomac-The Bucktails Join the Pennsylvania Reserves - Gallant Conduct at Dranesville - Captain McNeil of Warren Chosen as Colonel - A Temporary Division of the Regiment- Major Stone's Battalion in the "Seven Days' Fight" - Winning Imperishable Honors - But at Great Loss of Life - Wonderful Bridge Building Peat - The Rifles of the Bucktails Again in Use at Second Bull Run-Services Rendered by Lieutenant-Colonel Kane's Battalion in the Shenandoah - The Regiment Again United - Its Services at South Mountain - Antietam - Death of Colonel McNeil - An Incident in His Military Career - Fredericksburg - Gettysburg - Death of Colonel Taylor, McNeil's Successor - In the Wilderness - At Spottsylvania - Bethesda Church - Expiration of Term of Service - Roster of the Warren County Men


CHAPTER XIX - FIFTY-EIGHTH AND EIGHTY-THIRD REGIMENTS.

Colonel Curtis, of Warren, Authorized to Raise a Regiment - Is but Partially Successful - Its Consolidation with Another Fractional Command - The Field Officers-Regiment Proceeds to Fortress Monroe - Its Services in that Department - Ordered to Beaufort, N. C. - Transferred to the Army of the James - Charging Fort Harrison - Subsequent Services - Muster Out - Eighty-Third Regiment - Where Recruited - Becomes Part of the Fifth Corps-Hotly Engaged During the Peninsula Campaign - Its Losses-Second Bull Run - Fredericksburg - Holding Little Round Top at Gettysburg - Worthless Substitutes and Drafted Men - Final Movements


CHAPTER XX - ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH REGIMENT.

In What Counties Recruited - Its Warren County Companies - Regimental Rendezvous - Original Field Officers - Equipped at Harrisburg - Proceeds to Baltimore - Thence to Harper's Ferry - Assigned to Banks's Second Corps - In Action at Cedar Mountain - Heroic Daring Displayed at Antietam - Assigned to the Twelfth Corps - Winter Quarters 1862-63 - At Chancellors ville - Gettysburg - Transferred to the Army of the Cumberland - Attacked at Midnight in the Wauhatchie Valley - Rebels Defeated - Lookout Mountain - Re-enlisting for a Second Term - Eleventh and Twelfth Corps Consolidated as the Twentieth - The Atlanta Campaign - Hard Marching and Fighting of Daily Occurrence - Before Atlanta - Death of Colonel Cobham - Atlanta Occupied - The March Through Georgia - Savannah Falls - Sweeping Northward Through the Carolinas - The Round-up at Washington, D. C.- Final Duties- Muster Out - Names and Record of Its Warren County Members.


CHAPTER XXI - ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH AND ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIFTH REGIMENTS.

The One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment of the Line or Twelfth Cavalry - Organized Near Philadelphia - Joins Pope in Virginia-Subsequent Services in the Shenandoah Valley - The First Command to Discover Lee's Northward Movement in 1863 - Nearly Surrounded at Winchester - Cutting its Way Out - On the Upper Potomac - In Pursuit of Early - Its Last Battle - Muster Out-Roster of Company K - One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment - Company F Recruited at Tidioute - The Regiment is Ordered to the Front Without Adequate Equipments - In Line at Antietam - Assigned to the Second Corps - Its Desperate Struggle at Fredericksburg - Great Losses - Chancellorsville - With Hancock at Gettysburg - In the Wilderness with Grant - Charging the Enemy's Works at Spottsylvania - Cold Harbor - Petersburg - Part of the Regiment Captured - Other Movements and Battles - Names, Etc., of Its Warren County Members


CHAPTER XXII - ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIRST AND ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-NINTH REGIMENTS.

One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment - Company F Recruited in Warren County - Regimental Organization - Colonel Harrison Allen, of Warren, in Command - Joins the Army of the Potomac - Assigned to the First Corps - The Chancellorsville Campaign- The Weary March to Gettysburg - The Battle - Heroic Conduct During the First Day's Fight - Frightful Losses - Retiring through the Town to a New Position - Continuance of the Battle - Victory, Though at a Fearful Cost-The Regiment Highly Complimented by General Doubleday - Its Warren County Men - One Hundred and Fifty-ninth Regiment, Otherwise Fourteenth Cavalry - Names of Its Warren County Members - Regiment Organized at Pittsburg - Its Field Officers -Ordered to Harper's Ferry - Campaigning in the Shenandoah Valley - Attached to General Averell's Command - A Series of Raids and Battles -Brilliant Success Attending the Raid on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad - Great Destruction of Rebel Property- A March over the Alleghenies in Midwinter - Swimming Icy Torrents and Swollen Rivers - Co-operating with General Crook - Hunter's Lynchburg Campaign - Another Terrible March Accomplished - Details of Other Feats Performed and Battles Fought-Close of the War - Transferred to Fort Leavenworth - Muster Out


CHAPTER XXIII - ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SECOND REGIMENT AND OTHER COMMANDS.

One Hundred and Eighty-second of the Line, Otherwise the Twenty-first Cavalry - Its Warren County Contingent - Serves a Six Months' Term - Reorganized to Serve for Three Years - For Four Months Renders Gallant Service as an Infantry Regiment of the Fifth Corps - Its Battles - Remounted and Assigned to Gregg's Division - Subsequent Marches and Engagements - Names, Etc., of the Warren County Men - One Hundred and Ninety-third Regiment - Part of Company I Recruited in Warren County - Regiment Serves One Hundred Days - Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment- Term One Year - Contains a Full Warren County Company - In Virginia - Makes a Brilliant Record - Roster of Company G - Captain James's Independent Company - An Account of Its Services - Names of Members - Captain Baldwin's Company of Militia of 1862 - List of members


CHAPTER XXIV - COUNTY BUILDINGS, ETC.

Utilizing the Rooms of Private Dwellings for Public Purposes - The First Jail - The Village School-House Used as a Court-Room - Reminiscences Concerning Jail Breakers - The First Court-House - The Second Jail - Stone Office Building - Destruction of Same by Fire - Another Erected of Brick - The Third or Present Jail - The New Court-House - County Farm


CHAPTER XXV - TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATIONS.

Brokenstraw the Original Township of the County - Conewango Organized in 1808 - Spring Creek, Sugar Grove, Pine Grove, Kinzua, and Deerfield in 1821 - Columbus in 1825 - Limestone in 1829 -Elk in 1830 -Sheffield and Freehold in 1833 - Pleasant in 1834 - Southwest in 1838 -Eldred in 1843 -Glade in 1844 -Corydon in 1846 - Mead, Cherry Grove, and Pittsfield in 1847 - Farmington in 1853 - Triumph in 1878 - Watson in 1880 - Borough Incorporations


CHAPTER XXVI - AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.

The First "Agricultural Show "-Organization of the Warren County Agricultural Society - Its Officers - First Annual Fair - Names of Those to Whom were Awarded Premiums - Extract from Judge Wetmore's Address - Subsequent Fairs, Officers, etc.- Organization of the Union Agricultural Society - Sugar Grove its Headquarters - The Warren County Agricultural Fair Association Organized - Its Officers - Annual Exhibitions - Remarks


CHAPTER XXVII - THE PRESS.

A Description of Warren's First Printer and Publisher - The Conewango Emigrant - Its First Editor - Interesting Details - The Warren Gazette - Its Editors, Publishers, etc.-Voice of the People-The Union- Warren Bulletin - Democratic Advocate - Warren Standard-Warren Ledger - People's Monitor-Warren Mail-Youngsville Express - Tidioute Publications - Warren Mirror-Clarendon Record - Evening  Paragraph- Sugar Grove News - Bear Lake Record


CHAPTER XXVIII - PETROLEUM.

The " Fontaine de Bitume "-The Earliest French Missionaries Aware of its Existence- Also the English-Early References to the Same-Washington and Jefferson Speak of "Bituminous Oil" in Virginia-Evidences that the French Gathered the Oil at Titusville- It is Known to Early Inhabitants as " Seneca Oil"-An Account of the First Producer and Refiner of Petroleum in Pennsylvania-He Terms it "Carbon Oil"- Colonel Drake's Discovery-Descriptions by Correspondents-Great Excitement at Titusville-Warren Men as Pioneer Operators-Subsequent Developments of Oil Producing Territory-Handsome Profits-Tidioute Field Opened--Squatters-Early Manner of Shipments-Annual Production of Pennsylvania and New York Fields Since 1859


CHAPTER XXIX - CIVIL LIST.

Members of the United States House of Representatives - Judge United States Court of Claims - United States Consul - Lieutenant-Governor - Auditor-General - Member of State Constitutional Convention - State Senators - Members of Assembly - President Judges-Sheriffs - County Commissioners - Prothonotaries - County Treasurers- Registers and Recorders - County Commissioners' Clerks - Jury Commissioners - Coroners - Justices of the Peace


CHAPTER XXX - RIVER NAVIGATION, ETC., WAGON ROADS, RAILROADS.

Source of the Conewango-Navigable Waters of the County-Asking Aid for Their Improvement- Survey of the Allegheny by U. S. Engineers-Its Length and Fall from Olean to Pittsburgh-Early Manner of Transporting Freight and Passengers-Keelboats- Their Great Usefulness-Shipping Lumber to New Orleans-Names of Steamboats Engaged in the Warren and Pittsburgh Trade-An Immense Raft-Description of Rafting-Nathan Brown's Ventures-Wagon Roads Laid Out by the Pioneers- Present Condition of Highways - Railroads-Celebrating the Opening of Railway Communication with Erie-Date of Completing Other Railroads


CHAPTER XXXI - THE BENCH AND BAR

Interesting Memoirs of the President Judges now Deceased-Pull Mention of Those Who Survive-The Bar-A Complete Roll of Attorneys Admitted Since the Organization of the County-Remarks Concerning Some of the Earliest Resident Attorneys-Notes Relating to Present Attorneys in Active Practice


CHAPTER XXXII - HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF WARREN

CHAPTER XXXIII - HISTORY OF CONEWANGO TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXIV - HISTORY OF BROKENSTRAW TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXV - HISTORY OF SUGAR GROVE TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXVI - HISTORY OF PINE GROVE TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXVII - HISTORY OF DEERFIELD TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXVIII - HISTORY OF SPRING CREEK TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XXXIX - HISTORY OF KINZUA TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XL - HISTORY OF COLUMBUS TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLI - HISTORY OF LIMESTONE TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLII - HISTORY OF ELK TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLIII - HISTORY OP SHEFFIELD TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLIV - HISTORY OF FREEHOLD TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLV - HISTORY OF PLEASANT TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLVI - HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLVII - HISTORY OF ELDRED TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLVIII - HISTORY OF GLADE TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER XLIX - HISTORY OF CORYDON TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER L - HISTORY OF PITTSFIELD TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LI - HISTORY OF MEAD TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LII - HISTORY OF CHERRY GROVE TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LIII - HISTORY OF FARMINGTON TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LIV - HISTORY OF TRIUMPH TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LV - HISTORY OF WATSON TOWNSHIP

CHAPTER LVI - BIOGRAPHICAL

BRIEF PERSONALS