10th Pennsylvania Reserves/
The Tenth Regiment was recruited in the western section of the State, for the most part in the counties of Warren, Crawford, Mercer, Venango, Lawrence, Clarion, Beaver, Washington and Somerset. Most of the companies were organized for the three months' service. Some were accepted and went into camp, where, the quota being full, they awaited further orders. Others remained at home, but preserved their organizations, and upon the first call for the three years' service were in readiness to move.
The companies were composed of men of but little previous military experience, but of more than usual intelligence and education. Some had been teachers, many were graduates of colleges, and a large number were students at college when they enlisted. Company I was largely composed of the under graduates of Allegheny College at Meadville; Company D of those of Jefferson College at Canonsburg; and Company G comprised many of this class.
The companies rendezvoused at Camp Wilkens, near Pittsburg, which was under command of Colonel Hays of the Eighth Regiment. This camp was in a filthy condition, and much sickness prevailed in consequence. The regimental organization was effected during the last days of June, 1861, by the choice of the following officers:Blankets of a superior quality were issued immediately after arriving in camp, and good, wholesome rations,. plentiful in qantity, were regularly supplied. On the 1st of July the regiment moved twelve miles up the Allegheny River to camp Wright, most excellent camping ground, beautifully located. Here its organization was completed, andit was thoroughly disciplined by its experienced commander.
- John S. M'Calmont, of Venango county, a graduate of West Point and a regular army officer, Colonel
- James T. Kirk, from Captain of Company D, Lieutenant Colonel
- Harrison Allen, from Captain of Company H, Major.
On the 18th of July, the regiment left camp under orders to move to Cumberland, Maryland; but before reaching Bedford Springs, the order was countermanded, and it was hurried to Harrisburg, where, on the 21st of July, it was mustered into the United States service for three years. The unexpected defeat at Bull Run, the news of which was, here first received, darkened the hopes of many who had believed that a few months at most would end the rebellion; but none faltered. Late on the afternoon of the 22d the regiment moved by rail to Baltimore, and bivouacked in the open square, near the depot, untl the evening of the 23d, when it marched with loaded arms andfixed bayonets, and encamped on the common out of the city.
On the 24th it proceeded to. Washington. While at the depot it met a regiment of New York troops, which had been enaged at Bull Run. A single battle had made sad havoc in its ranks: Many were maimed, and hobbled along as best they could; some were borne upon stretchers, and here and there one who had lost a leg or an arm. Later in the contest such things were scarcely noted, but they produced a deep impression then. Moving about a mile east of the Capitol, it encamped and remained until the 1st of August, when it proceeded to the camp at Tenallytown, where the Reserve regiments were assembled.
Early in September it was detailed for picket duty at Great Falls, on the Potomac, where it remained a week. At Camp Tenally the usual routine of drill and camp duty was observed, and General M'Call, in his report of its condition, pronounced it "well drilled." It was assigned to the Third Brigade,1 at first commanded by Colonel M'Calmont, but subsequently by Brigadier General E. O. Ord.
DranesvilleOn the 10th of October, the regiment moved into Virginia, and took position in line with the army, the right resting on the Potomac, and the left connecting with General Smith's Division. On the 10th of December, the enemy, under Stuart was met at Dranesville by General Ord's Brigade, both parties being out upon a foraging expedition in force. The action opened at a little past midday by a smart firing between the skirmishers, soon followed by the artillery of the enemy, which was replied to by Easton's Battery.
During the action four companies of the Tenth were posted on the left, and in support of the artillery. Colonel M'Calmont, noticing that the gunners were firing over the heads of the enemy, rode up to them and called out," Point your pieces lower, my boys! You are firing over them, you must lower your guns! "The suggestion was at once heeded, and the result was the blowing up of one of the enemy's ammunition boxes, the killing of several horses, and the killing and wounding of many of his men. Company B was thrown forward as skirmishers, and did good execution. The remaining five companies were with the wagon train and were not engaged. There were no casualties in the Tenth.
The enemy was completely routed and driven from the field. This success greatly elated the spirit of the troops engaged, and tended to counteract the depressing effect of the Ball's Bluff disaster.2 On the 14th of February Major Alen, having been for a long time in ill health, resigned, and Adjutant Sion B. Smith was elected to succeed him. Sergeant Major O. H. Gaither was appointed Adjutant.
Early in March the army commenced a general forward movement upon Manassas, and the Tenth moved with the division to Hunter's Mills. The retreat of the rebel army producing a change in the plan of campaign, the regiment made a forced march to Alexandria. While on the way a terrible storm prevailed, and on account of the destruction of a bridge, it was forced to make along detour to reach the Alexandria and Leesburg turnpike. On its arrival it encamped without tents or shelter, and suffered severely from the inclemency.
Gaines MillGaines Run is a small stream which has worn for itself a deep channel, and has rough wooded slopes on either side, except near its conflunce with the Chickahominy, where the ground is low and cleared. The battle on the centre and left was principally fought in the rough-wooded slope on the left bank of the stream. Behind this belt of woods were level fields. The army was drawn up in three lines, the first in woods, and as one line was broken and driven back another was sent in to take its place. The artillery, posted in the open fields, was of little service till the enemy had driven our infantry from the woods and began to emerge therefrom.
The Tenth Regiment was posed in the second line, and was not engaged until half-past three in the afternoon. It was then moved hurriedly a half mile to the right in anticipation of an attack, but was almost immediately taken back at a double quick, and placed in support of a battery to the right, and front of the original position. At this time the battle was raging furiously along the entire line. In its immediate front was felled timber, through which the line receded, and as reinforced, drove back the enemy.
A half hour later the Tenth was ordered further to the left, where it was brought in under a heavy fire, ready for a charge. It was here in a trying position, just upon the brow of the ravine, where it caught a heavy fire from the enemy without the possibility of returning it. Many here fell.
Soon the order came to charge, and with resistless power it swept forward, crossed the ravine, and up the opposite bank, and clearing the woods of the enemy held this advanced position against every attempt to dislodge it. It was then ordered to retire to the brow of the slope next the enemy, where it was partially under cover, and from which a heavy and uninterrupted fire was delivered until near sundown, when our left, having been turned, was compelled to fall back, emerging from the woods just in time to save itself from being cut off by the advancing and exultant enemy.
Night soon put an end to the contest, and under cover of darkness its broken ranks were closed, and it retired across the Chickahominy. In this engagement the loss was very heavy. In a single Company, I, six were killed, three missing, probably killed, and seventeen wounded.3
White Oak SwampOn the 28th, the regiment was detailed to picket duty on the Chickahominy, and at three o'clock on the morning of the 29th commenced the march towards White Oak Swamp and the James River.4 The march was a weary one, the trains in many places blocking the way, and extended far into the night. On the morning of the 30th of June, the regiment was mustered for pay, and at a little after noon it was drawn up in line of battle.
The left of the division was posted by General M'Call in person, in a zigzag line, the Twelfth on the left, the Tenth and Ninth next in order, with the Eighth and Second in support. A German battery occupied an elevated position near a house, partly between and in rear of the Tenth and Twelfth regiments. A heavy fire was suddenly opened upon this battery from the rebel guns just brought into position. The fire was feebly returned, and in a few minutes the battery was deserted. The left of the Tenth, which had been extended to protect these guns from infantry, remained at its place under Lieutenant Pattee. Immediately after this the rebel lines advanced, and a charge was ordered by General M'Call.
The Twelfth was posted so as to form a considerable angle with the Tenth, with which the Ninth formed nearly a right angle. An order for all to advance at the same time led to considerable confusion; but Lieutenant Colonel Warner held the left under a sharp fire until the regiment had executed a half wheel, then charged forward with the rest of the line upon the advancing foe, whose ranks were quickly broken, and his whole line driven from the open field back to the cover of the woods and to his guns. The Tenth captured sixty prisoners and a stand of colors. A sword taken from an officer of the Seventeenth Virginia, manufactured at Richmond, bearing the letters "C. S. A.," was presented to Colonel Warner on the field, by General Seymour.
Unfortunately the two supporting regiments were ordered forward in the same charge, and all were necessarily thrown into more or less confusion. The regiments becoming intermingled, and the men elated with the success of the charge, it was impossible, by every effort the officers could make, to restore the ranks before the enemy again came forward in increased force and unbroken columns. Colonel Warner, with a hundred men, was thrown forward to occupy a house and some temporary breastworks. The enemy advanced rapidly in heavy force and played upon our confused lines with his batteries. Warner opened a sharp fire from the breastworks, checking the rebel advance and holding him back at that point until the position was flanked in consequence of the, yielding of the troops on the left, when a number of Warner's men were captured, a part escaping with much difficulty.
Here Adjutant General Biddle was mortally wounded. He very imprudently came to this point to look at the advancing line, and declared that they were our men, when he was struck by a musket ball or canister shot. The supports, at this juncture, commanded by General Seymour, and Colonels Simmons and M'Candless, had been lying close to the ground for protection from the enemiy's shots. As they rose up to charge a volley seemed to sweep them. Colonel Simmons was killed, General Seymour's horse was shot and he fell out of the column. At almost the same instant nearly every officer to whom the troops looked for support was cut down.
Bewildered by the suddenness and impetuosity of the attack, they were borne back in some disorder to the woods; but so stubbornly had the field been contested by the Reserves, and by a portion of Hooker's Corps, which came opportunely to the support of the left wing, that the enemy failed to push his advantage, and night soon coming on the battle ended, leaving the Reserves in possession of nearly the same ground which they occupied at the opening of the battle. The men were completely exhausted, and they dropped down to rest where they stood; but at the expiration of two hours they were again summoned into line. It was with the utmost difficulty that they could be aroused after being awakened and ordered out, fell asleep again, even dropped down after taking their places in the ranks, and in the darkness that prevailed, were left behind to be awakened next morning by the enemy,. and marched to Richmond. During the night the regiment moved to Malvern Hill, and during the battle of the succeeding day was not engaged.
The loss in the Tenth, in the series of battles which commenced at Mechanicsville, was over two hundred. Captain Miller was killed; Lieutenant Gaither was mortally wounded; Captains Adams, Ayer, M'Connell and Phipps, and Lieutenants Moore, Wray and Shipler were wounded.
From Malvern Hill the army withdrew to Harrison's Landing. While here Major Sion B. Smith resigned, and Captain James B. Knox, of Company E, succeeded him.
On the night of the 31st of July, the camp was cannonaded by a party of the enemy on the opposite side of the James, and the Tenth, with others, was thrown across the river as a working party to clear away the trees and underwood, and to picket the right bank of the river. It was, accordingly, the last to embark in the transfer of the army from the James to the Rappahannock. At Fredericksburg, Lieutenant Colonel Warner was detailed by General Burnside to take charge of a party of convalescents and stragglers left behind out of the whole army, and to follow it in its march to join General Pope; but he afterwards moved them by steamer to Alexandria. During the ten days that followed he collected and forwarded to their commands seven thousand men.
Gainesville; Groveton; and Second Bull RunFrom the Peninsula the regiment passed to the army of General Pope, and participated in the second Bull Run battle. On the 28th, M'Dowell's Corps was manoeuvred during the greater portion of the day with the design of cutting off and capturing Jackson's Corps; but finding, towards evening, that this project was likely to prove abortive, and that its own safety was in peril, it suddenly shot off in the direction of Manassas Junction, infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Scarcely had it reached that point, when it made a sharp turn and marched rapidly back, coming to a stand near the position from which it had started a few hours before.
During the 29th, several feints were made by the Reserves, with a view of drawing off the enemy from other points of attack. The Tenth was several times under fire during the day, but was withdrawn without severe loss. Late in the evening it was vigorously shelled by the enemy, but was removed and sent out on picket, Captain Ayer having charge of the line.
Early on the following morning it was withdrawn and posted with the division on the extreme left-of the army. Towards the close of the day, a heavy and combined attack was made upon that part of the line, and the Tenth was hotly engaged with varying success, the men fighting bravely and suffering severe loss; but it was found impossible to withstand the superior force concentrated against it. It had been pressed back a half mile when night put an end to the engagement. The army at once began its retreat, falling back upon Centreville. The division was here under command of General Reynolds, and was handled with great skill throughout the three days of conflict.
The loss in the Tenth was twelve killed, thirty-four wounded and nineteen missing. Of the killed were Captain Hindman and Lieutenant Fox, and of the wounded, Colonel Kirk, Captain Ayer, Adjutant Phelps and Lieutenant Williams.
South MountainThe regiment next met the enemy at South Mountain. It was at first held in reserve, but was soon ordered in, to cover the space between the First Brigade and the left of the division. At the crest of the first ridge the column was swept by a heavy fire, and many fell. Lieutenant Colonel Warner, now in command of the regiment, had his horse shot under him, and the men, dispirited bytheir defeat at Bull Run, hesitated to advance, hesitated in the very position in which they were most exposed; but urged forward by their officers, they rushed on driving the enemy before them.
After passing the first crest and descending into the ravine, they suffered much less, though nearly every rock and tree concealed an enemy. In ascending the rugged mountain side, his shots generally passed harmless over head, while theirs told with fearful effect.
To the right of the regiment was a low gap and an open field. When half way up the mountain side a considerable body of the enemy was discovered retreating along the crest in this field. Moving to the right, the regiment rushed up the acclivity with all possible speed to cut off the party, now flying before the First Brigade. The men reached the summit in a state of complete exhaustion, but in time to intercept from two to three hundred, a portion escaping. At this point the Tenth was relieved by General Duryea, but bearing to the left to close with the Ninth and Twelfth regiments, it fought its way to the summit, where it rested5 for the night, greatly elated with the victory gained.
The wounded of the regiment were speedily cared for, and many a union soldier gave up his blanket to a wounded rebel. It was highly complimented on the field for its gallantry, both by General Hooker and General Meade. The loss was four killed and nineteen wounded.
AntietamFollowing up the retreating foe, he was found drawn up in order of battle behind Antitam Creek. "On the evening of the 16th," says Colonel Warner, in his report of the battle, "Hooker's Corps moved forward and occupied a position on the Hagerstown pike, three-fourths of a mile back of the Dunkard Church. My regiment was on the extreme right of the division, with King's Division in my rear, and in moving into position was subjected to a heavy fire from a rebel battery. After gaining our position I threw out pickets along the Hagerstown pike, and to the right of it. After dark I was ordered by one of General Hooker's aids to post my regiment behind a battery stationed in our rear on high ground. I was already directly in front of the battery on ground low enough to be safe from our own shots, and well protected in front by a ledge of limestone. This position I considered enabled us better to protect the battery than we possibly could if posted behind it, on open ground without cover; for, on a hill opposite us, was stationed a rebel battery of eight or ten guns, and it was very evident that when daylight came the batteries would open: upon each other. Upon pointing out to General Hooker the advantage of our position, behind the limestone ledge in the low ground between our batteries and those of the rebels, I was ordered to re-occupy it. Picket firing in our front was kept up through the night, and as daylight came, the two opposing batteries opened with terrific thunder. The shot and shell went shrieking over our heads and crashing through the tree tops, but protected by our position we escaped with but one man slightly wounded." * * *
"A report had reached General Hooker that the enemy was threatening our right flank, and I was ordered by him to move out with the Tenth Regiment to our right and front, to watch the enemy and protect our flank. My order was,'move immediately with your regiment to the right and front as far as you can get, and find out all about the rebels and report to'the General.' I started the regil~ment at double quick towards our flank, and pressing forward upon the enemy's flank, ascertained that instead of threatening our flank he was hurrying a fresh brigade to the part of the field where Hooker's Corps was most hotly engaged. I immediately threw out nearly the whole regiment into a cornfield, as skirmishers, placing the rest as a reserve under cover, and opened a sharp fire upon the enemy's moving columns. This movement had the intended effect. The enemy evidwtly expecting an attack in force, halted his columns, formed line, and threw out skirmishers to engage us. Meanwhile I sent a few chosen men further to our right, who crept up close enough to the rebel battery to kill the horses and pick off the gunners. For about twenty minutes the skirmishing was kept up sharply and the enemy's whole force was held at bay. He evidently construed it into a movement on his flank. I had ascertained and reported to General Hooker fully the enemy's movements'. Being the only mounted officer on that part of the field, Colonel Warner was a conspicuous mark for the enemy's sharp-shooters. After having his horse twice struck, his sword once, one ball graze his right side and another pass through his coat, he was at length hit by a minnie ball in the right hip which shattered the pelvis bone and entirely disabled him.6
The command then devolved on Captain Smith, Colonel Kirk and Major Knox being absent on account of sickness, who led it with great skill and bravery and brought it out of the battle in good order. Lieutenant Colonel Warner's wound was thought to be mortal, but after five months' of great suffering the ball was extracted and he still survives. Soon after this battle Colonel Kirk resigned and was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Warner. Major Knox was promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain Ayer, of Company I, Major.
FredericksburgGeneral Burnside, with many misgivings, assumed command of the army of the Potomac on the 7th of November. The major part of it was at this time in the neighborhood of Warrenton. His plan of campaign involved the crossing of the Rappahannock near Fredericksburg. Before his pontoons arrived and his army was ready to cross, the enemy had concentrated7 on the opposite bank and stood ready to contest his passage and his further advance. On the night of the 10th of December, the Tenth left camp with the Third Brigade, under command of Brigadier General Jackson, and proceeded to the bank of the river, three miles below Fredericksburg, where two pontoon bridges were speedily laid and a crossing was effected without loss.
On the morning of the 13th, the regiment moved with the division to the point whence the attack was to be made, where it was formed, and was soon under a heavy fire of artillery; Soon the word was given to advance, and in the face of a destructive fire of musketry and artillery it swept forward and carried the enemy's intrenchments; but failing of support the division was forced back and compelled to retire with great loss. The Tenth, in this engagement, was led by Lieutenant Colonel Knox, who won great credit for his skill and bravery. The loss was severe, being eleven killed, seventy-five wounded and fifty-one captured.
The regiment, in command of Major Ayer, participated in the toilsome but fruitless attempt of Burnside to again cross the Rappahannock and offer battle, and soon after, with the entire division, was ordered to the defences of Washington to rest and recruit. Some of the companies had become so much reduced by constant service as to be unable to muster more than three or four men for parade, and these without a commissioned officer or Sergeant. It was at first stationed at Halls and Upton's Hills. In April, 1863, it was ordered to Washington, where it remained until the 1st of June, when it returned to Upton's Hill.
GettysburgOn the 26th of June, the First and Third Brigades were ordered to join the Fifth Corps in its advance into Maryland. The Tenth was now in command of Colonel Warner, who, though still suffering from his wound received at Antietam, moved resolutely with his men. General Reynolds, with the First Corps; met and engaged the enemy at a point a little beyond Gettysburg, on the 1st of July. The army was ordered to concentrate here with all possible dispatch.
The Reserves reached the field at nine o'clock on the morning of the 2d, where they rested in rear of the heights overlooking the town, until 2 P. M., when they were ordered forward to the support of the First and Second divisions of the Fifth Corps, already engaged, and now hard pressed on the summit and to the right of Little Round Top. The Ninth, Tenth and Twelfth regiments being on the left, swept along the rear and to the left of Little Round Top, driving the enemy back. The Tenth, at sunset or a little after, occupying the hollow between Round Top and Little Round Top. It was on the brow of this spur that the First Division, and especially Vincent's Brigade, had had a fierce conflict.
Early on the morning of the 3d, Colonel Warner moved his regiment, under orders of Colonel Fisher, commanding the brigade, forward so as to hold all the ground between the two mountain spurs, and immediately set to work erecting a defence. The fragments of rock scattered about were soon brought together, and in less than an hour a heavy stone wall was erected, which before midday had been extended by other regiments to the summit of Round Top. At ten o'clock, A. M., a heavy artillery fire was concentrated upon the position held by the Tenth, doing little damage, however, and was followed soon after by an infantry attack which was easily repulsed.
The regiment continued to hold this line during the day, and on the morning of the 4th, the firing having ceased, the enemy began to withdraw. The day was spent in burying the dead and in drawing supplies, and on the 5th General Meade commenced a very guarded and well ordered pursuit. The loss in the engagement was two killed and five wounded.
Crossing the Potomac on the 18th of July, it proceeded to the neighborhood of Warrenton, and subsequently advanced with the army and was slightly engaged at Broad Run, near Bristoe Station, where it had one killed, Corporal Waugh, of company G. Retiring to Centreville, and thence to Fairfax Court House.
Mine RunMeade, on the 7th of October, again advanced upon the Rappahannock, the Tenth crossing the river at Kelly's Ford and occupying the unfinished winter quarters of the enemy. On the 26th, the regiment again moved forward, and crossing the Rapidan at the Culpepper Mine Ford, advanced by the Orange plank road to New Hope Church, where it came up with the cavalry, already engaged. It was immediately brought upon the line, the left of the regiment resting upon an abandoned railroad grade. Company B was immediately thrown forward as skirmishers, and repulsed several attempts of the enemy to drive them out. Determined to gain the position, he soon brought a battery of rifled guns into position to rake it, which were speedily silenced by our own guns, when the line advanced and he was driven nearly a mile into the broken timber ground on the head waters of Mine Run. The regiment escaped in the encounter with only one wounded.
Deeming it impolitic to attack the enemy in his strong position, Meade determined to withdraw, and returned across the Rappahannock, the Fifth Corps being posted along the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. The Tenth Regiment was stationed at Warrenton Junction, and subsequently at Manassas Junction, where it was charged with guarding the road from Bristoe Station to the Bull Run Bridge, under the immediate command of Captain Pattee, of company B, a brave and skillful officer.
During the entire winter the enemy's cavalry and bushwhackers greatly annoyed the guard. No soldier could go beyond rifle range of the camp without danger of being shot or captured, and as many casualties occurred, a constant and untiring vigilance was necessary for the safety of the camp and the road.
Upon the resignation of Lieutenant Colonel Knox, Major Ayer assumed command, and was subsequently commissioned Lieutenant Colonel. Abandoning winter quarters on the 29th of April, the regiment moved to the neighborhood of Culpepper, where it joined the army under Grant, the Reserves, commanded by Crawford, being still attached to the Fifth Corps.
At midnight of the 3d, the division crossed the Rapidan, and bivouacked in the Wilderness on the night of the 4th. During the following day the regiment was engaged in skirmishing with the enemy and manoeuvring, and at one time, the troops on the right having been heavily engaged and driven back, the entire division was in imminent danger of being cut off; but was withdrawn, the Tenth without loss, to the neighborhood of the Lacy House, where the line was re-formed and intrenched.
On the 6th, the regiment moved with the brigade to the right, and was pushed forward a mile or more, driving the enemy. In this advance Colonel Ayer was severely wounded, and was borne from the field, the command devolving upon Captain Valentine Phipps, of company E. The regiment suffered severe loss in wounded and had one killed.
SpottsylvaniaAt night it was moved to the right on the double quick, to meet a night attack made on the Sixth Corps; but previous to its arrival order had been restored. Again, on the 8th, at Spottsylvania Court House, the regiment was hotly engaged, and on the 9th, until late at night, when it was moved to the right, forming a line at the base of a long wooded ridge which extended to the River Po.
On the following morning the Tenth was deployed as skirmishers and advanced driving the enemy in upon his intrenched line. In this engagement the regiment had one killed and several wounded.
Bethesda ChurchFighting its way with the division, it crossed the Pamunky on the 28th, and on the 29th moved forward to Tolopotomy Creek, skirmishing as it went. On the 30th the enemy was met in considerable force near Bethesda Church, where the Reserves were at first driven back in some disorder; but finally forming in a favorable position, a temporary breast-work of rails wasthrown up and the enemy was checked. Reforming his lines he attacked in heavy force, but was repeatedly repulsed and driven back in confusion, the Reserves inflicting great slaughter and taking many prisoners.
This was their last battle, their time of service having expired. Many of the Tenth re-enlisted as veterans, and formed part of the One Hundred and Ninetieth and One Hundred and Ninety-first regiments. On the 11th of June, 1864, the remnants of this brave and once strong body of men, which had fought in nearly every batfle in which the army of the Potomac had been engaged, and which was not excelled in valor by any other organization of the division, was mustured out of service at Pittsburg.
1 Organization of the Third Brigade, Brigadier General E.. C. Ord; Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, Major General George A. M'Call. Tenth (39th) Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel John S. M'Camont; Sixth (35th) Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel W. W. Ricketts; Ninth (38th) Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Conrad F. Jackson; Twelfth (41st) Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel John H. Taggart.
2"At Dranesville," says Colonel Ayer, "before the battle fairly commenced it was found by General Ord that our artillery were too far advanced. The Tenth was at the time on the pike awaiting orders. Not knowing what might happen, our Colonel was manoeuvring us for the moment in 'forming square.' Just then Ord came dashing up, 'make way for this artillery!' he shouted, and without slackening his speed dashed by while his 'war dogs' followed close behind. The General was an old artilleryist and knew well how to value and use this arm of the service. The scene was, I think, one of the most animated that I witnessed during the war."
3 Corporal Edwin B. Pier had his right am shattered, and afterwards died from the effects of the wound. * * * When the war broke out he was one of the most promising students of Allegheny College. Of fine mind and devout and refined feelings, he was a devoted christian and an earnest patriot. He was an excellent Greek and Hebrew Scholar, and spent much of his time when off duty in the reading of the Greek Testament. Of modest deportment, he was as courageous as he was humble. * * The last hours of his life have often been described to me by a kind lady Who watched over his dying bed, as being such a remarkable instance of christian triumph in the final hour, asshehad never witnessed.-Extract from Colonel Ayer's Account of the Battle.
4 "I think," says Colonel Ayer, "I have never seen examples of greater endurance than exhibited upon the part of the wounded in this retreat. Saturday they were lying all day at the hospital with little or no attention. The weather wasx exceedingly warm. Sunday they marched all day through a sweltering sun, resting perhaps two hours in the middle of the day. The garments of manyof them were stif fwith blood. They had no nourishing food. Their wounds had simply been bound up without further attention, and they were already much annoyed with worms. * * * Still there was not a murmur. All endured cheerfully. Towards evening the wounded men passed through a field in which were a number of sheep, when Sergeant Hoilister, notwithstanding his arm was so shattered as afterwards to require amputation, took his revolver, and in Company with others, after a hard chase, succeeded in bringing one of them down. Having detailed one of my men to help them along, he made them a good kettle of mutton broth, of which they all- partook and were much invigorated."
5"I finally lay down," says Colonel Warner, 'Recollections' of the Battle, "but not to sleep. I was too much elated with joy at our victory to sleep. I never felt before as then. The skies never seemed so near or so clear. The stars looked as though they were partakers of our glory. We had been baffled on the Peninsula; had been beaten and discomfitted at Bull Run; the enemy were invading the north; yet 1 did not know that I had been dispirited; but the change was so glorious; the consciousness that we had by sheer hard fighting beaten the enemy and driven him from his strong position, filled me to overflowing, and gave me confidence that we would finally win and the country be safe."
6EXTRACT FROM1 GENERAL MEADE'S OFFICIAL REPORT.-I also wish to mention particutlarly the efficiency and gallantry of Lieutenant Colonel Warner, Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves, both in the actions at South Mountain and on the Antietam. He was detached with his regiment for special service, accomplished by him in the most creditable manner, and in the latter battle was severely wounded. He is an officer whom I would be glad to see elevated to a higher position."
7 While these movements were going on, General Lee was losing no time. His right wing, under General Jackson, had moved bythe left flank eighteen miles, and was in positionin front of General Franklin, closing upon Hood's Division the right of Longstreet's Corps at Deep Run. Longstreet, already at Fredericksburg, had only to break camp and occupy the lines previously arranged for his divisions, Anderson, M'Laws, Ransom, Pickett and Hood, from left to right as named.-Battle Field of Fredericksburg, (Rebel,) page 14.
Source: Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1865 , Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
Organized at Camp Wilkins, near Pittsburg, June and July, 1861.
Ordered to Harrisburg, Pa., July 18, and mustered in July 21, 1861.
Moved to Baltimore, Md., July 22; thence to Washington, D.C., July 24.
Attached to 3rd Brigade, McCall's Pennsylvania Reserves Division,
Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862.
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1862.
3rd Brigade, McCall's Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862.
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to August, 1862.
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862.
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to February, 1863.
3rd Brigade, Pennsylvania Reserves Division, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to June, 1863.
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1864
At Tennallytown, Md., August 1 to October 10, 1861, and
at Camp Pierpont, near Langley, Va., till March, 1862.
Expedition to Gunnell's Mills December 6, 1861.
Action at Dranesville December 20.
Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-15, 1862.
McDowell's advance on Falmouth April 9-19.
Duty at Fredericksburg till June.
Moved to White House June 9-12.
Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1.
Battles of Mechanicsville June 26; Gaines Mill June 27;
Charles City Cross Roads and Glendale June 30; Malvern Hill July 1.
At Harrison's Landing till August 16.
Movement to join Pope August 16-26.
Battles of Gainesville August 28; Groveton August 29; Bull Run August 30.
Maryland Campaign September 6-24.
Battles of South Mountain, Md., September 14; Antietam September 16-17.
Duty in Maryland till October 30.
Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19.
Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15.
"Mud March" January 20-24, 1863.
Ordered to Washington, D.C., February 6,
duty there and at Alexandria till June 25.
Ordered to Join Army of the Potomac in the field.
Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3.
Pursuit of Lee July 5-24.
Bristoe Campaign October 9-22.
Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8.
Rappahannock Station November 7.
Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2.
Bristoe Station April 15, 1864 (Detachment).
Rapidan Campaign May 4-31.
Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Laurel Hill May 8;
Spottsylvania May 8-12; Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21.
Assault on the Salient May 12.
Harris Farm May 19.
North Anna River May 23-26.
Jericho Ford May 25.
On line of the Totopotomoy May 28-31.
Left front May 31.
Mustered out June 11, 1864.
Regiment lost during service:
7 Officers and 153 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and
47 Enlisted men by disease.
Source: Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources, Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908
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