Chapter 12 - From the Iron Era to the Civil War

Created: Thursday, 25 March 2010 Last Updated: Tuesday, 25 February 2014 Written by Nathan Zipfel Print Email



Mexican War -  The Underground Railway -  The Tornado of ‘60 -  Floods -  War Sentiment -  Politics -  Statistics -  County Finances -  Old Fashioned Temperance -  A Fourth of July Celebration -  Fox Hunt -  A Mass Meeting in ‘60.

THE Mexican war excited little interest and less enthusiasm in Clarion county. T.S. McCalmont, then a lawyer of Clarion, who was a West Point graduate, attempted, to raise a company, but failed. Colonel Joseph W, Coulter obtained about fifteen signers to a volunteer paper; not sufficient to effect an organization.*


"The Underground Railroad" was the title given by Southerners to the secret organized dispatch of escaped slaves, through the north to Canada, and safe northern points. Few, even among the oldest citizens, have known that for years there was a systematic transportation of fugitive slaves through Clarion county, in other words, that one of the main lines of the Underground Railroad passed through this county; that there were no fewer than four stations here, and that the conductors were among the most respected and, substantial citizens of the county.

The harboring and aiding of fugitive slaves was illegal (penalty by act of Congress, 1850, fine not exceeding $1,000, and imprisonment not exceeding six months, also civil damages), and the greatest care was exercised to conceal the operations of the movement; the conveyance of the slaves from point to point was necessarily done by night, and so circumspectly and secretly was the work carried on that it was rare for those engaged in it to know who the agents were beyond their immediate stations.

The slaves who passed through western Pennsylvania were all from Virginia, and of the male sex. In escaping from their masters, they would start soon after nightfall, provided with horses whenever possible, and by the time their absence would be discovered they would have considerably handicapped their pursuers.

The first assisted fugitives (six in number) arrived in Clarion county in June, 1847, and from thence to 1855 they came from time to time, in numbers from two to seven. For our purpose it suffices to trace the links of this mysterious chain back to Armstrong county.

Rev. John Hindman was an Associated (Seceder) minister, resident near Dayton; he received and forwarded the negroes to William Blair, of Porter township, this county. Mr. Blair in turn sent them on to Rev. John McAuley, a Seceder clergyman, of Rimersburg. It appears that the majority of active abolitionists in this vicinity belonged to that denomination, a sect whose members, of the old school, were noted as men of strong and decided views, and resolute in carrying out their principles.

Mr. McAuley kept the "contrabands" in his barn, and under cover of darkness generally, sometimes in the twilight -  through by paths -  he, or his eldest son, brought them to the house of James Fulton, a member of his congregation, who lived a little north of Rimersburg. Mr. Jackson Fulton, his son, in speaking of the first party, says: "One of these was a powerful man; stood six feet, three or four inches, and weighed 240 or 250 pounds; he told me that frequently when his master would go to whip him, he would catch him and hold him, and thereby he escaped many a whipping." The last, a twain, came in the spring of 1855. Mr. Fulton says: "One of these left a wife; he told me if the Lord spared him to get through he would return and steal her. I said to him he would certainly be running a great risk. He said he would risk his life that they might enjoy their freedom together." Mr. James Fulton fed and cared for the fugitives, and then conveyed them by wagon to Benjamin Gardner, sr., of Licking township, two or three miles north of Callensburg.** Mr. Gardner was an ardent abolitionist.

The next station was Elihu Chadwick’s, of Rockland township, Venango county, sixteen miles away. Mr. Chadwick had several rooms in his commodious barn fitted up specially for the reception of his dusky proteges. The venerable Benjamin Gardner, jr., enables us to follow the fortunes of the last pair, mentioned by Mr. Fulton. He writes: "He (his father) concealed them in one compartment until dark, and then escorted them by the underground train to next station, but Mr. Chadwick was absent and father put them through that night to Franklin, twenty-five miles. He left his passengers at this end of the bridge and went over to see if the coast was clear, and on returning the darkies were missing, but upon reconnoitering the place he found them behind the abutment near the water’s edge. Poor fellows! they thought they were abandoned."


On the morning of May 30, 1860, a tornado swept up the valley of the Redbank, on its northern side, with disastrous effect, leveling houses and barns, uprooting trees and causing considerable loss of life. In appearance it was a large storm cloud of dense blackness, discharging little water, except along its borders, where there were heavy showers of rain and hail accompanied by continuous flashes of lightning. The tornado varied in width from thirty rods to half a mile. Where it was narrowest its force was greatest, and it ploughed up the earth to the depth of two feet, hurled large stones through the air, forcing smaller ones into trees and wood to such a depth that they could not be extricated. The tempest had a rolling, bounding movement, vaulting through the air at the height of about one hundred feet, and thus skipping portions of its terrestrial path.

It took its rise on the farm of Christopher Foster, in Sugar Creek township, Armstrong county; ricocheted northeasterly over Madison township, that county, doing comparatively little injury there, and crossed the Redbank near the mouth of Leatherwood Creek. Its dire force was first felt in Clarion county, here, at the store of J.B. Hassen, which it wrecked. Hence it passed up the valley of the small tributary of Leatherwood in a northeast by east direction. Mr. William Shoemaker’s house was the next to suffer; it was swept away with the exception of the rafters and the lower floor. Mr. Shoemaker had both legs broken; an infant was saved by being lowered through an opening in the floor. Neither the cradle in which the child had been lying, nor any parts of the house, barn or spring-house were ever found. The orchard was uprooted and carried off; and stones driven into some stumps.

The current seemed to follow the upper edge of the valley, hugging the first range of heights, and maintaining a general parallel course with Redbank. Flying embers from ruined houses set fire to barns, hay-mows, and stacks. These airy conflagrations were caught up by the cyclone and shot through the air in streams, in many places blasting vegetation and -burning woodwork. The awe-stricken people mistook these fiery meteors for electric flames, and their appearance added to the terrors of the situation.

Another peculiarity of the storm was, that as a rule, where it passed a few feet above the ground, groves of trees were prostrated with their tops turned towards the quarter from whence the tempest came, having been snapped off near the earth and wrenched around, so as to make it appear to the casual observer that the tornado had come from a diametrically opposite direction. This wrenching effect, occasioned by the revolving motion of the cloud, was also seen in the moving of buildings from their foundations.

The next victim of its rage was Valentine Miller. The superstructure of his log house was blown away, but the family, huddled about the chimney, escaped unhurt. The daughter of Thomas Dougherty, about sixteen years of age, was killed by a falling log in attempting to escape from her father’s house.

Continuing on its course, the destructive element leveled the homes of J.M. Henry, Joseph Smith and John McMillen, wounding the occupants more or less. Here the storm deflected slightly to the south, as the stream does. New Bethlehem fortunately escaped, the tempest passing half a mile north of it, destroying Charles Stewart’s house and burning the barn. As the storm approached it burst the door open. Mrs. Stewart exclaimed "What a storm is coming!" and attempted to close the door, but while so doing the full fury of the tornado fell on the house and removed it some distance from its foundation. She was found lying between two rafters and beneath a heavy oak timber, whose crushing weight caused her death in a few hours. Her child, with its cradle, dropped into the cellar and miraculously escaped; the rest of the family were hurled about in various directions, but not fatally injured. Stewart’s barn was ignited "by what appeared to be a fluid, two feet thick, borne along by a dark cloud."

John Hilliard’s house and barn were in turn destroyed. "The family escaped death by taking refuge under a bed, and were rescued from the ruins of a stone chimney, which had tumbled around them." From Hilliard’s the tornado appears to have leaped to John Mohney’s, two miles distant, as we can trace no disasters in the interval. Mr. Mohney and his wife were absent at the time; the children gathered in the cellar, the house was torn away from above their heads, but they escaped injury. A wheelbarrow here was found lodged unbroken in the top of a maple tree seventy-five, rods distant. John Shick and his horses were blown over and over through a field about half a mile east of Mohney’s, without serious harm. Jacob Hartzell’s barn was razed, and his house to the first story.

Maysville, then a village of about twenty buildings, is situated on a flat at the foot of a precipitous bill bordering the Redbank. But its sheltered location was of no avail. The tornado, as if endowed with a perverse, demoniac instinct, instead of leaping over the stream from hilltop to hilltop, plunged sheer over the batik, tearing up the ground as it went, into the doomed village. It reached it about half past eleven A.M., and passed in a few minutes up the opposite heights, leaving ruin and death behind it. Not a structure escaped. Mrs. Irvin McFarland was fatally injured by a jagged timber driven into her breast. Ida McFarland, her two-year old child, was lying in her cradle when the storm struck the house, and afterwards could be discovered nowhere. A great mass of brick lay where the cradle had been, and the work of removing them began. After a number had been thrown off; a smothered cry underneath urged the frantic father to redouble his efforts; when, lo! the cradle was discovered bottom up, and underneath lay little Ida, alive and unhurt, except from a stray brick which had burned her arm. The wife of . Mr. Haines, proprietor of the inn, was severely injured and her child killed. David Bachman was struck by a wagon and killed. Mr. John Hess and family, Mary Farris, and Mathew Light (an itinerant daguerreotypist) were severely injured.

The bridge across the Redbank here was torn away. Hess’s grist-mill was destroyed; one of the heavy buhrs was turned upside down, another carried to the dam, and the third fell into the mill pit.*** Mr. Haines’s hotel, was borne diagonally across the street and precipitated over the bank into the creek, above the bridge. The residence of Joseph Grabe was taken up bodily into the air.

The tornado, after leaving Maysville, continued up the valley of the Red-bank, but with abated violence, crossed the turnpike at Roseville, thence turned eastward, passed three miles south of Brookville, through Clearfield, Centre, and Union counties, and reached the ocean on the Jersey coast. It was only in Armstrong, Clarion, and Jefferson counties that it had the intensity of a tornado; elsewhere it was only a violent storm.

This calamity, happily the only one of the kind in our annals, is estimated to have destroyed $125,000 worth of property in Clarion county.

There was a destructive flood in the Clarion and Redbank the second week of October, 1847. All the bridges over those streams were swept away.

The greatest flood that ever occurred on the Clarion was that of Septem. 28 - 30, 1861. All the bridges then existing on the river -  two near Clarion and the Callensburg, were carried off, and an immense quantity of rafts and timber were floated down. Beech Bottom mill, in Elk county, and a dwelling house were swept down by the waters, which ran at the rate of fourteen miles an hour.

The great frosts occurred on the nights of June 4 and 11, 1859, killing nearly all vegetation, even to the leaves of trees. It was general over the country, and for a while caused great distress. For a time flour commanded $14 to $16 per barrel.

The feeling on the outbreak of the war is best illustrated by an account of the proceedings of a mass-meeting, held at the county. seat, as reported in the Banner of April 26, 1861:

"Adjourned Meeting. -  The war meeting met according to adjournment, on Monday evening, 22d, in the Presbyterian Church. The crowd was very large and enthusiastic. The opening address was made by Colonel Lamberton. A committee of nine was appointed to draft resolutions, and consists of Messrs. Lamberton, Reid, Campbell, R.D. Lawson, Samuel Wilson, Jacob Black, Rulofson, Maj. Turney, and W.J. Reynolds. During the absence of the committee, Amos Myers, esq., addressed the meeting and his remarks were received with applause. The committee on resolutions reported the following, which were read, and adopted:

"WHEREAS, Rebellious hands have been raised in armed violence against the legally constituted authorities of that Government, purchased with blood and framed by the wisdom of our forefathers. Therefore,

Resolved, That believing we truly represent the unanimous feelings of a people devoted in their loyalty to the Union and its government, we hereby pledge ourselves without reservation, to the maintenance of that Union and Government, with all the means that ‘God and nature have placed in our power.’

Resolved, That prompt and effective measures should be at once taken, to organize military companies in Clarion county, to respond to the wants and call of the government; and we hereby recommend that means should be raised to give ‘aid and comfort’ to the families of those who gallantly march to the call of their country.

"Resolved, That for the purpose of aiding the patriot cause in our midst, of repressing lawless violence, of assisting in the military organization, of the county; and, in short, of adopting such measures as circumstances may warrant, the following named citizens be constituted a committee of safety, who shall be invested with all needful and necessary powers for the advancement of the public good."

Then follows a long list of the members of this committee.

"The said Committee to have power to add, alter or change the names thereof as circumstances may warrant, and to organize immediately.

"It was suggested that all persons desiring to become members of either of the companies now forming, should come forward and sign the roll. Several additional names were received. After the transaction of some unimportant business, the meeting adjourned in order to allow the companies to complete arrangements."

"Meeting of the Committee of Safety. -  In accordance with the meeting held on the 22d, the Committee of Safety met on the morning of the 23d and elected the following officers and Committees:

"James Campbell, president; J.B. Loomis, vice-president; G.W. Arnold, secretary; W.L. Corbett, treasurer.

"Finance Committee. -  Amos Myers, C.L. Lamberton, James Sweney, R. Thorne, J.M. Freeman.

"Executive Committee. -  Geo. W. Arnold, B.J. Reid, D.B. Curll, J.B. Lyon, Chas. McLaughlin, Jas. Ross, Saml. Wilson, Jacob Black, J.P. Lyon.

"Relief Committee. -  J.B. Knox, C. Kaufman, W. Alexander, W.T. Alexander, J.W. Coulter."

The executive committe issued the following:


"CLARION, Apri1 24, 1861.

     "SIR: War is upon us. Civil war, in stern and awful reality, already rages in our midst, and threatens to devastate the borders of our beloved Commonwealth. Our revered -  our glorious flag has been fired upon and struck down by traitors to their country, -  and an insurgent army, headed by a rebel chief, is marching against the CAPITOL itself. The very existence, as well as the honor of our country, is at stake, and it behooves every citizen to be a patriot, and to act a patriot’s part now when our country demands, in an especial manner, our love, our fidelity, and our services.
     "Clarion County should not be behind any of her sister counties in this momentous crisis. The love of country beats as warmly in the bosoms of her sons as it does in those of Jefferson or Armstrong. Yet the noble youth and manhood of these and other counties have set us an example, in the alacrity with which they have responded to their country’s call. Let us not sleep at our post. Let us emulate their chivalrous conduct. Let it never be said that Clarion County has faltered in her duty, or hesitated in her action in such a crisis. Let us prove now, in the hour of trial, that we value as dearly as any the priceless legacy bequeathed to us by the patriots of the Revolution, and that we are ready to do our full share in protecting and defending it, and handing it down unimpaired to posterity. Let us arouse to deliberation and to action, each in his own sphere, and according to his means and opportunities, -  and laying aside all former distinctions let us be united as one man under our country’s banner, and animated by one spirit, -  the spirit of earnest, patriotic, self-sacrificing devotion to the Government, the Constitution and the Union.
     "It is therefore, that the undersigned Executive Committee, acting under the authority of the County Committee of Safety, address this circular to you, confident that you take an active interest in our country’s cause, and that from your position and influence in your locality you can render efficient aid in promoting the objects for which the Committee of Safety was appointed. These objects are:
     "1. To call the attention of every citizen to the urgency of the crisis, and the importance of showing his fidelity and rendering his services to the country, in one shape or another.
     "2. To canvass every locality for efficient and patriotic volunteers, to form themselves into military companies in their own or adjoining neighborhoods, for drill and practice, -  so as to be in readiness for answering the call of the Governor whenever more troops may be needed.
     "3. To give assurance that ample arrangements will be made by the proper Committees for the support of the families of all who may enter the service.
     "In addition to the Executive Committee, the County Committee of Safety have appointed a Finance Committee, to raise funds for this and other necessary purposes, and a Relief Committee, to apportion the supplies of money, provisions, clothing, &c., among the families of volunteers. These Committees will appoint and duly notify sub-committees in the different election districts, and you will please request the citizens of your vicinity to contribute only at the call of those duly commissioned for that purpose by the Finance Committee.
     "We enclose you herewith some blank muster-rolls to take charge of yourself, and to put in the hands of active and earnest volunteers or military men of your neighborhood, at your discretion. Let each man who holds a muster-roll report to Geo. W. Arnold, Secretary of this Committee, by mail or otherwise, the names of the persons enrolled, at the close of every week. This is important. Where companies are formed or started, no matter how few in numbers, they should be urged to meet frequently for drill. The Secretary or any member of this Committee may be corresponded with or called upon at any time, for further information upon anything connected with these and kindred matters.
     "Relying upon your hearty co-operation in this important juncture, we are,

"Very respectfully yours,


GEORGE W. ARNOLD, Secretary,









"Executive Committee."


In 1854 the Native American movement revived. George W. Zeigler, of Jefferson county. (and Thomas McGee, of Clarion) were nominated by the Democracy of the district for the Legislature. Zeigler was elected by a surprisingly heavy majority, and it transpired that the Democrats had been duped into voting for a man of Know-Nothing proclivities, and who had been secretly, but strongly supported by the Know-Nothing element. In 1855 the Whig party became completely merged in the Native American, and came out openly as such. Their county ticket polled 1,630 votes, against an average of 2,075 Democratic. 1856 saw the birth of the Republican party.

The Free Soil, or Anti-Lecompton wing of the Democratic party, did not gain large accessions in Clarion county. The majority of the leaders, the press, and the machinery of the party were with Buchanan and the Lecompton constitution; and at the polls the masses fell into line. Even the leaders who took courage to proclaim themselves Anti-Lecompton, with a few exceptions finally succumbed to partisan pressure. Temporarily, though, the dissenters were respectable in numbers and influence. Judge Gillis, of Ridgway, had been elected to Congress from this district. In canvassing the county he made repeated and emphatic pledges of his intention, if elected, to resist the admission of any more slave States to the Union. When President Buchanan, in 1858, sent in a message to Congress, recommending the admission of Kansas, with a slavery constitution, Gillis wavered between allegiance to the administration and fidelity to his pledges. In this dilemma he consulted his constituents. He addressed a letter, stating the difficulties of his situation, to Charles L. Lamberton, a leading politician of Clarion. Lamberton hastily summoned J.B. Knox, J.C. Reid, James Sweny, B.J. Reid, and a few other local Democrats of prominence to consult; they unanimously agreed that Gillis’s only course was to stand firm, and so advised him. The mail was kept open till a late hour that night in order that the reply might go the next morning. It appears that Gillis had similar advices from his other lieutenants; but all in vain. The news soon came that Congressman Gillis had voted pro-slavery, and it aroused considerable indignation. When he ran the second time he was rebuked by defeat. Chapin Hall, of Warren, was his successful opponent. The opposition ticket in this county ran as an independent one. B.J. Reid, of Clarion, and R.S. McCormick, of Franklin, both Democrats, stumped Clarion county against Gillis.

On September 7th, 1858, Senator Bigler addressed a Democratic mass-meeting in a speech, which was widely quoted.

The leading Democratic politicians of Clarion county, in ante-bellum times, were: Christian Myers, Amos Myers (till 1846); Charles Evans, Charles L. Lamberton, John Klingensmith, J.M. Fleming, Reynolds Laughlin, John Keatly, J.S. Turney, D.B. Hamm, Patrick Kerr, Seth Clover, Peter Clover, James Sweny, Thomas Sutton, D.B. Long, Robert Barber (very active), John Keating, Hugh A. Thompson, William T. Alexander, William L. Corbett (Whig till 1857), David Morrell (a great "worker" and whipper-in), B.J. Reid, J.C. Reid, Daniel Delo, Rev. William McMichael, William Curll, J.B. Knox.

Prominent Whigs and Republicans: James Campbell, D.W. Foster, G.W. Arnold, Samuel Wilson, Jacob Black, Richard Shippen, G.W. Lathy, George Means, J.R. Strattan, J.B. Lawson (until Know-Nothingism).

In 1848, for Congress, Joseph Thomas, Democrat, had 2,160 votes in Clarion county; James Campbell, Whig, 1,286; for president, 1848, Cass, Democrat, 2,306; Taylor, Whig, 1,372.

In 1852, Pierce, Democrat, 2,642; Scott, Whig, 1,218. In 1854, Bigler, Democratic candidate for governor, polled 2,173 votes in Clarion county; Pollock, Native American, 2,015.

In 1856 Buchanan had a majority of 938 in this county. 1859, Gillis polled 2,019 votes here; Hall, 1,558, a falling, off of 439 votes for Gillis, from his previous election.

In 1860 the Fusion ticket (a provisional Breckenridge-Douglas affair, which dissatisfied many Democrats), had 2,030 votes; Lincoln, 1,833.

By a supplemental act, passed on the 16th of April, 1840, Clarion county was annexed to the Twenty-fifth Congressional District, composed of the counties of Erie, Crawford, Venango and Warren; and the same provided for its representation in the State Legislature with Venango county.

In 1850 the Twenty-third Senatorial District was formed out of Armstrong Indiana and Clarion counties, who were to elect one member.

In 1858 Clarion county became a part of the Twenty-eighth Senatorial District, with Jefferson, Forest and Elk; and at the same time Clarion and Forest counties were united to elect one member of the Legislature.


Population, 1850, 23,565. Acres of improved land, 1850, 107,317. Acres of unimproved land, 111,504. Cash value of farms, $2,779,989. Value of farming implements and machinery, $160,202.

Number of horses, 4,157; cows, 6,122; sheep, 26,868; swine, 13,150. Value of live stock, $402,946.

Wheat, number of bushels raised, 165,060; rye, 12,010; Indian corn, 111,534; oats, 279,287; pounds of wool, 67,730; potatoes, 42,936 bushels; buckwheat, 56,575; pounds of butter, 422,081; hay, 17,086 tons.

Churches, 1850: Baptist, 3; German Reformed, 8; Lutheran, 13; Presbyterian, 12; Roman Catholic, 4; Total 40.

Population, 1860, 24,988.

The lowest and highest number of actual sheriff sales between 1845 and 1861, were, 1846, 11; 1852, 36.


In 1852 the militia fines received amounted to $788.50; 1856, $172.07 were paid for scalps; January 1, 1861, the county treasury contained $9,882.83. The county debt was $875.05.

County finances between 1845 and 1862 were in a weak condition. The treasury was frequently unable to meet the demands on it, and county orders were for a while below par and liable to interest. Money was borrowed to pay for the erection of the court-house and jail, and to meet the current expenses of the county.


The following thesis on total abstinence societies, from the pen of Rev. J.M., of this county, exhibits some curious reasoning: (4*) "But if we discuss the character of the temperance society at all, we are under the necessity of running into politics and religion both, from the original or proteus-like character of the Temperance Society, it having neither a civil nor ecclesiastical character, yet pretending to reform both Church and State. When struck at by the civil power, it contends that it is a ‘blow struck at nothing,’ for they are not a civil body, when assailed by the Church, it denies that it is an ecclesiastical body, and that it is only a piece of wanton hostility. Thus you see, that the Temperance Society is perfectly amphibious. When attacked on the land, it will run to the sea. Then you know, that in catching such animals, we must Strap on land and harpoon at sea, or they will escape us.

"I have been led to believe that both Church and State are Divine institutions, and that they are as much superior to human institutions, as God is to man -  because human institutions derive their character from man, but Divine institutions derive theirs from God.

"Again I believe that God has given both to Church and State their own appropriate duties and prerogatives, and has forbidden either to interfere or meddle in any way with the duties and prerogatives of the other.

"Now let it be remarked, that although the Church and State are entirely distinct bodies, yet they are homogeneous bodies, that is, have a common origin, and a common design or end. God is the author and giver of both, and God’s glory and the good of man, the end of both. But the Temperance Society is not of the same genus, it is perfectly heterogeneous. God is not its author, has not chosen it for the promotion of his glory or our good.

"And now, if God does not suffer the Church to interfere with any of the duties and prerogatives of the State, nor the State to interfere with any of those of the Church, both being species of the same genus, can it be supposed that he will either acknowledge or bless the rude and rash meddling of this amphibious heterogeneous progeny that is springing up in the nineteenth century, as rampant as the locusts of Egypt and as fierce as the tigers of Bengal?

"Now, I suppose that the reason why God gave only two institutions to man, is because he required only two kinds of duties, civil and religious, and he divided these duties between these institutions. -  assigning civil duties to the State, and religious duties to the Church. Each has plenty of its own kind of duties to discharge and nothing more, and neither can attend to the duties of the other, without neglecting its own. If He had required a third kind of duties, He would doubtless have given a third institution."

He then appends the constitution of the Self Examining Society, as organized by himself, with one hundred members.


ARTICLE 1st. This society shall be known by the name of the Self-Examining Society, and shall be composed of both sexes, whose heads and hearts are capable of moral improvement, and to be auxiliary to the Germantown, Philadelphia county, Society of the same name.

"ART. 2. This society shall adopt as its motto,

"Practice before Precept.’

"ART. 3. The object of this society shall be, while we may see all other’s faults, to feel and correct our own, to depress all manner of deceit and hypocrisy, slander, and defamation, -  back-biting and evil speaking, with all that tends to injure or defraud our neighbor, either in property or character.

"ART. 4. This society shall be independent of all other societies, each member shall be vested with full powers and privileges to attend to his own concerns; and that he make it his duty to mind his own business, and to let others mind their business. And no Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Spies, Informers, or Committees of delegates shall ever be chosen by the society to watch over the conduct of others, or to make report upon their neighbor’s misdoings, until a thorough reformation shall have been commenced, first at home.

"ART. 9. Every member of this society shall be allowed to drink tea or coffee, cold water or hot water, rum, gin, brandy, wine, Jamaica, old West India, whisky, lemonade or butter-milk, as suits him best, or to chew or smoke-tobacco, or take snuff; when not offensive to the company he is in, without being excommunicated from good society, or delivered over to the buffeting of those long faced Pharisees, or in other words, to those ravenous wolves in sheep’s clothing, (or sheep-skins).

"ART. 10. No member of this society shall ever set himself above his fellows, building his own character and consequence upon the ruins of a neighbor’s good name. True it is, that two blacks will not make one white, and no member must ever attempt to hoist his own dingy character on the society of white, by meddling with his neighbor’s character, which may happen to be a shade blacker than his own.

"ART. 11. This society shall form no christian party in politics, and no political party under the name of the self-examining society. And again, it shall have nothing to do with free masonry or anti-masonry, colonization or anti-colonization, missionary, bible, or tract societies, as being in any manner connected with it. Nor shall any religious creed, test or inquisition, council or synod, ever be established or countenanced by this society, but every member shall enjoy his own religion, and allow all others the same liberty he claims for himself, without being pointed at as a heretic or branded as an infidel.

"ART. 12. Good society shall not be formed out of the aristocracy of wealth exclusively, nor made out of the popularity of swindling speculators, or of civil or religious professions -  but it shall include the poor, who are honest, intelligent and industrious, as well as the rich.

"ART. 13. The members of this society shall seek to do good and not evil. -  love, and not hate each other; and when reviled they shall not revile again, but they shall bear with the faults and infirmities of others, know that they themselves are men of like passions and imperfections. They shall respect the virtues and talents of all men, nor shall the honor and deference be overlooked, which is justly due to the working part of the community, to the farmers and mechanics, and to all whose honest labor is a public as well as a private benefit.

"ART. 14. That every member of this society (if his conscience shall tell him. so) may cultivate and raise as much rye or other grain as he pleases, distilleries or not -  get his rye distilled and use his home-made whisky as a medicine, or common antidote, and thereby depress the duty on foreign liquors. And if he wishes to take a social drink, or to use it as a beverage, or in his harvest field, or wherever he pleases, not to be daunted or in any way backward on account because that his neighbor is a long faced Pharisee, or Teetotal disciple, but to drink when he sees fit so to do, and in the presence of any one, and not act the infernal hypocrite."

Major John Camp struck out on a bold line in offering himself for the suffrages of the people, as follows:


     "Officers, soldiers, and fellow-citizens: The usual custom of advertising for any office is to commence by being induced by a number of friends to offer oneself as a candidate for the office, &c. But this is not the case with me; I come out with my own free will and accord, and offer myself as a candidate for the office of SHERIFF, at the ensuing election. And as regards my claims to this office, I would say to the citizens of Clarion county that I have been a resident of the county since it was organized, and a resident of that part of Venango county now called Clarion, for nine years. I was also a regular United States soldier for five years, and received an honorable discharge, and I now offer myself to the public for the above office, and if elected, I do not say, or pledge myself, that I shall perform any extraordinary duties of the office with favor, &c., but will discharge the duties of the office according to the law.
     "Yours Respectfully,
                                                               "MAJ. JOHN CAMP."

"N.B. The custom has been heretofore for candidates to ride through the county, electioneering. As drinking has become unfashionable, and being a teetotaler myself, I do not intend to electioneer any in this way."(5*)

The postscript indicates an attempt to inaugurate a praiseworthy reform, but, alas! it was crushed under the heel of iron custom. Daniel Delo was elected in this contest.


"CAUTION. -  Whereas, my wife R---- , has, on sundry occasions, taken the liberty of leaving my bed and board, to wander, I know not whither, -  and whereas, she still persists in going where she will, and doing what she will, without giving any just reason for such obstinate, wild goose-like conduct; and whereas, it is not in human nature to bear such growing ills without complaint -  this is therefore to notify those concerned that all partnership heretofore existing between the subscriber and the said R---- , his wife, is this day dissolved by mutual consent, and to caution the public against harboring or trusting either of us on the other’s account, from this date forth without further notice.

"G---- G----.

"Redbank tp., April 1st, 1843."


"TOBY TOWNSHIP CELEBRATION OF THE 4TH OF JULY. -  The 67th anniversary of American Independence was appropriately celebrated at Cherry Run, in Toby township, by the 6th Battalion of Volunteers, and a large number of ladies and gentlemen from the neighborhood and from the more distant parts of the country. Some came on foot, some on horseback, and many in wagons, buggies, etc.

"Thomas F. Riley acted as President of the day, assisted by Daniel Fulmer, James Foster, William Means, and Francis Hilliard, Vice Presidents, and Robert D. Lawson and George Means, Secretaries.

"The Battalion paraded at 11 o’clock under the orders of Major P. Reed, and performed a number of evolutions in its usual style of correctness and promptitude. At 2 o’clock the whole party, numbering about five hundred, partook of an excellent dinner, prepared by the Battalion’s committee of arrangement.

"When the table was cleared the Declaration of Independence was read by James B. Lawson; after which a set of regular toasts, prepared for the occasion, were read by one of the secretaries, and a number of individual toasts and sentiments, accompanied by the firing of the artillery and the rifles of the Battalion -  and the cheering of the multitude. During the proceedings, animated and spirit-stirring extempore addresses were delivered, by Messrs. David R. Craig, James B. Lawson, and George Means, Esq.

"At an early hour in the evening the company separated, well pleased with the day’s performance.

"Regular Toasts.

"1. The 4th of July ‘76 -  The birth day of our national freedom -  a proper observance of its anniversary is well calculated to keep alive the remembrance of those who, in the time that tried men’s souls, did by their united wisdom, bravery, and patriotism, lay the foundation of our glorious republic. They only who feel no interest in recollections, will neglect the day.

"2. The Heroes and Sages of the Revolution -  They achieved their country’s independence, and earned for themselves an imperishable renown.

"3. The Memory of Washington -  He found his native country a mere appendage to England -  he left her a glorious, free, and independent empire. His character is admired by all. But few, indeed, are his imitators.

"4. The Memory of Adams and Jefferson -  They outlived the storms of the Revolution; they lived to see the full fruition of their hopes in the independent happiness of their country, and on the anniversary of this most glorious day their pure spirits ascended to receive the reward of their virtues.

"5. The Union of the States -  Upon this depends our safety and our glory -  Seared be the eyeballs of him who would look with complacency upon any project for its dissolution.

"6. The Rights of Conscience, of Suffrage, and of Opinion -  May they ever be cherished as the main elements of civil and religious liberty.

"7. The Army and Navy of the United States. -  In the support of the just rights of their country they will never shrink from danger nor suffer a blot to tarnish the National Honor.

"8. West Point Military Academy -  An aristocratic institution which ought to be abolished. It is anti-republican to confine the army appointments to those only who have received their education at the public expense.

"9. The Militia System -  The main constitutional defense of our country -  Withered be the arm and palsied the hand that attempts to bring it into ridicule.

"10. Agriculture, Domestic Manufactures, Foreign Commerce -  The first supplies us with necessaries, the second with comforts, and the third with luxuries. May they be fostered by Government in proportion to their intrinsic merits.

"11. A General System of Education -  The foundation and pillar of civil and religious liberty -  a properly educated people cannot be enslaved.

"12. The Land we Live in -  It is our birthplace, our home, our country -  may we be ever ready to defend it against foreign enemies and domestic traitors.

"13. The Ladies. -  Our patriotism is warmed by their approbation, and our gratification increased by their presence at our national festivities.

" Volunteer Toasts.

"By E.F. Lerch -  May the general mass of office-holders and office seekers in Clarion county, be as zealous for the welfare of the county hereafter, as they have been for personal interest, and political popularity heretofore.

"By T.I. Elliott -  The memory of that gallant band, who, in that trying hour, proclaimed our Independence in spite of British power.

"By Isaiah Fetzer -  May the numerous candidates for office in Clarion county

Stand firmly on their own feet,
  And staunch in their own knees,
And in spite of unmanly strife
  We will vote for who we please.

"By Harvey Philips -  Education; the balm of consolation, the mother of peace, the foundation of civil society, preserver of liberty, the sword of religion, and the safe defense of a nation; may we ever see it prosper, and the time arrive when its present enemies will all be-its friends.

"By James Stitt -  The three greatest and best Generals -  General Peace, General Plenty, and General Satisfaction.

"By T.F. Riley -  The members of the 6th Battalion of Volunteers. -  Their strict discipline and correct moral deportment give a fair promise of future usefulness, whenever their services are required by their country.

"By J.B. Lawson -  A Protective Tariff -  The sheet anchor of our prosperity; to be truly independent we must protect the industry of our own country.

"By D.R. Craig -  The Hon. John Q. Adams -  His history is the history of his own country -  posterity will wonder at the ingratitude of his own generation.

"By James Colwell.

"An independent nation with independent right

Secures to each a blessing, and gives to each delight,

An independent dinner as we have had to-day,

With the fairest of the fair that grace America;

We here do celebrate in peace and harmony,

The 4th day of July, the 67th anniversary.

"By R.R.: Means -  Citizen soldiers, the best safe-guard of republics; as citizen soldiers our fathers gained our liberties; and as citizen soldiers we will maintain them.

"By James Pollock -  The Public Lands -  A fund provided by the wisdom and foresight of our ancestors for the people. It is high time to apply it to its legitimate object, and no longer suffer it to be used to corrupt the general Government.

"By George Means -  Our Republican Institutions -  Founded by the wisdom and virtue of our ancestors upon the broad basis of equal rights; it is a sacred duty imposed upon us to guard them from pollution and transmit them unimpaired to our posterity.

"By Emanuel Over -  May Virtue, Liberty and Independence continue to characterize our happy nation, until the last shock of time shall bury the kingdoms of the world in undistinguished ruin.

"By Washington Stitt -  Peace and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.

"By R.D. Lawson, Esq. -  The Ladies of this vicinity -  Theirs is the honor of following the example of their Revolutionary mothers, by cheering the soldiers with their presence on all proper military occasions.

"By Francis Hilliard -  The 6th Battalion of Volunteers, gentlemen and tacticians; may they always maintain their high standing as soldiers so meritoriously gained.

"By Dr. J.M. Rankin -  The memory of the illustrious dead.

"By E.F. Lerch -  May temperance, morality, and true republicanism ever pervade the minds of American people.

"By Dr. J.A. Graff -  American jurisdiction, American rights, and American liberty; may these glorious privileges ever be defended with American spirit.

"By Jonas Flick -  United independence of liberty, no submission of tyrannical integrity, free-trade or eternal war.

"By Adam Kester.

"The best of all business is this, when we find

Each man his own business himself for to mind,

This carefully done each finds it is true,

To mind his own business he’s enough for to do;

Then take this advice, Independence prize high,

And celebrate always the fourth of July.

"By John Beck -  The people of our glorious Union; may Liberty and Independence run through and fill our breasts as the water fills the sea, and may all that are opposed to liberty be lathered with aquafortis and shaved with a handsaw. -  4 cheers and 100 guns."(6*)

"GRAND CIRCULAR FOX HUNT. -  We, the committee appointed at an adjourned ‘Circular Hunt,’ held at Brinkerton, Saturday, 28th of January, 1860, have agreed upon the following arrangement for a ‘Grand Circular Fox Hunt,’ to come off and be held and centre at John Brinker’s, senr., on Saturday, 10th March next. First it is agreed that the former boundaries be established, and further that the following persons be and were chosen Marshals of the day.

"Col. P. Kerr, Grand Marshal, Assis’t G.M., J.Y. McNutt, Wm. M. Abrams, T.F. Newell, J. Alexander, Dr. W. Reicherdt, J.P. Lyon, D. Maclay, W.T. Alexander, S. Young, C.L. Lamberton, Dr. J.T. Pritner, J.S. Turney, J. Keatley, S.S. Jones, E.B. Orcutt, Dr. Jones, J.W. McNutt, Evans R. Brady. Brookville.

"Marshals for the different points:

"Pointist -  Greenville. J.K. Lowry, Jos. Craig, C.E. Patton, D. Johnston, D. Craig, Aug. Craig, G.C. Harvey, J.A. Ogden, J. Sloan, jr., H. Sayers, H. Rhodes, Thos. Sloan, S. Baird.

"Point 2d -  Rynard’s. Jos. Cochran, J. Orr, D. Henry, Jos. Aaron, Jr., W. Cyphert, A. Cyphert, jr., J. Aaron, J.J. Orr, J. Rynard, H. Shultz, G.B. Mohney, G. Miller, D. Weckerly, P. Shingeldecker.

"Point 3d -  A. Rhodes’s. Capt. Geo. Frazier, Jno. Wilson, J. Bish, J.S. Stahlman, A. Rhodes, A. Moore, J. Sayer, T. M’Ilheny, J. Rocky, S. Stewart,

"Point 4th -  Brown’s. S. Peoples, Jas. Mercer, J. Shick, M. Lucas H. Eader, jr., J.M. M’cilliams, H. Grube, A. Brown, N. Brown, H. Shick, F.D. Campbell, S. Clinger, P. Ferringer, P. Myers, I. M’Farland.

"Point 5th -  Bowersock’s. J. Hilliard, D. Silvis, J. Mohney, N.B. McWillams, G. Bowersock, Jos. Hilliard, A. Hilliard, J.W. Shaffer, L. Bigley, J. Bigley, Jno. Sayers, jr., Chas. Sayers.

"Point 6th -  R.W. Nutt’s. Jos. Appel, W. M’Nutt, A. Slagle, W. Slagle, J.A. Magee, D. Mohney, Jno. Himes, Jos. Conger, A. Shankle, Wm. Moore, F. M’Nutt, S. Lowrie, J. Beaty, Sol. Silvis, Craig Sayers.

"Point 7th -  Musser’s. A. Payne, Dr. Criswell, I. Musser, M’C. Henry, J. Latimer, J. Tosh, Jas. Goheen, W. Michael, W. Kirkpatrick, D. Goheen, Jas. Goheen.

"Point 8th -  St. Charles Furnace. Dr. H.M. Wick, R.M. Corbett, Jos. Hutton, Guyer Delp, R. M’Cue, J. Kew, T. Helper, G. Pence, P. Knight, Wm. M’Clelland, J. Laughlin, Ab. Wyant, G.T. Henry, T. Armagost.

"Point 9th -  Bittenbender’s. H. Male, T. Henry, H. Boyles, P. Bittenbender, N. Lerch, W.S. Beck, C. Brinker, G. Hamm, P.K. Hamm, W.L. Johnson, J. Bittenbender, C. M’Nutt.

"Point 10th -  Churchville. W. Miller, J. Armstrong, J. Edmonds, J.E. Kaster, J. Lee, Jos. Hamm, D.B. Hamm, L. Pritner, M. Turney, A. Fox, S. Newell, D. Sarby, J. Hamm.

"Point 11th -  Delp’s Cross Roads. Jos. Kuhns, T. Brown, G.K. Magee, H.R. Frampton, Maj. Keever, Robt. Henry, M. Fulton, G.W. Fulton, Wm. Irwin, P. Kribbs, Jacob Kifer, T. Parsons, sr., D.H. Parsons, David Small, J. Delp, Wm. Beaty, Jno. Bigley, R. Shirey.

"Point 12th -  Smith’s Mills to place of beginning. Callen Painter, R. M’Cormick, Jno. Connor, J.G. M’Cammont, L. Guthrie, S. Pierce, G. Smith, T. Allison, B. Allison, T. Williams, Alf. Strickler, P. Williams, L. Gibson, H. Baker, Henry Eader, C.M. Sloan, Wm. C. Sloan, S.W. Jones.

"The duty of each Grand Marshal shall be to confer with their assistants from each of the different points most convenient to their appointees, so as to start precisely at 10 o’clock, and scatter so as to form as perfect a circle as possible, and travel in good order, stopping at straw circle within half a mile of closing point. Every person is prohibited from using fire-arms -  no dogs are allowed to run loose until the inner circle is closed. A signal will be given at the proper time for closing, as well as starting in the morning.

"The Bugle will commence sounding at Greenville, and sound both ways for the time of starting.

"The lovers of sport are determined to have it, independent of what may be procured in the circle, having now on hand three live Foxes; and offer two dollars a head for four more delivered uninjured, within a week of the chase, to the Committee.(7*)


To complete the series we will illustrate; Politics (and the Art of Reporting) in ‘60:

"STRATTANVILLE MASS MEETING. -  Decorations, Banners, Speeches, &c. -  One of the greatest political gatherings ever witnessed in this county was. held at Strattanville on Thursday, Oct. 25th. The weather for a few days previous presented unfavorable indications, but that morning the Eastern horizon was illuminated by the rays of an October sun -  casting its shadows over the Autumnal scenery, rendering to the expectant people the pleasing knowledge that the smiles of an all-wise Providence favored on this occasion their wishes.

"In point of numbers as well as enthusiasm it has never been excelled in this county, even by the ‘grand, unterrified Democracy’ of this ‘Berks of the West.’ It was the inauguration of a series of meetings, that is destined to carry dismay into the ranks of the dissatisfied, discordant and belligerent nigger driving Democracy of this county. This was the place of universal consent where the great Republican Rally should be held, being the borough in the county giving the largest majority for the Gubernatorial and Congressional candidates.

"The following call was published in the Banner, aside from a printed bill, extensively circulated throughout this and the adjoining county:


"‘Grand Mass Convention at Strattanville, on Thursday, October 25th, 1860.

"‘All persons in favor of Free Homes, Free Men and Free Speech, turn out in your might for Lincoln and Hamlin. The Wide Awakes of the whole country will be present. And a Grand Torch Light Procession will take place in the evening, &c.’

"It was the most impressive, spirited, dignified and picturesque manifestation that has ever been made by the people of this county to the hearty devotion of the interests of that party which will protect the laboring man in all branches of industry. The very appearance of so many true, honest voters, avowing together their adherences to that mighty man of Springfield, Illinois, who will guide the Ship of State for four years, hereafter, was calculated to excite in the minds of earnest Republicans and liberal Democrats, great-enthusiasm.

"Great credit is due to the citizens of Strattanville for the manner in which they acquitted themselves. By persistent, hard work, they accomplished what is done in few towns of the same population. Despite the unfavorable reports. as to numbers, they prepared to receive all in such a manner that demonstrated their feelings were enlisted in the cause; and we are glad to announce they rendered universal satisfaction. From personal observation, we can attest to their ceaseless working on the day and night of Wednesday -  not to mention the preceding days, of which we are credibly informed were wholly occupied in preparing devices, emblems and decorations, which we will describe hereafter.

"At an early hour the different avenues leading to the village were thronged with gaily dressed men and women (in their holiday attire), to witness the gorgeous spectacle existing in their imaginations, which was soon after exemplified in reality. By 10 o’clock the different delegations approached, added continually to the increasing procession; and the never ceasing shouts that went up from thousands of voices, greeting their brother Republicans in thundertones, bespoke in stronger Saxon than we can indite with the feeble pen, that the people of Clarion county, in sympathy with other Democratic strongholds, desired to relieve that old Corrupt Public Functionary from his position, and substitute a man capable of administering the Government on principles -  not sectionally. The display confirmed it. It was a scene that will not be eradicated from the minds of those who witnessed it until they cross the deep valley whose shadow is death.

"The streets were lined with ladies, attired in costume most becoming for the day, presenting a sight of rare beauty; and the bevy of ladies congregated in different places added animation to the scene, and this gave an emphatic recognition to the claims of Abraham Lincoln from the ladies of Clarion county, whose waving handkerchiefs gave an impetus to the gathering. With excusable inefficiency the marshals were unable to get the vast crowd together before the hands of the clock pointed to the hour of one. Before giving an outline of the procession, we will briefly describe the decorations of the town: At the Western end there was a wreath suspended across the street, on which were five circular wreaths, and ‘Lincoln’ in letters 14 inches in length, composed of evergreens. Farther down, near the center of the town were two beautiful arches extending across the street, with round wreaths hanging to the middle and sides. Below this is a 40 foot flag inscribed ‘Lincoln and Hamlin, President and Vice President.’ In the Eastern portion of the town there was an arch differing from the others in regard to shape, they all being composed of Hemlock branches. Also a wreath with no inscription; another arch beautifully prepared, requiring much labor to get it up, with ‘Lincoln’ in letters composed of spruce. Several private houses were adorned in a manner highly creditable to the cause. The speaker’s stand in the centre of town was embellished by a long wreath, two circular wreaths and an arch, composed of evergreens and Autumnal flowers. One full length steel engraving of Washington, one of Henry Clay, a bust of Washington, &c.

"At last Grand Marshal Barber succeeded in bringing into line the following delegations (assisted by 21 marshals.) Sligo and Curllsville Wide Awakes, under command of H.W. Longwell, drawn by six two horse teams; one team of four horses. Caps, capes, lamp posts, miner’s lamps, &c., preceded by the Clarion brass band. Then came the Clarion township delegation drawn by one six horse team; two wagons; forty-four one horse buggies; three two horse carriages, bearing banners with various mottoes, which, in the hurry of the moment we were unable to procure. Next followed the Jefferson county delegation, which consisted of nine yoke of oxen drawing one wagon, containing two men making shingles, which were distributed along the streets, calling forth the loudest plaudits from the assembled thousands; one four-horse team; six two horse wagons; two Phaetons; one rockaway; two one horse carriages; twenty-three horseback riders. We might just here say, that on account of all appearing equally well, it would be difficult to bestow praise on any one delegation.

"Next followed the Porter and Limestone township delegations (majority being from Porter). This consisted of five assistant marshals; four, four-horse teams, finely decorated with evergreens, bearing flags with appropriate mottoes, among which we noticed ‘Hurrah for the Rail-Splitter.’ Two teams of two horses each; one buggy; then came in order ten ladies on horseback from Strattanville -  Helen and Mill Creek townships came in with a band of music; ten men on foot; four marshals; fifteen yoke of oxen, driver for each yoke. The Garibaldi Wide Awake Club, of Strattanville next appeared, drawn by six horses, in three teams, without uniform. (This company having sent off for the regalia, were disappointed in receiving it in time for this occasion). The Strattanville brass band drawn by four horses was followed by two wagons, filled with the precious freight of thirty-three little girls, in snow white dresses, representing the several States; and one other larger girl on horseback, dressed in mourning, emblematical of Kansas, entirely deprived of admittance into the Glorious Confederacy of these United States on account of her hostility to Democracy; twelve young ladies did a considerable quilting, which attracted much attention, and they were frequently greeted with cheers. A regular ‘blacksmith shop’ was erected on a wagon drawn by two horses. Another wagon contained a saddler making girths, and during the time consumed in marching and counter-marching, we learned twenty-two were manufactured; also in this conveyance was a boot and shoemaker, who endeavored to keep up the reputation of the ‘craft’ for work. Five men in one wagon following - were engaged at the various trades enumerated below. One geared a wheel; another put together a bedstead, with an assistant; while the fourth prepared a threshing machine cylinder with a chisel, the crank being turned by the fifth. All the mechanics in the last wagon described wore white hats, to the infinite amusement of the entire party. Immediately following was represented an oil derrick, in full tide of successful operation, attracting from its novelty much attention. The grand feature of the day was thirty-two yoke of oxen, drawing a wagon containing the rail-splitters, who mauled plenty of rails and distributed them along the streets, each yoke of oxen attended by a driver, with chapeaus a la Napoleon. For want of space we are compelled to omit a description of several wagons. The Pike Furnace Wide Awakes made a very creditable display, belated it is true, but on account of the distance they came were received more cordially. In the evening, after the torch-light procession the citizens of Strattanville tendered them a supper, which was accepted and passed off finely. They were forty-eight in number, accompanied by a martial band; five two horse teams; one four horse wagon -  horses adorned with plumes tipped with red. They counted ninety-six wagons and buggies as the several delegations came in, but in the large procession they were not all out, as the more timid expressed their fears of accommodations in the thronged condition of the town.

"The crowd was variously estimated, and conflicting opinions expressed in regard to the number of thousands, but we will not discuss that point here. At length after the ‘inner man’ was bountifully supplied, the assembled thousands congregated about the stand; Samuel Wilson, of Strattanville, called the meeting to order by appointing Hon. C. Myers, President, who was assisted by a large number of Vice Presidents; several Secretaries were nominated, and took their respective stations. The President returned thanks for the honor of presiding over so vast an assemblage of Republicans, and congratulated them on the result of the last election -  he would not make a speech (cries of go on) to the great crowd here; if there were but twenty of them present in a log school-house he could do better. He then introduced G.W. Lathy, Esq., who was received with three hearty cheers. He delivered in an hour one of his learned, powerful and pleasing speeches on the various topics of the day, which was listened to with great attention; we are sorry our space will not permit us to publish it entire, as furnished us -  together with the synopsis of the other speeches. Mr. Hickok, Ex-State Superintendent, then followed. The balance of the speakers were Messrs. Finley, Craig, Amos Myers, C. Myers, of Clarion, and M.A. Dowling, of Jefferson.

"The torch-light procession was a brilliant display, although it was not so large as expected, being one hundred and sixty lamps and twenty-two. transparencies. , The proceedings did not terminate until a late hour."(8*)


* The following are all I have been able to discover who went to the Mexican war from Clarion county: Joseph Shaw, of Clarion; James Mooney, of Strattanville, now of Clarion; Rodebaugh, a boy drummer, of Monroe township; -  Burns, near Curllsville.

** Once or twice Mr. Fulton was bold enough to conduct them in daylight.

*** One account says that the book kept by the miller was found in Union county, one hundred miles distant.

(4*) From Clarion Republican of March, 1842.

(5*) Iron County Democrat, June 8, 1843.

(6*) Democratic Register, July 19, 1843.

(7*) Clarion Democrat, February 24, 1860.

(8*) The Clarion Banner November 2, 1860.

SOURCE:  Page(s) 121-142, History of Clarion County, A.J. Davis, A.J.; Syracuse, N.Y.: D. Mason & Co. 1887