Seven companies, independently recruited during the early part of thefall of 1861, in the counties of Allegheny, Beaver, and Lawrence, werebrought together at Camp Fremont, near Pittsburg, where, under the commandof Joseph H. Wilson, of Beaver, who had served successively as Captain, Major, Colonel, and Major General of militia, and who had received authority torecruit a regiment, they remained until the last of October, when they wereordered to Camp Curtin, near Harrisburg. They were here joined by threeadditional companies, recruited in the counties of Tioga, Bedford, and Adams,and a regimental organization was effected with the following field officers:The men were carefullydrilled from the time of their arrival in camp, but it was not until past themiddle of February, 1862, that they received their arms. On the 26th, thecolors were presented by Governor Curtin, and on the following day the regiment departed for Washington. Upon its arrival it went into camp at Meridian Hill, and was assigned to Keim's Brigade1. The old style Harper's Ferrymuskets, with which it had been armed, were here exchanged for Austrianrifles.
- Joseph H. Wilson, Colonel
- David B. Morris, of Pittsburg, Lieutenant Colonel
- Joseph S. Hoard, of Tioga county, Major
On the 28th of March, Casey's Division, to which Keim's Brigade had beenassigned, proceeded to Alexandria, whence it moved, by transports, to thePeninsula, and went into camp near Newport News. The army, as soon asassembled in force, advanced upon Yorktown and commenced the operationsof a siege.
On the 16th of April, Keim's Brigade was ordered to the frontand joined the division at Camp Winfield Scott. Here the regiment was employed for some time in building corduroy roads, which were made to stretch in every direction over all that marshy neighborhood. On the morning ofthe 4th of May, it was discovered that the enemy had fled, abandoning hisworks, and the army was immediately ordered forward in pursuit.
The OneHundred and First passed the enemy's deserted fortifications, and moved onby the way of Burnt Ordinary, bivouacking for the night six miles east ofWilliamsburg. Early on the following morning General Hooker engaged theenemy in front of that place. The regiment came upon the field at half pastfour P. M. It was at once formed in line and moved to the front, where it washeld under fire as a reserve until the close of the engagement. Its positionfell opposite Fort Magruder, and was consequently exposed to heavy fire ofshot and shell. Fortunately it was partially shielded by a strip of woods,and had only six or eight wounded. The fighting ceased at dark, when theregiment was thrown forward to the left, into the woods, and was kept inline, under a cold drenching rain, until eleven P. M., when it was discoveredthat the enemy was again retreating.
On the morning of the 6th, the One Hundred and First, with a few otlierregiments, was ordered to the south bank of the York River, but on the following morning was ordered to return, and moving along the line of the rebelworks to Williamsburg, passed through the town and proceeded six miles westward, on the Richmond Road, following the line of the rebel retreat, and holdingthe advance of the army. Moving forward by easy marches, and passing onthe way New Kent Court House, it reached the Chickahominy on the 21st. Onthe 22d, companies D and I were sent across the river to dig rifle-pits and slashtimber, and on the 23d the troops crossed, the One Hundred and First beingwith the advance, and halted a few miles west of the river.
On the 24th, aspirited artillery engagement took place near Savage Station, and the regiment, with some other infantry troops, was sent to the support of our batteries, but did not become engaged. In the meantime, large numbers of the regiment had sickened, and been left at various points on the march up the Peninsula, many of whom died, while others were so weakened in constitution asto be no longer fit for service. Among these victims was Colonel Wilscn. Hewas stricken with fever soon after leaving Williamsburg, and was left at Roper's Church, where, on the 30th, he died. He was succeeded in command byLieutenant Colonel Morris. General Keim was also disabled by disease, ofwhich he also died, and the command of the brigade devolved temporarilyupon Colonel Howell, of the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania, but subsequently uponGeneral Wessells.
Battle of Fair Oaks (Seven Pines)On the 26th of May, the brigade was moved up to Seven Pines, and onthe 29th to Fair Oaks. Upon its arrival all available forces were at once put todigging rifle-pits, the enemry being in its immediate front, with whom shots wereoccasionally exchanged, by which company B lost one man. On the 30th, theentire regiment was upon the picket line, company B engaging the enemy.
At eleven A. M. on the 31st, a few shots from his artillery passed over the regiment, and announced the opening of the battle. At the first discharge thedivision was recalled from work upon abattis and rifle-pits, and ordered underarms. Hart's Battery occupied the principal work, a redoubt, the Eighty-fifthNew York holding the rifle-pits on its left, the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvaniaon its right, and the One Hundred and First a position on the right of theseregiments.
The dispositions had scarcely been made, when the battle openedin earnest, the enemy attacking in heavy force on the centre and both wingsof the division, a brisk musketry fire extending along the two opposing lines.Against overpowering forces, and until a large proportion of its numbers hadbeen stricken down, this small division, thrust out in advance of the wholearmy, and receiving the whole weight of the enemy's blow, held its ground.But outflanked and threatened with utter annihilation, it finally was forcedback to the second line of works, occupied by Couch, where it was again rallied and remained until the close of the fight. In that desperate struggle everythird man in the regiment was either killed or wounded; but the slaughterwhich it inflicted was terrible. Colonel Morris had ordered his men at theopening of the fight to aim at the waist-belt of the foe, and as he had comeup within eighty yards, the fire was most effective, General Wessells declaringit unprecedented. In the heat of the battle, the enemy succeeded in partiallyflanking the regiment on the right, when, by a timely discovery of the movement, a charge was ordered, which completely frustrated his design. ColonelMorris was wounded early in the fight and carried from the field, when thecommand devolved on Captain Charles W. May.
In the progress of the battle,and after having been twice rallied, General Kearny rode up to the regiment andcalled out to its commander," for G-'s sake re-gain the woods in front andthe day is ours."Inspirited by the word of the commander, the men pressedforward and took the coveted ground, but soon found themselves well niighsurrounded, the only alternative left to them being to fight their way backagain, which they succeeded in doing.
After the battle of Fair Oaks, Wessells' Brigade was ordered to the southof the Williamsburg Road, to a point near White Oak Swamp, where it remained, engaged in guard and picket duty, until the opening of the SevenDays' battles. When the army was put on the march for the James, the regiment was engaged, at intervals, on detached service until the close of the fighting at Malvern Hill. In the withdrawal of the army to Harrison's Landing,Wessells' Brigade was upon the rear guard, and had frequent encounters withrebel cavalry by the way.
Upon the evacuation of the Peninsula, General Keyes wasleft at Fortress Monroe. Here the regiment went into camp, and was principally employed in drill and discipline.
On the 18th of September, Wessells'Brigade was ordered to Suffolk, the enemy having made a demonstration uponthat place. Moving by transport to Norfolk, the regiment proceeded thence byrail, and reached Suffolk the same evening. In the meantime, Major Hoardhad been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, but owing to ill health was compelled to resign, and in the absence, on account of wounds, of Colonel Morris,who had received his promotion on the 1st of July, Captain May held commandof the regiment.
While at Suffolk, the regiment was kept busy with fatigueduty upon the fortifications, and in frequent reconnoissances to the Blackwater,General Peck, who was now in command of the division, being intent uponproviding for the safety of his command, and keeping well advised of thewhereabouts of the enemy. Colonel Morris re-joined the regiment while here,with Lieutenant Colonel Armour, who had been successively promoted fromCaptain and Major; but owing to the unhealed wounds of the former, and injuries subsequently sustained by the latter, the command devolved on MajorAlexander W. Taylor, promoted from Captain of company H.
On the 4th of December, General Wessells was ordered to proceed withhis brigade to Newbern, to reinforce General Foster, who was organizing hisforces for a movement upon Goldsboro, designed as a diversion in favor ofBurnside, at Fredericksburg. Marching to a point on the Chowan River, nearGatesville, it embarked upon transports and arrived at Newbern on the 9th.
Expedition to GoldsboroOn the 11th, Wessells took the advance, and skirmished lightly with the enemy's cavalry as he proceeded, until the evening of the 13th, when he fell in withrebel troops, and drove them across West Creek, capturing two pieces of artillery. On the following morning, Sunday, the 14th, the enemy was foundposted in front of Kingston, along the south bank of the Neuse, and was attacked soon after sunrise by the pickets of the One Hundred and First. Theonly approach open was by an almost impassable swanip. Struggling through,the troops attacked and drove the enemy from his well chosen ground, pushedhim across the Neuse, and drove him in confusion through the town. Tle,bridge had been prepared for firing, and as soon as he was over he applied thetorch, leaving loaded muskets upon it, which exploded as the flames reachedthem. A missile from one of these mortally wounded Colonel Gray, of theNinety-sixth New York. The fire was soon checked, however, and the Unionforces passed over.
With the exception of a slight encounter at White Hall,no serious resistance was met until the command reached Goldsboro. By midday of the 17th, the regiment arrived near the bridge of the Wilmington andWeldon Railroad, the enemy in considerable force on the north side of theriver having been reinforced by troops brought from South Carolina and allavailable points. The artillery at once opened, under fire of which a partyproceeded to the bridge and applied the torch, the flames instantly leapingup and enveloping the whole structure. This accomplished, Foster's forcesbegan to retire; whereupon, the enemy crossed the river and attempted tocapture a battery, left upon the field. Wessells' Brigade was at once counter-marched. The artillery practice was rapid, but the shells were thrownover the heads of the Union infantry, and little injury was inflicted. Havinglittle stomach for grape and canister the enemy withdrew, and the returnmarch was resumed. The forest had been fired, and as the troops movedon the night march, the flames streaming up the tall pine trees, presented amajestic scene.
Upon the arrival of the command at Newbern, the regiment was sent tothe south of the Trent, near the town, where it was quartered in Sibley tentsduring the winter months, principally engaged in drill and fatigue duty. Aforce, consisting of the One Hundred and First, and One Hundred and ThirdPennsylvania, and a company of the Third New York Cavalry, all under command of Colonel Morris, was sent on the 7th of March, 1863, to Hyde county,to break up a band of guerrillas infesting that locality. Moving by transportto Swanquarter, it debarked, and marched through the suspected district, passing quite around Lake Mattimuskeet, and returned without discovering thewhereabouts of the troublesome gang. On the 4th of April, the regimentjoined in the movement for the relief of General Foster, and a small forceshut up at Little Washington. It moved by water, but at a point nine milesbelow the town, the rebel works, commanding the river, were reached, whenit was obliged to turn back, and retire to Newbern. An overland expeditionfor the same destination was undertaken on the very day of the arrival backof the first.
At Swift Creek, the enemy was found with infantry and artilleryprepared to dispute the passage. On the side by which the command approached, an almost impassable swamp stretched away above and below, whichcould only be crossed by a corduroy causeway, which was raked by his artillery. A force of infantry and artillery, of which the One Hundred and Firstformed part, was thrown to the front, and a sharp engagement ensued, whichlasted for two hours. General Spinola, who was in command, regarding theopposition too formidable to be overcome by his force, withdrew, and returnedagain to Newbern. By this time General Wessells, who had been absent ashort time, had returned, and Foster, having run the gauntlet of the river,himself headed a force, which fought its way through, and reached LittleWashington, finally relieving the garrison.
Seige of Little WashingtonSoon after his return Wessells was ordered with his brigade to Plymouth,near the mouth of the Roanoke River, and was put in command of the dis trict. The troops were at once distributed about the village, and put to workrepairing earth-works and building new ones. The One Hundred and Firstwas posted at the lower part of the town, and was principally employed in fatigue, guard, and picket duty during the ensuing summer. Occasional expeditions, in which the whole or detachments of the regiment joined, were madeinto the neighboring country. One of these, which started on the 28th ofJune, in which companies D and I, Lieutenants Longenecker and Brown, participated, proved abortive by a fatal blunder of a company of the Twelfth NewYork Cavalry.
On the 5th of July, the regiment was sent up the river, withthe gun-boats, to Williamstown. The town was reached and the infantry skirmished through it, but found no enemy, and returned to camp. On the 26tha force of infantry and artillery, under command of Colonel Morris, was sentto Foster's Mills, for a diversion in favor of General Foster, who was movingfor the destruction of the railroad bridge at Weldon. On the afternoon ofthe second day, the rebel pickets were encountered and driven, and at themills a brisk skirmish ensued, in which the whole force was engaged. Thefighting ceased with darkness, and as it was only designed for a diversion,the troops were withdrawn, and returned to Plymouth on the following day.
During the remaining part of the year 1863, and the early part of 1864,frequent encounters occurred with bands of the enemy, as they were met bydetachments, which were frequently sent out to scour the country borderingon the Albemarle Sound and the Chowan River. In one of these, LieutenantHelm, with company G, surprised the camp of a guerrilla band, and madethe entire party prisoners, taking the leader from the chimney of the house,where he had his headquarters, whither he had hie for concealment and safety.The captives, who were brought safely into camp, outnumbered the captors.
In the month of March, the regiment was ordered to Newbern, where anattack was apprehended; but no enemy appearing, it returned and was atonce dispatched to Roanoke Island. which was also thought to be in danger.After a few weeks' stay, during which the troops on the island were under thecommand of Lieutenant Colonel Taylor, it returned to its old camp-groundnear Plymouth. It had been for some time known that the enemy was busyat Hamilton, a point on the river above, in building an iron clad ram, withwhich to open and control the river and the sound below, and that a powerfulland force was preparing to co-operate. Accordingly, General Wessells causedobstructions to be placed in the bed of the river, anchored torpedoes in thechannel, and strengthened the earth-works, mounting a two hundred-poundergun at the point where the works met the river above. A considerable partof the command was suffering from ague, and was in hospitals.
Sunday, the17th of April, was a beautiful spring day, and the troops, after the usual religious exercises, were reposing in quiet in the intrenchments, when, at fourP. M., a few shots were heard, in rapid succession, from the pickets posted onthe Washington Road. A detachment of cavalry sent out soon returned,bringing the intelligence that the enemy was advancing in force. It provedto be the rebel General Hoke, with a land force variously estimated from sevento fifteen thousand men. Fort Gray, upon the river bank, which commandedthe passage, was the first object of attack, and upon this he opened with hisartillery, the fort with the gun-boats replying, the ram, called the Albemarle,riding at anchor above, ready to pass down as soon as the fort was reduced.
At night the firing ceased, but was resumed early on the morning of the 18th,the infantry mingling in the fray as the investment was more closely pressed.Soon his skirmishers made their appearance in front of the works below, andopened fire. The Bombshell, a small gun-boat, was struck by one of the enemy's land batteries during the forenoon and soon after sunk. At a little beforesunset a heavy line of infantry emerged from the woods in front of the lowerworks, and sweeping away the Union skirmish line, occupied a fine eminence.on which he immediately planted several batteries. These were at once openedupon the town, the main force of the attack being directed upon Fort Williams, the headquarters of General Wessells.
A transport, dispatched to Roanoke Island, returned at evening, bringing up all available forces, amongthem two hundred men of the One Hundred and First. By nightfall all theguns on both sides, from land and river, were in full play, and the fire, whichhad now become fearful, was kept up far into the night. A determined assaultwas made in the evening upon Fort Wessells, a detached work to the front andright of the town, and though defended with consummate skill and the mostdetermined bravery, by a company of the Eighty-fifth N ew York, under CaptainNelson Chapin, which repulsed repeated charges, throwing hand grenadeswhen the enemy came within reach, and thrusting them from the escarpmentwith bayonet when they attempted to scale the parapets, it was finally forcedto yield, but not until the brave Captain had been mortally wounded.
In thethick darkness, just before the dawn of day, the rebel ram, Albemarle, passing the obstructions in the river without injury, and eluding attack from FortGray, made for the gun-boats Southfield and Miami, soon sinking the formerand causing the latter to withdraw down the stream.
Towards evening of the19th, it was discovered that the enemy was moving around, and massing on theleft of the line, where, from paucity of numbers, the works were least pro.tected. Detachments of the One Hundred and First were immediately sentto strengthen that part of the line. The enemy opened with his artillery andsoon came forward in heavy force. After stubborn resistance, it was forcedto yield to superior numbers, but fell back slowly, disputing the ground inchby inch.
At a little before daylight of the 20th, the rebel artillery opened allalong the line, the signal for the onset, and shortly after. a full brigade, whichhad been massed for a decisive move, charged upon the left, while demonstrations were made along the entire line. The shock was bravely met, rand theguns at Conley and Compher redoubts were kept in full play until the rebelline had passed them and was already in the suburbs of the town.
Capture at PlymouthAt Compherredoubt, companies D, I, G, B, and a part of K held their position until theirstockade was knocked down, and the enemy was crowding into the works. AtConley redoubt, the handful of men left was withdrawn, when the work wasno longer tenable, and made a stand without; but the enemy was already inpossession of the streets in its rear, and after contesting the ground, street bystreet, the town was finally taken. But still the forces, holding a part of theworks, including Fort Williams, held out. A third of the troops were by thistime prisoners.
The loyal North Carolinians and colored troops, after fightingbravely, now that all hope of successful defence was gone, made for the adjoining swamps, for they well knew their fate if they fell into the hands of theirenemies. A truce of a few minutes followed and terms were offered, whichGeneral Wessells refused to accept. The guns again opened, the firing beingkept up until eleven A. M., when the entire force was surrendered."Duringthe whole afternoons' says Adjutant Longenecker,' we could hear the crackof rebel rifles alcng the swamps, where they were hunting down the coloredtroops and loyal North Carolinians. I heard a rebel Colonel say, with an oath,that they intended to shoot every Buffalo (North Carolinian) and negro theyfound in our uniform."The loss in this engagement was five killed, twentyfour wounded, and two missing. Captain May and Lieutenant Brown were among the wounded. The entire regiment, with the exception of a few absent on furlough or detached service, fell into the hands of the enemy, including the following officers: Lieutenant Colonel A. W. Taylor, Adjutant J. H. Longenecker, Quartermaster Thomas King, Assistant Surgeon William Macpherson, Captains Bowers, Compher, Sheafer, Clark, Freeman, Mullin, Benner, andDawson, and Lieutenants Davidson, Kirk, Morrow, Hippard, Conley, WVerrick, Cubbison, Bcgle, and Helm.
From Plymouth the prisoners, under strong guard, were marched to Tarboro,and thence taken by rail to Andersonville, Georgia. The enlisted men werehere incarcerated, and the officers sent to Macon, where they were soon afterjoined by the Union officers from Libby and other prisons throughout the rebeldominions. They were subsequently moved, successively, to Savannah,Charleston, and Charlotte, and were finally exchanged at Wilmington, in March,1865. Most of the officers of the One Hundred and First escaped, at varioustimes, as their own daring and heroism prompted, and after incredible hardships and sufferings, hunted by cavalry and blood hounds, a part of them succeeded in reaching the Union lines, at far distant points, while others were captured and returned to prison, to suffer re-doubled torments in punishment of their temerity. Captains Bowers and Dawson, and Lieutenants Conley, Helm, and Davidson thus earned their freedom; but Captains Benner and Freeman, Lieutenants Beegle, and Hippard, and Adjutant Longeinecker, less fortunate, were apprehended and returned to captivity.
The enlisted men, with less opportunities of escape, were closely held at Andersonville until the latter part of the summer, when a part of them were taken to Millen and a fewto Savannah, where some were exchanged. With the exception of a few retained at Andersonville, and who were afterwards sent north, via the Miississippi River, nearly all met at Florence, and were exchanged in the spring of1865, at Wilmiington, North Carolina, and sent to Annapolis, via the AtlanticOcean and Fortress Monroe. All who were left were exchanged in March,1865; but before the time of release came, over half had died.
When the attack opened upon Plymouth, the sick of the regiment weresent, by transport, to Roanoke Island. These, with a few officers and menwho were absent with leave at the time, were formed into a detachment, undercommand of Lieutenant David M. Ramsey, and were placed on duty as a partof the garrison of Roanoke Island. To these were added, during the summer,one hundred recruits. As fast as exchanged the officers and men reported atCamp Parole, Annapolis, Maryland, and subsequently rejoined the detachment on Roanoke Island, where the regimental organization was revived. Butstill the companies were only skeletons. Accordingly, in March, eight newcompanies were assigned to it. These were, however, never consolidated withthe original companies, and on the 25th of June, 1865, the regiment was mustered out of service at Newbern, North Carolina.
1 Organization of the Second Brigade, General Keim; Third Division, General Casey; Fourth Corps, General Keyes. Eighty-fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, ColonelJoshua B. Howell; One Hundred and First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Joseph H. Wilson; One Hundred and Third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Theodore F. Lehmann; Ninety-sixth Regiment New York Volunteers, Colonel James Fairman.
Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
Organization:Organized at Harrisburg November 21, 1861, to February 24, 1862.
Moved to Washington, D.C., February 27, 1862.
Attached to 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1862.
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, to September, 1862.
Wessell's Brigade, Division at Suffolk, Va., 7th Corps, Dept. of Virginia, to December, 1862.
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to January, 1863.
1st Brigade, 4th Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to May, 1863.
District of Albemarle, Dept. of North Carolina, to August, 1863.
Sub District, Albemarle, District of North Carolina,
Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to April, 1864.
Defences of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and
North Carolina, to February, 1865.
District of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to June, 1865.
Service:Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-15, 1862.
Ordered to the Peninsula March 28.
Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4.
Battle of Williamsburg May 5.
Battles of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1.
Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1.
Brackett's June 30.
Malvern Hill July 1.
At Harrison's Landing till August 16.
Moved to Fortress Monroe August 16-23, thence to Suffolk
September 18, and duty there till December.
Ordered to New Berne, N. C., December 4.
Foster's Expedition to Goldsboro December 10-21.
Kinston December 14.
Whitehall December 16.
Goldsboro December 17.
Duty at New Berne till May, 1863.
Expedition from New Berne to Mattamuskeet Lake March 7-14.
Operations on the Pamlico April 4-6.
Expedition for relief Of Little Washington April 7-10.
Moved to Plymouth May, 1863, and duty there till March, 1864.
Expedition from Plymouth to Nichol's Mills June 28, 1863 (Detachment).
Expedition from Plymouth to Gardner's Bridge and Williamston July 5-7.
Expedition from Plymouth to Foster's Mills July 26-29.
Harrellsville January 20, 1864 (Detachment).
Windsor January 30.
Fairfield February 16.
Moved to New Berne March, 1864; thence to Roanoke Island
and to Plymouth April.
Siege of Plymouth April 17-20.
Regiment mostly captured April 20.
Those not captured served as garrison at Roanoke Island till June, 1865.
Mustered out at New Berne June 25, 1865.
Losses:Regiment lost during service:
39 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and
1 Officer and 281 Enlisted men by disease.
Total 321Source: Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908
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