© Alice J. Gayley, all rights reserved
Clarion, and Clearfield, were well formed and stalwart, and inured to hardshipsand privations in their struggles to subdue the forests. A regimental organization was effected by the choice of the following field officers:
EARLY in August, 1861, Amor A. M'Knight, a citizen of Brookville, whohad for some time previous commanded a militia company, and who,during the three months' service, had led a company in the Eighth Regiment, received the requisite authority to raise a regiment for three years. Recruitingwas immediately commenced, many re-enlisting from the returning regiments,and by the close of the month its ranks were full. The men were principallyfrom the Congressional District popularly known as the Wild Cat District, embracing the counties of Jefferson, which was most largely represented,Early in October the regiment was ordered to the front, and breaking campat Pittsburg, where it had rendezvoused, it proceeded to Washington and encamped on Kalorama Heights, and subsequently at Camp Jameson, about amile south of Alexandria. It was here assigned to Jameson's Brigade,1 ofHeintzelman's Division, and was carefully and rigidly drilled. To the diligentstudy of elementary princples by the officers, and to the zeal displayed by themin training their men, is in a great measure due the reliability and steadiness which characterized this regiment in the hour of battle. During thewinter considerable sickness prevailed, and some died.
- Amor A. M'Knight, Colonel
- W. W. Corbett, Lieutenant Colonel
- M. M. Dick, Major
The regiment broke camp and moved with the army on the spring campaign,and on the 17th of March proceeded by tiansport to Fortress Monroe. Duringthe siege of Yorktown, which was immediately opened, it was engaged in fatigue duty upon the works, and in guard and picket duty, suffering much fromsickness caused by severe toil and privation, and by the unhealthy location ofits camp. After the quiet evacuation of the enemy's works, which occurredon the night of the 3d of May, it joined in the pursuit, and after a most exhausting march all day at double quick through deep mud and in drenchingrain, arrived under fire on the battle ground at Williamsburg, where it layuntil morning, when it advanced as skirmishers and planted the nationalstandard upon his principal fort.
Battle of Fair OaksHaving moved up and crossed the Chickahominy, it was posted with thecorps of Heintzelman and Casey covering the roads leading towards Richmondand the White Oak Swamp, where, on the 31st of May, the enemy attacked.Kearny's Division being on the extreme left, was not ordered into action untilthe battle had been raging for some time on the right, in front of Fair Oaks,where Couch and Casey stood."I had disposed of all my command," says General Jameson, "at different points, with the exception of three hundred and forty-eight men of the One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania, under Colonel M'Knight. All our men had fled from the abattis in the vicinity of the Richmond Road. Our only alternative was to make the best stand possible with the handful of men under Colonel M'Knight. We led them across theopen field and up the Richmond Road into the abattis, at a double quick, andunder a most terrific fire, deploying one-half on either side of the road. For more than an hour and a half this small force held every inch of ground. Atlast the enemy broke and ran, and M'Knight pursued them through Casey'sold camp.When the regiment went into action company G was on guard at the bridge in the rear, and companies C and I were away on fatigue duty. On being relieved these companies hastened forward, but unable to join the rest of the command were ordered by General Heintzelman to form on the right of the Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania, and with that regiment did excellent service.
"During the time that M'Knight was engaged on the Richmond Road, our line had been gradually giving way about a quarter of a mile to his right. Just as M'Knight succeeded in routing the force in his front, our line gave way entirely at the point above indicated, and the rebel force came pouring into the Richmond Road directly in his rear, and while the gallant M'Knight was pursuing the South Carolina chivalry towards Richmond, the rebel forces directly in his rear were pursuing a portion of our forces towards the Chickahominy. I then received orders to withdraw my men if possible. With great difficulty they succeeded in filing off to the left in the woods towards White Oak Swamp, retreating along the edge of the swamp back to our second line of defences."
The regiment lost forty-one killed, one hundred and fifty wounded, and seventeen missing. Among the killed was Captain John C. Dowling,and Lieutenant John P. R. Cummiskey, and of the wounded Colonel M'Knight,Captains Duff, Thompson, Kirk, and Greenawalt, and Lieutenants S. A. Craig,Markle, Shipley, Geggie, and Baird.
Headley, in mentioning this regiment in the battle, says, "Napoleon's veterans never stood firmer under a devastating fire."2
For nearly a month succeeding the battle of Fair Oaks the regiment wasemployed in fortifying and in picket duty, where the enemy's sharp-shooterswere unusually vigilant. At ten o'clock on the evening of June 25th, whilethe regiment was deployed on the picket line, it was attacked, and in the slightengagement which ensued it lost two killed and six wounded. After the battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines' Mill, fought on the 26th and 27th, the armyfell back across the Chickahominy, and commenced the retreat to the James.
Jameson's Rrigade, now commanded by Robinson, moved early on the morning of the 28th. After proceeding about a mile it was halted and occupiedthe second line of defence, which it held until three in the afternoon, when itmoved with Birney's Division to Savage Station. Falling back about twomiles further it again formed in line of battle, where it remained until the following morning, and then moved on to White Oak Swamp. The enemy pressing hard upon the left of the line, Robinson's Brigade was ordered back threemiles to its support. After returning and crossing the creek, it was on theafternoon of the 30th held in line of battle at Charles City Cross Roads, wherefrom two P. M. until dark it was sharply engaged, the enemy making frequentattempts to capture the battery which it supported. The loss was fifty-sixkilled and wounded. At night it retired to Malvern Hill, where it was in lineduring the battle on the following day, and under a heavy artillery fire, bntnot closely engaged.
On the 25th of July Colonel M'Knight, prostrated by disease which threatened his life, resigned, and in the absence of Lieutenant Colonel Corbett, the command devolved on Captain Calvin A. Craig. So wasted was the regiment by sickness and by battle that upon its arrival at Harrison's Landing it scarcely numbered one hundred rank and file.
Manassas JunctionUpon the return of the army at the close of the Peninsula Campaign, theOne Hundred and Fifth was landed at Alexandria and was assigned, to dutyin guarding the railroad between Manassas and Warrenton Junction, companies E, H, and K being posted at Bristoe Station, and B, and G at the Junction. On the evening of August 26th, a train from the station four milesabove, arrived at the Junction, reporting that it had been fired into by a bandof five hundred of the enemy's cavalry. The only force then at the Junctionwas that of the two companies named, barely seventy-five men, thirty-fivemen of the Eighty-seventh New York, and Lieutenant James' Battery of fouror five guns. Dispositions were immediately made of this small force to meetthe threatened danger. At midnight the enemy was discovered advancing inthe darkness, and when within a few rods of the line a rapid fire was openedfrom infantry and artillery. The enemy replied and for a time a lively fire waskept up; but not expecting to meet artillery his fire soon slackened and he retired out of range. Quickly re-forming he again charged, yelling hideously, and delivering a destructive fire upon the handful of men that was opposinghim. The little band held out heroically until surrounded, when it was forcedto surrender.
On the following day they were paroled. Company B had three men killed. Captain S. A. Craig, in command of the detachment, was severely wounded. Companies H, E, and K, at Bristoe Station, had been relieved and were on the point of taking the cars for head-quarters at Centerville, but hearing the noise of the fray at the Junction, returned to their post. They succeeded in reaching head-quarters at daylight on the following morning, and were the first to report the presence of the enemy. Company H, which was the last relieved, fell into the hands of the enemy.
2d Battle of Bull RunAs soon as advised of his presence, the First Division, together with Hooker's, changed front to the rear to face him. At Bristoe they found him in force and a spirited engagement ensued, in which the portion of the regiment in column supported a battery, and rendered efficient service. The regiment lay upon its arms until ten o'clock that night, but heard nothing more of the enemy until it came upwith him on the following day on the old Bull Run battle ground. ColonelPoe, with Berry's Brigade, was posted in the first line, with Robinson's Brigade on his right, partly in line and partly in support. Early in the afternoon Robinson's Brigade was sent diagonally to the front to relieve the centre, posted in woods. He drove forward several hundred yards, but the centre of the main body being shortly after driven back and out of the woods, exposed in front of all others, and both flanks in air, he was obliged to halt and confine his efforts to holding his own.
In the fighting on the following morning Kearny's Division did not take part, though it lost men by an enfilading fire of the enemy's batteries, the One Hundred and Fifth unfortunately being placed in an exposed position, which for hours, under the most deadly fire, it firmly maintained. At five P. M. the left and centre suddenly gave way, and Kearny massed his troops as directed by General Pope, but soon re-occupiedwith Birney's Brigade, supported by Robinson's, a very advanced block ofwoods, which was held until ten at night.
Soon after sun-down the One Hundred and Fifth was relieved from supporting a battery, and placed upon the picket line, where it remained until eleven, when it fell back and marched to Centreville. Here it lay until the evening of the 31st, when it again moved three miles towards Fairfax Court House, to the neighborhood of Chantilly.
At this juncture General Kearny passed and was enthusiastically cheered; the last cheer which the regiment ever gave him, as a few minutes after he was killed. In his report of the battle of Bull Run, made on the same day, hesaid,"The One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania volunteers were not wanting.They are Pennsylvanians-mountain men-again have they been fearfully decimated. The desperate charge of these regiments sustains the past history ofthis division."3Of the small number who entered the battle thirteen were killed and forty-one wounded. Lieutenant John L. Gilbert was among the killed. Lieutenant Colonel Craig had his horse shot under him, and was wounded in the ankle. Captains Hastings, Kirk, and Thompson, and Lieutenants Neil, and Clyde were among the wounded.
At the close of Pope's campaign the division was ordered into the defencesof Washington, where it remained until after the battle of Antietam. Lieutenant Colonel Corbett was, on the 29th of July, commissioned Colonel, but onthe 10th of September resigned, and was honorably discharged.
In the meantime Colonel M'Knight having returned, was, on the 20th of September, recommissioned Colonel. On the morning of the 28th of October, the regimentwas sent to White's Ford, where it crossed the Potomac and proceeded to theBall's Bluff battle ground. For several days it was engaged in scouting inthe neighborhood of Leesburg and Millville. At the latter place a large flouring mill, the property of a rebel, was taken possession of and run for the useof the Union troops. With the army it advanced to the Rappahannock, andon the 24th of November arrived at Falmouth.
Battle of FredericksburgGeneral Burnside, who had succeeded M'Clellan in command of the army,was now preparing to move on the enemy, securely posted upon the heightsoverlooking Fredericksburg. On the morning of December 11th, the OneHundred and Fifth moved from camp in brigade line to the crest of the hilloverlooking the river, and a mile in rear of the batteries, where it rested untildark, when it moved down to the wood in front of the hill, and bivouackedfor the night. At four P. M. of the following day it continued on down thestream passing general head-quarters, and again bivouacked for the night.At daylight on the following morning the march was resumed, and at two P.M. it crossed on Franklin's pontoons. It was immediately moved at doublequick to that part of the field where the Pennsylvania Reserves were hotlyengaged, and was posted by order of General Robinson in rear of Randolph'sBattery. Here it remained until dusk. It was then moved in front of the battery, and here, in close proximity to the enemy's sharp-shooters animatedwith unusual activity and vigilance, it lay hugging closely the ground forthirty-six hours.
At seven A. M. of the 15th, it was releved by the Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania, and with other regiments of the brigade retired to a line two hundred yards back and parallel with the first. At night it re-crossed the river and moved back to the camp which it had left."During Saturdayafternoon," says Colonel M'Knight in his official report, " the regiment wassubjected to an almost uninterrupted fire of artillery, accompanied at timesby discharges of musketry, all of which, from our position, had to be endured,without even the pleasure or excitement of sending a shot in return."CaptainJames Hamilton, Lieutenants George Patterson, and William J. Clyde, andeleven men, were wounded, two of whom afterwards died of their wounds.
1863Until the 20th of January, 1863, the regiment remained in camp employedin the usual round of duty. On that day it broke camp and moved with thebrigade five miles back towards Warrenton, when it turned abruptly to theleft and marched directly for the river, bivouacking at night a mile from thestream. This brigade had been selected for forcing a passage, and holdingthe thither bank while the pontoons were being laid. But before a crossingwas effected, the army, when all in motion, was suddenly arrested by thebreaking up of the roads. The movement was abandoned, and the army, withall its trains, with infinite labor, returned to camp.
Battle of ChancellorsvilleWith the advance of General Hooker to the chief command came re-organization and frequent inspections and reviews. On the 26th of March the division was reviewed by Governor Curtin, and on the 10th of April by President Lincoln and General Hooker. On the 28th of April the Third Corps, now commanded by Seckles, started on the Chancellorsville Campaign. It firstmoved down to a point four miles below Fredericksburg, as if to follow theSixth Corps which had already crossed the Rappahannock at Franklin's crossing of the preceding December. But on the afternoon of the 30th it about faced and marched away to United States Ford, which it crossed, and followed where Hooker with three corps of his army had already gone before. At five o'clock in the afternoon the regiment was formed in line of battle near the Chancellor Brick Mansion. It was hardly in position when the enemy attacked, and it was for some time exposed to a heavy artilleiy fire.
At daylight on the morning of the 2d, the brigade was moved to the centre of theline, where the regiment was deployed as skirmishers. In the afternoon, amovement of the enemy in heavy force along the front and to the right havingbeen discovered, it was sent forward with the division on a reconnoissance, inwhich Jackson's Corps was struck in flank. At nine in the evening it returned, and lay during the night in rear of batteries a mile south of the OrangePlank Road, a part of the division, in the meantime, making its famous midnight attack for the recovery of the works lost by the Eleventh Corps.
Atdaylight on the morning of Sunday the 3d, the regiment moved out a shortdistance, and was employed in constructing a corduroy road across lowswampy ground for the movement of artillery. Scarcely was it finished whenthe command received a sweeping fire of musketry, by which severel in theregiment were wounded. The brigade was immediately moved to the rear oftbe batteries at the Brick Mansion, and re-formed, the regiment holding theextreme left with the One Hundred and Fourteenth on its right. A chargewas ordered, and with well dressed lines it dashed forward into the woods in front of the batteries, meeting a terrific fire of musketry as it went. in making this advance, Colonel M'Knight, heroically leading, was shot through thehead and instantly killed. Stung to madness by the loss of their Colonel,stricken down before their eyes, his men, now led by Lieutenant Colonel Craig,rushed on, though losing heavily at every step, and quickly drove the foefrom his first line of works. Discovering that a movement was being made tooutflank the regiment on the left, company B was ordered out beyond thebreast-works to meet it, This order was promptly obeyed, and the enemy'sadvance checked, the company gaining a position where it did fearful execution, For nearly two hours did this gallant brigade hold the ground which ithad wrenched from the enemy, and which he vainly struggled to recover.Finally, having been largely reinforced, he was able to outflank it on the right,when it was forced to retire again to the rear of the batteries. Replenishingits ammunition, which had now become exhausted, it again advanced into thewoods near the Orange Road, and was alternately engaged in the entrenchments and in the rear of the abattis.
On the following morning the brigadewas relieved and the regiment retired to the third line, where, until the closeof the battle, it remained executing important movements. At three A. M.on the morning of the 5th it re-crossed the river, and returned to its camp nearFalmouth. The regiment went into action with twenty-seven officers andthree hundred and twenty men. Of these, three officers and eight enlisted menwere killed, five officers and sixty men wounded, and seven missing, an aggregate of seventy-seven. In addition to Colonel M'Knight, Captain RobertKirk and Lieutenant Charles H. Powers were killed, and Captain Clyde, andLieutenants Shipley, Platt, Hewitt, and M'Henry were wounded.
At a meeting of the officers of the brigade, held shortly after the battle, resolutions of respect and condolence for Colonel M'Knight and directing the usual badge of mourning, were passed. Lieutenant Colonel Craig was promoted to Colonel, Major J. W. Greenawald being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain L. B Duff, to Major. On the 27th the Kearny badge of honor was presented by General Sickles to those non-commissioned officers and privates who had especially distinguished themselves.4
Battle of GettysburgOn the 2d of June the regiment was sent for picket duty to Banks' Ford,where unusual vigilance was required, as balloons were being daily sent up towatch the movements of the enemy, which he seemed especially intent uponcapturing. It being evident that the enemy was moving northward, the ThirdCorps, on the 11th, commenced a corresponding movement, and after hardmarches under a burning sun, reached Emmittsburg, Maryland, on the 30th.
Here at two P. M. on the 1st of July, the regiment was ordered to move rapidlyto Gettysburg, where a battle had already opened. By a forced march itreached the left of the field a little after dark.
At daylight of July 2d it moved out to the right of the road leading to Round Top, and at a little before noon was led to the front, companies A, C, D, F, and I being deployedas skirmishers to support the Sixty-third, which had been thrown forward andhad opened a brisk fire upon the enemy's skirmishers, now plainly visible intheir imnediate front. Sergeant Doty was shot through the head while thesecompanies were resting in support, though not permitted to open fire. At alittle after noon these companies were called in and the regiment took its position in line on the extreme right of the brigade, where it remained quiet untilthree P. M., when the battle opened in earnest, and the line was moved up tothe brow of the hill, along the Emmittsburg Pike.
For an hour, under a heavy fire of shot and shell, from front and flank, it held its position unflinching, suffering considerable loss. At this juncture the enemy's infantry came on in heavy force and the command rose up to meet it, forming in the road. Thefighting was now desperate, the brigade holding its ground and the enemygradually advancing. Finally the line upon its left was broken through, andthe rebels came pouring in upon its flank and rear, compelling it to fall back. In good order, re-forming at short intervals and at every favorable point, keeping up all the while a deliberate fire, it withdrew, and at evening took positionon the line connecting the Cemetery Ridge with Round Top, where it remaineduntil the close of the battle.
Of two hundred and forty-seven who went into the fight, one officer and fourteen men were killed, thirteen officers and one hundred and eleven men wounded, and nine missing, an aggregate of one hundred and sixty-eight, more than half its entire strength. Lieutenant George W. Crossly was killed, and Colonel Craig, Lieutenant Colonel Greenawalt, Captains Clyde, Woodward, Consor, and M'Henry, and Lieutenants Barr, Hewitt, Dunsten, Patterson, Dougherty, Van Vliet, and Boyington were wounded, fourteen officers out of the seventeen who stood with the regiment when the battle opened. Lieutenant James A. Dunsten subsequently died of his wounds.
Colonel Craig had two horses shot under him. In a letter written soon afterthe engagement Colonel Craig said,"The One Hundred and Fifth never foughtso well as at Gettysburg. We rallied some eight or ten times after the rest ofthe brigade had left us, and the boys fought like demons. Their battle-crywas Pennsylvania. I could handle them just as well on that field of battle asthough they had simply been on drill. This is a state of perfection in discipline that is gained by but few regiments."After the battle of Gettysburg the regiment returned to Virginia, and on the28th of August was in camp at Warrenton, having marched almost constantlyfor forty-eight days.
On the 9th of October it was in position near Thoroughfare Mountain, where an attack was anticipated, lying in line of battle all night. Retiring to Sulphur Springs it rested for a night, and then set forward, the rebel cavalry hanging on its flank, greatly annoying it, and retarding its progress. After crossing the Rappahannock at Freeman's Ford, and advancing a short distance, it was suddenly re-called, it having been discovered that the enemywas turning the right flank of the army. Remaining at the Ford until the12th, it commenced a retrograde march towards Washington. The regimenthad the advance of the entire corps, which was on the left flank facing Washington, and was deployed as skirmishers on the left flank of the column. Theenemy was moving in the same direction on a parallel road, and his columnwas frequently in sight. At Auburn a heavy skirmish occurred, in which theregiment was hotly engaged, losing one killed and five wounded.
At FairfaxStation, the One Hundred and Fifth was assigned to provost duty, ColonelCraig holding command of the post. After remaining here a few days the advance was again sounded, and theregiment was sent to the front, where it was kept at the post of danger andresponsibility. On the 27th of October it was slightly engaged at Kelly'sFord, but sustained no loss. A month later it was in the battle at LocustGrove, and for an hour and a half was under a heavy fire. Fortunately itsloss here was only seven wounded, the enemy for the most part firing overthe heads of the men.
At the close of the Mine Run campaign it returnedwith the army and went into winter-quarters at its old camp at Brandy Station. On the 28th of December two hundred and forty men, nearly the entire strength of the regiment, re-enlisted and were given a veteran furlough. While away about fifty recruits were obtained.
Battle of the WildernessUpon its return to camp preparations were in progress for the spring campaign, and on the 4th of May it marched with the division for the Wilderness, crossing the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and passing on the way the old Chancellorsville battle ground. Early on the morning of the 5th the division was aroused and commenced the march towards Spottsylvania, but was halted andcountermarched, the enemy having come up and attacked in the Wilderness.On arriving where the battle was raging, it was immediately hurried into thefight, the One Hundred and Fifth forming line of battle on the plank road,and advancing a mile through dense undergrowth. Here it formed in rear ofthe Sixty-third Pennsylvania, occupying the front line.
At four P. M. it relieved the Sixty-third, and as it advanced to the front found the ground strewnwith the dead and the dying. It was soon in the thickest of the fray, andmen were dropping on every hand like grain before the sickle of the reaper.Here Captain James Hamilton was killed, and Colonel Craig and LieutenantColonel Greenawalt wounded, the latter mortally. The command now devolved on Major Duff. Until long after dark the position was held despitethe furious assaults made to carry it. It was finally relieved and led to therear.
On the morning of the 6th the battle was renewed, and the regimentadvanced in line with the Sixty-third, until it reached the front line hotly engaged and lying flat upon the ground. The order was given to charge, andthe brigade, passing the prostrate troops, with loud cheers, dashed on. Therebels, confused by this unexpected assault, gave way, and were pursuednearly two miles. Here they were reinforced, and taking advantage of thesomewhat disordered state of the Union line flushed with its success, delivered a counter charge, and in turn drove our men back to a line of temporarybreast-works, most of the advantage gained being lost.
Here fresh cartridgeswere supplied, just in time to receive the enemy as he came on in greatforce. Three successive attempts were made to carry the position, but withoutsuccess, and he finally retired, having suffered great loss in his heroic but vainassaults. During the entire day the line swayed backward and forward withthe shifting fortunes of the battle, and the dense forest which, was the sceneof contention was covered with the dead and dying of both, armies. The aggregate loss in the two days of battle was eight officers and one hundred and sixty-two men killed and wounded. Captain William J. Clyde was amongthe killed.
On Saturday, the 7th, there was brisk skirmishing but not a general engagement. In the afternoon the division advanced over the disputed ground, the regiment just on the left of the road on which it had fought during the two preceding days. When two miles out, it came suddenly upon a masked battery which opened with grape and canister. As the regiments were marching in close column by division and not in position for fighting, it fell back to the breast-works which it had left, where it remained until after dark, and then started in the direction of the Rapidan. This was interpreted by the men as a retreat, and all through the ranks was heard cries of "Another Failure." But it had not proceeded far when it commenced a movement tothe left, and the morning of the following day found it again faced towardsRichmond. During the two following days the regiment was held in reserve.
Battle of Spotsylvania Court HouseOn the morning of the 10th the Second Corps lay south of the Po River, whilethe remainder of the army was on its left to the north of it. As the battleopened the Second Corps, with the exception of one division, was withdrawnto the north bank and was moved to parts of the line hardest pressed. TheOne Hundred and Fifth was at one time marched alone, along a ridge only ashort distance from the enemy's works. His artillery, which was in position,opened upon it. The first two shells fell close, but exploded without doingany injury. The third struck private Enos Shirts, exploding upon the instant, blowing him to pieces. Lieutenant Reddick was wounded by a fragment of the shell, and a number were sprinkled with the flesh and blood of their fallen comrade, the splinters of his bones penetrating their clothing.
On the night of the 11th, after a day of drenching rain, the regimentmarched to the left, where it remained in the mud until near morning, when,with the corps, it moved cautiously through the wooded space in front, and atearly dawn charged the rebel works. The astonished foe were scarcely arousedfrom their sleep when they found their first line of works suddenly snatchedfrom their hands. Five thousand prisoners with artillery and small armsgraced the triumph. A part of his second line was captured, and in face ofhis most desperate assaults to re-take it, was held.
As the army moved forward on the 18th, Ewell came in upon the rear andattacked the train. The One Hundred and Fifth with other troops returnedfor its defence, and remained in line of battle during the night, but the trainhad already been relieved by fresh forces coming up from the rear. On the23d the regiment arrived in front of the enemy's works at the North Anna. Acharge was immediately ordered, and forming in a thick wood, advanced, ledby Major Duff, without firing a gun. The enemy fled at its approach, and onreaching the open field his works were found deserted.
PetersburgFighting, fortifying, and flanking, the army about the middle of Junecrossed the James and commenced operations in front of Petersburg. Theregiment charged with the brigade on the enemy's works, losing two killedand four wounded, Major Levi B. Duff, in command, was among the severelywounded, losing a leg. On the following day a portion of the enemy's linewas captured, the regiment losing one killed in the fight.
Weldon RailroadOn the 21st itmoved with the brigade in the direction of the Weldon Railroad, where, onthe following day, breast-works were thrown up; but the enemy gaining theflank of the position, compelled its abandonment. In this movement two enlisted men were killed and two missing. On the 26th of July the regimentparticipated in the movement across the James, for a diversion in favor of theassault to be made after the explosion of the Mine, and returned in time to bein position for any advantage that should be gained thereby. In the operations of the day, 30th of July, two men were wounded.
On the 14th of August the brigade was detached from the corps, and again sent across theJames to the assistance of the Tenth Corps. On the following day the regiment was under fire and lost six men wounded.
On the morning of the 16ththe brigade, in command of Colonel Craig, was posted in line on the right ofthe Tenth Corps, the right of the regiment connecting with the First Mainedismounted cavalry. When the enemy's works were stormed the brigade wasformed in front of, and at right angles to them, the left resting on a part ofhis line which had been previously captured by troops of the Tenth Corps.At the signal to advance the brigade moved gallantly forward, capturing twoofficers and seventy-five men. Suffering from an enfilading fire it was, however, forced to fall back, having lost severely. Colonel Craig, while in command of the brigade, and leading in the charge, was mortally wounded anddied the following morning. The loss in the regiment was four killed and sixteen wounded, Captain Barr being of the latter.
After the engagement the division returned to its place in the corps on thePetersburg front. On the 5th of September one hundred and sixty-two enlisted men and one officer of the Sixty-third, whose terms of service had notexpired, were assigned to the regiment. On the 1st of October it participatedin the movement upon the Weldon Railroad, remaining until the 6th, when itreturned to camp, and turning in the Springfield rifled muskets with which ithad been armed, was supplied with Spencer Repeaters.
Southside RailroadAgain on the 26th ofOctober it moved out to the Weldon Railroad, and thence towards the SouthSide Railroad, skirmishing in front on the forenoon of the 27th. In the afternoon it advanced into a thick wood connecting on the right with cavalry. Inthis position it attacked, the fighting being for a half hour very sharp. Atthe end of this time the cavalry gave way, letting the enemy in upon its flankand rear, compelling it to fall hastily back. Captain John C. Censor in command of the regiment, and Charles E. Patton, the two senior officers, and fourenlisted men were killed, eighteen men wounded and forty missing-capturedwhen forced to fall back, some of them afterwards escaping and returning tothe ranks. The colors were lost, but in a manner reflecting no dishonor uponthe surviving men.
Upon its return, the regiment was posted in the front line in Fort Davis,next to Fort Hell. Early in December it re-joined the division and participated in the raid upon the Weldon Railroad, assisting to destroy the road for a considerable distance. Upon its return it went into winter-quarters, and was engaged in drill and fatigue duty.
On the 24th of March, 1865, there were assigned to the regiment one hundred and twenty-two recruits, and four days later one hundred and seventy more. On the 27th the regiment, Major Miller in command, moved with the division and was ordered to charge the enemy's skirmishers, which was successfully accomplished, driving them into his main line of works. The loss was one man killed and five wounded.
Hatcher's RunAtHatcher's Run, two days later, one hundred and fifty men under Captain Reddick were sent forward to develop the strength and position of the enemy inhis fort in front. Reddick advanced to within sixty yards of the work,where he was met by a storm of missiles from artillery and small arms. Hispurpose having been accomplished he retired, losing only one killed and twowounded, the ground in front being of such a nature as fortunately to renderthe enemy's aim inaccurate. In the operations of the 6th of April, at Sailor'sCreek, the regiment was actively engaged, Colonel Miller having his horsekilled under him, capturing many prisoners and arms.
Appomattox and Muster OutOn the 9th the rebel army under Lee surrendered, and the regiment on the 11th commenced the march from Clover Hill, where it was encamped, for Washington, passing through Richmond on its way. Arriving at Bailey's Cross Roads, five milesabove Alexandria, it went into camp, where it remained until the close of itsterm.
On the 23d of June it marched in the grand review at the Capital, andon the 11th of July was mustered out of service. A singular fatality seemedto attend the officers of the regiment. Two Colonels, two Lieutenant Colonels,one Major, five Captains, and five Lieutenants were killed in action or died oftheir wounds, while several others were crippled and disabled for life, attesting the hard service to which it was exposed. At the final muster out not asingle officer, and but a handful of the men, who originally marched with theregiment, remained.
1 Organization of Jameson's Brigade, the First, Heintzelman's afterwards Kearny's Division, the First, Heintzelman's Corps, the Third: Fifty-seventh Regiment Pennsylnaia Volunteers, Colonel Charles T. Campbell; Sixty-third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Alexander Hays; Eighty-seventh Regiment New York Volunteers, Colonel Stephen A. Dodge; One Hundred and Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Amor A. M'Knight.
2 The Great Rebellion, Vol. I, page 429.
3 Moore's Rebellion Record, Vol. V, page 397, Docs.
4The following are the names of those who received the Kearny Badge: A. H. Mitchell,S. T. Hadden, and A. D. M'Pherson, of company A; Joseph C. Kelso, George Heiges,andCharles S. M'Cauley, of company B; A. A. Harley, Charles C. Weaver, and Samuel H. Mays, of company C; James Silvis, and Milton Craven, of company D; Joseph E. Geiger, George Weddle, and James M. Shoaf, of company E; Robert Doty, Henry M'Killip, and Perry C. Cupler, of company F; George W. Hawthorne, and William D. Kane, of company G; Thomas M. Rea, and Robert Feverly, of company H; Oliver C. Reddick, and Joseph Kinnier, of company I; James Miller, and George H. Reed, of company K. The honor seems to have been well bestowed, for of this number, Miller afterwards rose to be Colonel of the regiment, Reddick to Lieutenant Colonel, Mitchell and Kelso to Captains, Silvis, Shoaf, M'Killip, and Hadden to Lieutenants Hadden, M'Cauley, Doty, Hawthorne, and Kinnier were killed; Heiges died of wounds; M'Pherson lost a leg at Gettysburg, Craven his right arm at the Wilderness, and each of the others received one or more wounds in the many battles in which they afterwardsparticipated.
Source: Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
Organization:Organized at Pittsburg September 9, 1861, and ordered to Washington, D.C.
Attached to Jameston's Brigade, Heintzelman's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862.
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to August, 1862.
1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, to March, 1864.
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1865.
Service:Duty in the Defences of Washington, D. C., till March, 1862.
Moved to the Virginia Peninsula March 16-18.
Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4.
Battle of Williamsburg May 5.
Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1.
Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1.
Battles of Oak Grove June 25; Charles City Cross Roads and Glendale June 30; Malvern Hill July 1.
At Harrison's Landing till August 16.
Movement to Centreville August 16-26.
Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 26-September 2.
Bristoe Station or Kettle Run August 27.
Buckland's Bridge, Broad Run, August 27.
Battles of Groveton August 29; Bull Run August 30; Chantilly September 1.
Guard fords from Monocacy River to Conrad's Ferry till October.
March up the Potomac to Leesburg, thence to Falmouth, Va., October 11-November 19.
Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15.
Burnside's 2nd Campaign, "Mud March," January 20-24, 1863.
At Falmouth till April, Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6.
Battle of Chancellorsvile May 1-5.
Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24.
Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3.
Pursuit of Lee July 5-24.
Wapping Heights July 23.
Duty on line of the Rappahannock till October.
Bristoe Campaign October 9-22.
Auburn and Bristoe October 13-14.
Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8.
Kelly's Ford November 7.
Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2.
Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864.
Rapidan Campaign May 4-June 12.
Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Laurel Hill May 8; Spottsylvania May 8-12;
Po River May 10; Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21.
Assault on the Salient May 12.
Harris Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19.
North Anna River May 23-26.
On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28.
Totopotomoy May 28-31.
Cold Harbor June 1-12.
Before Petersburg June 16-18.
Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865.
Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864.
Demonstration north of the James at Deep Bottom July 27-29.
Deep Bottom July 27-28.
Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30 (Reserve).
Demonstration on north side of James at Deep Bottom August 13-20.
Strawberry Plains August 14-18.
Poplar Springs Church September 29-October 2.
Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28.
Warren's expedition to Hicksford December 7-12.
Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865.
Watkins' House, Petersburg, March 25.
Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9.
Boydton Road March 30-31.
Crow's House March 31.
Fall of Petersburg April 2.
Sailor's Creek April 6.
High Bridge, Farmville, April 7.
Appomattox Court House April 9.
Surrender of Lee and his army.
At Burkesville till May.
March to Washington, D.C., May 2-12.
Grand Review May 23.
Duty at Alexandria till July.
Mustered out July 11, 1885.
Losses:Regiment lost during service:
14 Officers and 231 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and
1 Officer and 139 Enlisted men by disease.
Total 384.Source: Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908
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