6th Pennsylvania Cavalry
On the 27th of July, 1861, Richard H. Rush, of Philadelphia, a graduate ofthe Military Academy at West Point, and late a captain of artillery inthe regular army, received authority from the War Department to recruit avolunteer regiment for three years' service. Recruiting stations were immediately opened in different parts of the city, and on the 3d of September a camp was established on Second street, known as Camp Meigs. On the 7th dismounted drills were commenced, on the 20th the first horses were received, and on the 25th mounted drills. With the exception of company G, which was recruited in Berks county, and a few squads brought in from different parts of the State, the men were from Philadelphia. The following were the field officers:In recruiting the regiment the officers received substantial aid from prominent citizens of Philadelphia, and on the 30th of October, a stand of colors and a set of guidons, a gift from ladies of Germantown, were presented at the hands of William Rotch Wistar, Esq. The companies were supplied with clothing, camp, and garrison equipage, from the United States Depot in Philadelphia, and the men armed, at first, with Colt's army pistols and light cavalry sabres. Subsequently General M'Clellan suggested that the regiment be armed with the lance, and the suggestion was accepted by a vote of the officers. This weapon was new to our service. The Austrian pattern was adopted. It wasnine feet long, with an eleven inch, three edged blade; the staff was Norway fir, about one and a quarter inches in diameter, with ferule and counterpoise at the heel, and a scarlet swallow-tailed pennon, the whole weighing nearly five pounds. Subsequently twelve carbines to a company was added to its armsfor picket and scout duty. On the 4th of December, the State colors were presented by Governor Curtin, in the midst ofimposing ceremonies. The regiment paraded on the occasion on the streets of Philadelphia, and attractedmuch attention. The lance was new and highly burnished, and the scarletpennon, bright and attractive; the new uniforms, and tidy appearance of themen, and the well groomed and trained horses, made it a beautiful and imposing pageant. The presentation was made in a large field, near the Odd Fellows' Cemetery, on Islington Lane. Five regiments of infantry, and this ofcavalry, participated in the parade, and received their colors on this occasion.His Excellency, surrounded by his staff, and distinguished officers of the Stateand National government, and of the army and navy, made an eloquent andpatriotic speech, which was responded to by the commanding officers as they received the flags. About the middle of December the regiment moved to Washington andwent to Camp Barclay, on Meredian Hill, near Columbia College. It was soonafterwards inspected by General Stoneman, Chief of Cavalry of the Army ofthe Potomac, and on the 1st of January, 1862, paraded through the Capital,eliciting much admiration.
- Richard Henry Rush, Colonel
- John H. M'Arthur, Lieutenant Colonel
- C. Ross Smith, 1st Major
- Robert Morris, Jr., 2d Major
1862On the 10th of March it crossed the Potomac and taking position in line, moved upon the Manassas campaign, which was suddenly cut short by the discovery that no enemy was in front. Returning again to Camp Barclay it remained until the 3d of May, when it embarked at Alexandria upon transports, and proceeded to Fortress Monroe. A few days later it moved to New Market Bridge, where it was brigaded with the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Near the close of the month it was assigned to the Second Brigade, General Emory, composed of the Fifth and Sixth United States and Sixth Pennsylvania, of General Philip St. George Cookers Division, known as the Reserve Brigade. On the 4th of May the regiment marched to Yorktown, and upon its arrival Major Morris with a squadron was sent to Mulberry Point on a reconnoissance. Leaving Yorktown on the 9th, it proceeded by easy marches to theneighborhood of Old Church. Here the regiment was temporarily detachedfrom the brigade, and was employed for some days in picketing and reconnoitring towards Hanover Court House. On the 23d of May a reconnoissance with the Fifth New York Infantry, and First Connecticut Artillery, all underColonel Warner of the Fifth New York, discovered the enemy in some forcenear the Court House, as if to demonstrate upon the right rear of ourarmy. Accordingly, General Porter was ordered with the Fifth Corps to drivehim away, which he did. On the 25th, Lieutenant Leiper, with a part of company C, charged the enemy's advance cavalry pickets with the lance and drove them in upon their infantry supports. In the battle of the 27th the regiment, which had been for severalddays acting independently of the brigade, was sent to the extreme right of the line for the purpose of attracting the attention of the enemy, and was under fire during the day. Upon the discomfiture of the rebels it followed up the retreating foe, captured eighty of iis-men and two commissioned officers, and burned the bridge over the Pamunkey, when the pursuit was staid. On the 4th of June the regiment re-joined the Reserve Brigade. On the 13th of June news was brought into camp of Stuart's start on hisfirst ride around the Army of the Potomac. Owing to unaccountable delaysthe column of pursuit was not fairly started until after sunset. Major Morrisof this regiment with one squadron overtook the successful raiders as their lastmen were crossing the Chickahominy, and were the sole pursuers who had ashot at them. On the 18th two squadrons, consisting of companies B, G, C, and H, under command of Captain Clymer, were detached and ordered to report to General M'Call. They were posted to picket and patrol the roads and approaches to the Chickahominy from Mechanicsville northward to Atlee's Station. On the same day two squadrons under Lieutenant Colonel C. Ross Smith, companies A, D, I and K, were sent to Hawes' Shop to picket the right and rear of the army. Here they were undisturbed until the evening of the 26th, when Jackson made his sudden attack which cut them off from the main army, and they retired with General Stoneman's flying column, sent by M'Clellan to destroy the depot at White House. They escorted the wagon train to Yorktown, and thence marched to Fortress Monroe, where they remained until July 10th, when they re-joined the regiment at Harrison's Landing.During the battle of Beaver Dam Creek, the two squadrons serving with M'Call were posted upon the right of the line, and were under fire but not brought to close quarters. On the following day, the Union forces havingfallen back to the neighborhood of Gaines Mill, were drawn up in position tomeet the enemy's attack. The cavalry, under command of General St. GeorgeCooke, was posted on the left of the line under cover of a hill, between DoctorGailes' House and the Chickahominy. By noon the troops were all in position. As the battle opened, stragglers began to make their appearance, directingtheir course towards the bridges in the rear; but were stopped and held by thecavalry. At six o'clock in the evening, the Union lines having been drivenback, the enemy made his appearance rushing forward in pursuit. The buglessounded attention. The First and Fifth Regular Cavalry charged, but were driven back, losing heavily. At this juncture, Robinson's United States Battery, the Third, began to move from the field; but, at the request of General Cooke, unlimbered, and again poured in deadly volleys, checking the foe andgiving our lines time to retire. In this last encounter, Robinson was supportedby the remaining squadrons of the Sixth, under command of Major Morris.Their steadiness and gallantry under the galling fire to which his battery was subjected in the repeated attacks of the enemy, is fully attested by the Captain in his official report of the battle. Major Morris was wounded in the hand. They bivouacked on the field, and at two o'clock on the following morning crossed the Chickahominy. On the 28th, companies C and H, Captains Whelan and Lockwood, wereordered to report to General Kearny, for duty at his headquarters. On thefollowing day, company F, Captain Milligan, was ordered to report to GeneralSumner, and was with him in the engagement at White Oak Swamp, beingexposed to a heavy fire for over five hours. During the night of the 30th, itmoved to Malvern Hill, and was afterwards engaged in escorting the heavysiege artillery to Harrison's Landing. After leaving the Chickahominy, theremaining companies served, by detachments, with Porter, Keyes, and M'Call,and were almost constantly exposed to the enemy's fire.The companies withKearny, were of his rear guard in his movement to Malvern Hill, and receivedhis commendation for their gallantry. Several of the regiment were takenprisoners in the various encounters of the Seven Days' Battles, were marchedto Richmond, and incarcerated in the enclosure upon James Island. Whilein camp at Harrison's Landing the regiment furnished five detachments dailyfor guard and scout duty; but aside from this performed little active service. On the 31st of July, the enemy made a night attack with artillery from theopposite side of the James, in which one man of the Sixth was killed. Thefevers peculiar to the Peninsula prevailed, and many of its members werestricken, some for the grave. Upon the evacuation of the Peninsula, companies C and H moved withGeneral Porter's column, and with it embarked on transports at Newport News.Company F, under Captain Milligan, moved with General Heintzelman. Theremainder of the regiment, under Lieutenant Colonel C. Ross Smith, marchedwith the headquarters of the army to its old camp at New Market Bridge,from whence on the 3d of September it was shipped to Alexandria, and on the 6th went into camp on Seventh street, Washington, where the detached companies reported after the Second Bull Run battle. The Sixth moved with the army on the Maryland campaign under ColonelRush, and at Rockville, on the 7th of September, Major Clymer, with companies B, G and I, was ordered to report to General Franklin, with whom they served during the battles of the 16th and 17th. When near Frederick, on the13th, Lieutenant Charles L. Leiper, in command of company A, came upon abody of dismounted rebel cavalry. Though greatly outnumbered, he boldlycharged upon the foe and quickly put him to flight. The cavalry, now undercommand of General Pleasanton, was posted in rear of the centre of the line,from which it could descend to any part of the field. Four batteries of horseartillery, Robertson's, Tidball's, Gibson's, and Haines' were posted with it. Thestone bridge upon the extreme left was carried by Burnside's infantry on themorning of the 17th, and at four P. M. his entire corps had crossed and takenposition on the heights above. The whole movement, even after the bridgewas gained, had to be executed under a heavy artillery fire. As the cavalryadvanced, the Sixth was sent by the Keedysville and Sharpsburg road to takeposition on the left of the line above the bridge. The brigade was composedof the Fourth and Sixth Pennsylvania, and the Third Indiana, under commandof Colonel Childs. The enemy's artillery, which had for several hours resistedthe crossing of the stone bridge, still held its position and completely enfiladedthe road leading up from the river. The command dashed across at a gallop,and with the assistance of Tidball's Battery drove the rebels, successfally heldits position until evening, when it bivoucked upon the field. The loss in theSixth was only slight. On the 10th of October, on the occasion of the rebel cavalry raid to Chambersburg, Colonel Rush, who was lying in camp near Frederick, received orders from General Buford to send out patrols on all the roads to the north, andreport promptly. Four small companies were sent towards Emmittsburg,but got no intelligence of the hostile force. An hour after passing the town,it was ascertained that the enemy was in possession of it in force, but no meansof ready communication with headquarters was now open. One company ofthe Sixth, the only one remaining, and a company of the First Maine weresent out, one to Woodsborough, and the other to Johnsville, with instructionsto scour the country from the vicinity of Creagersville, Woodsborough, NewWindsor, and Westminster, and to promptly communicate to General Pleasanton and to headquarters any information obtained. At Woodsborough they found the head of the rebel column passing through towards Liberty. This information was quickly given to Pleasanton, at Mechanicstown. But beforea sufficient force was concentrated to stop him, Stuart had made his escape. In conformity with an order from the War Department directing that allregiments of cavalry should consist of twelve companies, Lieutenant Leiper,with a number of non-commissioned officers, proceeded to Philadelphia andrecruited two new companies, L and M, which were added to the regiment.On the 2d of November the three companies with General Franklin were relieved, and companies E, F and K substituted in their place. On the 29th companies A, D, C, H and I, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Smith,broke camp at Frederick and marched to re-join the army now on the Rappahannock, arriving at General Franklin's headquarters on the 7th of December. A week later came the battle of Fredericksburg. The command crossed theriver with Franklin's Grand Division, and was placed in charge of the bridge,acting also as provost guard, to whom all prisoners on the left were given. Itwas exposed to artillery fire during the entire day, but was not called into action. On the 18th a part of company A was detailed for duty with Charles M.Bache, chief engineer on the staff of General Franklin. One company wasposted for guard duty along the river, a corporal's guard being stationed ateach house below Falmouth for four miles. One squadron was detailed forduty at army headquarters. Two companies were ordered to duty with General Reynolds, one with General Newton, threeremained with General Franklin, and the rest went into camp at White Oak Church. Colonel Rush, withcompanies B and G, moved from Frederick in company with the SeventeenthPennsylvania and joined the regiment on the 24th. On the way the force fellin with a party of the enemy near the town of Occoquan, routing it and takingsome prisoners and arms.
1863After the second move of Burnside, in January,1863, which was arrested by the impassable roads, the army went into winterquarters in the valleys and along the southern slopes of the hills, stretching away from Acquia Creek to Falmouth. About the first of March the camp of the Sixth was transferred from White Oak Church to Belle Plain Landing. Here, in a dense wood, well located, a camp was established and fitted up in a style of convenience and comfort rarely excelled. On the 6th of April the cavalry corps was reviewed by President Lincoln. The perfection in drill and discipline exhibited on this occasion by the Sixth, with its novel arms and fine uniforms and accoutrements, attracted the especial attention and commendation of the reviewing party.On the 11th an order was issued directing the cavalry to prepare for anexpedition, and for that purpose to reduce baggage to light marching order.The entire corps rendezvoused at the headquarters of General Stoneman onthe 13th, and proceeded in three divisions, under Buford, Gregg, and Averell,the Sixth, Colonel Rush, forming an independent command, towards the Rappahannock. The Sixth had been selected forspecial duty on which it was tostart early on the following morning. After crossing the river with the maincommand, it was to proceed rapidly to the vicinity of Richmond, destroy railroads, canals, telegraph lines, and by forcedmarch, to join the Union columnsat Suffolk or Fortress Monroe. A few hours before starting a heavy storm setin, and upon approaching the ford of the river at which it was to cross, thestream was found to be so much swollen as to render a passage impracticable.From the 15th to the 20th the rain continued to descend almost incessantly,preventing any movement. On the morning of the latter day the regimentmoved in the direction of Warrenton. The town was reported to be in possession of the enemy. Captain Treichel withcompany A was sent to reconnoitre and charged through, unopposed, holding it until the command came up.At Warrenton Junction, on the 27th, Colonel Blush took leave of the regiment,the exposure of the last three weeks having revived a chronic disease contractedwhile serving in Mexico, and forced him to leave active service. The disciplineattained by the Sixth was in no small degree due to his zeal and skill as anorganizer. The command of the regiment now devolved on Major Morris,Lieutenant Colonel Smith being on detached duty on the staff of GeneralStoneman. Crossing the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford on the 29th, and the Rapidan at Morton's and Raccoon fords, the command proceeded without much opposition to Louisa Court House. Here the telegraph line and the Virginia Central Railroad was struck. An operator was soon placed in the telegraph office andreceived telegrams from Richmond, informing the command of the success of Hooker in getting his army to Chancellorsville. The track of the railway was torn up, bridges and culverts destroyed, and stations and water tanks burned.Commands were sent out in different directions, capturing and destroying contraband property, breaking up railroads and canals, and scattering the rebel forces encountered. The work of the expedition having been effected, General Stoneman called a council of war on the evening of the 4th, in which it was decided to return, no intelligence having been received of the fate of Hooker,and Averell having failed to communicate with the balance of the corps. TheSixth marched with Buford's Division, and when near Louisa Court Housemade a circuit to near Gordonsville. The enemy were met at different points onthe return; but as it was the policy now to avoid an engagement, the commandmoved rapidly and. succeeded in shunning his columns. Until the 8th of June the regiment was engaged in scout and picket duty,frequently meeting irregular bands of rebels, and losing some men. On themorning of that day it moved with the entire corps, now under command of General Pleasanton, to Beverly Ford. The enemy's pickets were on the opposite side, but pushing boldly across, before dawn of the 9th, they were surprised and captured. Buford's Division, consisting of the First, Second, Fifth,and Sixth Regulars, and Sixth Pennsylvania, had the advance. "GeneralBuford having driven the enemy's pickets and skirmishers in the open fieldson the right of the road, sent in the Sixth Pennsylvania, supported by the Fifthand Sixth Regulars, to charge this line on the flank. The Pennsylvanianscame up to their work in splendid style. This is the regiment formerly knownas the Lancers, and they had a matter of pride to settle in this charge. Steadilyand gallantly, they advanced out of the woods in excellent order, and thendashed across the open field in an oblique direction towards the enemy's guns,They went up almost to their very muzzles, through a storm of canister, andwould have taken them, when suddenly there dashed out of the woods on theirright flank, in almost the very spot from which they themselves had issued,two whole regiments of the enemy on the full charge. Retreat was almost cutoff, but the regiments, now subjected to a fire in front and on both flanks, chargedback, cutting their way out with considerable loss. The Sixth Regulars came tothe rescue, but the fire was so severe that even these veterans could not stand it,and they fell back with some loss."* The demonstration of the regulars causedthe enemy on the right to move to receive them, and thus a way of escape wasopened. The regiment was withdrawn across the field through the woods, butall the time exposed to a heavy fire from a battery within fifty yards. Bufordmaintained an unequal contest until joined by Gregg, when the enemy wasdriven and his camps were in possession of Pleasanton; but it was now foundthat the rebel cavalry was supported by heavy forces of infantry. Pleasantonaccordingly withdrew. In this engagement the Sixth lost nearly half of itseffective force. Major Morris was captured and soon after died in Libby Prison.Captain Charles B. Davis was among the killed. Captain Leiper and Lieutenant Ellis were among the wounded. On the 14th of June the regiment arrived at Thoroughfare Gap, which washeld, and Captain Treichel, with his squadron, was sent on a reconnoissanceto Ashby's Gap, returning in the evening. On the 17th it met the enemy atAldie, and after a short engagement gained the pass, driving the enemy backinto London Valley. On the 20th it was sent as a guard to a supply train,which it accompanied as far as Fairfax Station, The brigade was engaged onthe 21st at Middleburg, and on the following day at Upperville, the Sixth beingheld in reserve near Aldie until the 23d, when it re-joined the division. TheReserve Brigade was here placed in command of General Wesley Merritt. Crossing the Potomac at Edward's Ferry the regiment was employed in guarding trains and patroling the mountain roads leading through the Catoctin range, until the 2d of July, when it arrived at Emmittsburg, and that night pushedforward to Gettysburg. The brigade was posted on the extreme left of our lines near Round Top. The Sixth, which was in the advance of the brigade, was the first to become engaged. The men were dismounted, deployed as skirmishers, and moved steadily up over ground intersected by stone walls andfences, until they reached the crest of the hill, where they were saluted by astorm of balls from the enemy's infantry, that checked their advance. A stonehouse within range of the line, filled with rebel sharp-shooters, proved a seriousimpediment; but a few shells from a section of artillery soon compelled themto evacuate. At one o'clock the artillery of both armies opened, and the menseeking shelter, held the ground they had gained, watching and promptlychecking every movement in their front. "The air," says Chaplain Gracey,"seemed full of fragments of bursting shell and ball, while the sounds peculiarto the several projectiles told of the determination of the attack. There was the heavy 'whoo!' 'whoo!' 'whoo-oo!' of the round shot, the 'which one' 'which one' of the fiendish Whitworth gun, the demoniac shriek of 'what you-doing here?' of the shells, and the buzzing minnie, all combined to give itthe character of a high carnival of powers infernal." At one time in the afternoon, and while the grand charge of Picket'sDivision was in progress, an effortwas made to turn our extreme left. The cavalry, which at first was on the westof the Emmittsburg Road, was forced back; but its thin line was extended andthe ground stubbornly contested. Through the night of the 3d the men stoodto horse, and although worn out by long marches and hard fighting, with lessthan half rations, they started at five o'clock on the following morning on aforced march of seventy miles. On the afternoon of the 6th the cavalry arrivedupon the crest of the hill overlooking Williamsport. Colonel Gamble's Brigade was thrown off to the left, striking the river at Falling Waters. The Third Indiana Cavalry charged into the town, and captured seventeen wagonsand about a hundred prisoners. But the enemy's infantry appeared in force and compelled the cavalry to retire. "Looking down,' says Chaplain Gracey, "upon Williamsport from our position, thousandsof ambulances, some parked and others moving in long lines, could be discerned; while at the same time we discovered that Lee had not left his line of retreat unprotected. A large force of infantry and artillery attacked us promptly on our appearance, serving their guns with remarkable rapidity and accuracy. A few minutes sufficed to assure us that our cavalry force was largely outnumbered by the infantry of the enemy. They moved upon our skirmish line in solid line of battle; and it was only by the determined bravery of our troops, the excellent handling of our batteries, and our advantage in position, that we were able to resist their attacks. General Kilpatrick passed through Hagerstown and soon after came upon the enemy. He was forced back upon our right, and came in upon us somewhat demoralized. About six o'clock our lines were shortened, our whole force dismounted, and all engaged. We were greatly outnumbered, and that by infantry. We had no support, no reserve, no reinforcements every man was under fire, and to us it became a desperate fight for existence, and we looked anxiously for night to close upon the scene. Had the daylight lasted another hour, we would have suffered the most disastrous defeat. "During the fight on the centre of our line, the Sixth Pennsylvania had the advance of the brigade, and was the first regiment engaged on the heights of Williamsport. We were under a heavy artillery and musketry fire, havingCaptain Graham's Battery committed to our defence. We deployed the entire regiment in front of the battery, and for four hours returned the steady fire of the enemy. More than one determined charge of the rebels would have broken our lines but for the timely use of canister by Grajsam's guns. The regiment and battery suffered severely in killed and wounded."As the cavalry was now far away from the supports of the army, it was necessary to retire to, and hold the passes of the mountain. On the morning of the 10th the enemy again advanced to gain possession of Turner's Gap. He was in such force as to drive our line back near the town of Boonsboro, so that his shells fell in the streets of the town. On the following day the lines were reinforced by Kilpatrick's Division and pushed the enemy across, and some two miles beyond Beaver Creek. The attack was renewed on the morning of the 10th, and the rebels driven through Funkstown, across Antietam Creek to within sight of Hagerstown. The wounded of the regiment were sent to Boonsboro' the loss being heavy. In the afternoon and as the ammunition was nearly exhausted, the infantry of the Eleventh Corps appeared upon the field and took their place in line of battle, relieving the cavalry. On the 2d of July, while the Reserve Brigade was at Emmittsburg, and before starting for Gettysburg, a detachment of one hundred men, under Captain Treichel and Lieutenants Morrow, White, Whiteford, and Herkness, was ordered to report to Captain Ulric Dahlgren, of Meade's Staff, for special duty upon the rear of Lee's army. On the way it was joined by citizens armed with shot guns and axes for the destruction of army wagons. At Greencastle a charge was made upon the enemy's cavalry holding the town, surprising andcapturing eighty-four of his men. On the 5th the command discovered one ofthe enemy's trains on the Williamsport and Chambersburg road. CaptainTreichel divided his force into two squadrons, led by Lieutenants Morrow andHerkness, and when three hundred wagons had passed the rear squadron, theycharged to front and rear at the same time. With the assistance of citizensthey destroyed one hundred and fifty wagons, and run off the horses to thewoods, captured two iron guns, and two hundred prisoners. The infantryguard soon concentrated in force and a severe skirmish ensued, in which theprisoners, and some of the detachment were lost. Lieutenant Herkness waswounded and taken prisoner. Scattering, and betaking themselves to the woodsuntil the enemy had retired, the men rendezvoused on the following day atWaynesboro. Here a party of Jenkins' Cavalry was surprised in the streetsof the town and driven in confusion. Soon afterwards another train of wagons was attacked, many destroyed, and someprisoners taken. A rebel paymaster with a guard of fifteen men was also captured, bearing important despatches from Richmond, and a considerable amount of rebel money. On the 7th, sixty men, the survivors of the party, re-joined the regiment near Boonsboro.In the movement of the army back to the Rappahannock the regiment engaged with the cavalry in skirmishing with the enemy at the passes of the Blue Ridge, and upon its arrival at the river on the 1st of August was immediately thrown across, encountering the enemy at Brandy Station, and forcing him back to Culpepper, where his infantry supports were met. The Reserve Brigade, under General Merritt, had the advance of the extreme right, andmade several charges, the Sixth, led by Captain Lockwood, being heavily engaged during the entire day. The cavalry was finally obliged to withdraw before superior forces of infantry, but in good order, and at Brandy StationMeade was found with his lines well established. The Sixth was again engaged on the 5th, losing one killed and three wounded. On the 15th the Reserve Brigade was ordered to Washington to rest and refit.As the army retired toward Centreville, with a prospect of a third battle onthe old Bull Run ground, the brigade was ordered to the field, and crossed thePotomac at Long Bridge, on the 11th of October. Two days later companiesI and E, Captains Starr and Carpenter, which had been on duty at the Headquarters of the army since March, re-joined the regiment, and from that time to the close of the war the twelve companies served together. In the campaign which followed, the Sixth was slightly engaged on the 18th and 19th,losing five wounded; on the 6th of November, near Sulphur Springs, inwhich the enemy's cavalry was pushed back to Culpepper, and in which theloss of the brigade was fifty; on the 18th it was sent on a scout, to James CityRoad, in which some prisoners were taken, and information of the enemy'sposition obtained; on the 28th, and in the demonstrations upon Mine Run itwas engaged in covering the trains of the army, and scouting and picketingupon the river. On the 4th of November, while at Morrisville, LieutenantSage was killed by guerrillas. After the return of the army from Mine Run, the regiment went into winter quarters near Culpepper, picketing the Rapidan. During the winter religious services were held in a comfortable log chapel, on each Sabbath, and on three evenings of each week. One hundred and forty of the men re-enlisted and were given a veteran furlough.
1864The Reserve Brigade, under Colonel Gibbs, made a reconnoissance towards Orange Court House, onthe 7th of February, which served to develope the position of the enemy inthat direction, and as a diversion in favor of a movement of the infantry underGeneral Sedgwick. On the 27th, one hundred men from each regiment in thebrigade, under Major Treichel, were detailed to accompany General Custer ona raid upon the Virginia Central Railroad. Near Charlottsville the enemy was found in force, and, after a sharp skirmish, a retrograde movement was commenced. Mills and bridges were destroyed, trains captured, and horses secured. In the movement back to Stannardsville, the Sixth formed the rear guard, and skirmished with the enemy. Sergeant Wright was severely wounded.
At the opening of the Spring campaign, the First Division, to which theReserve Brigade belonged, was commanded by General Torbett, the brigadeby General Merritt, and the regiment by Major Starr. On the afternoon ofthe 7th of May, the Sixth took the lead of the First and Second Cavalry Divisions upon the march towards Spottsylvania Court House. A heavy line of the enemy's skirmishers, well posted, were soon met. Captain Leiper, with his squadron mounted, was deployed on the left of the road; Captain Clark, with his dismounted, on the right, the wood there being impassable for horse; and Captain Carpenter was held in reserve on the road. Advancing promptly the enemy was driven, but soon came upon his supports and made a determined stand. The remainder of the brigade came up, Captain Carpenter was sent in on the left, and the whole line pressed on. Discovering a weak point, the enemy made a sudden dash and broke through. Fresh troops were immediately thrown in, the breach repaired and the enemy again driven. MajorStarr and Lieutenants Coxe and Kirk were wounded, the latter mortally, andCaptain Carpenter and Lieutenant Hazel were taken prisoners. Two men werekilled and eighteen wounded. Upon the fall of Major Starr, Captain CharlesL. Leiper assumed command.On the 9th, Sheridan started on his first raid, and upon his arrival uponthe Virginia Central Railroad, the Sixth was sent to Beaver Dam Station todestroy the road. Nearly an entire night was spent in tearing up track, anddestroying bridges and culverts. Early on the morning of the 11th, the command moved forward towards Richmond, the Reserve Brigade acting as advance guard, one-half of the regiment being deployed as skirmishers on both sides of the road. Before noon the enemy's cavalry was met, which proved tobe General Stuart with his entire corps. Pushing on, driving all opposingforces, the command ran against the fortifications of Richmond, from which the enemy's infantry soon sallied, in confident expectation of bagging the entire Union force. Leaving Gregg and Wilson to hold the infantry in check, Sheridan ordered Merritt to open the road across Meadow Bridge. Dismounting all save three regiments, he ordered a charge, and while the enemy was hotly engaged with the mounted force, embracing the Sixth, led by Colonel Gibbs, crossed the bridge and charged down the narrow causeway beyond, scattering the foe and opening the way. Withdrawing, Sheridan passed on tothe James River, and thence returned by White House to Chesterfield Station,where he re-joined the army. At Old Church, on the 30th of May, the cavalry engaged the enemy, andMerritt's Brigade, with a battery of Napoleon guns, was sent forward to checkhis further advance. The Sixth was sent in on the left of the line and chargedthe rebel flank; a hand to hand encounter followed in which the regiment lost heavily, but fought with great valor. Captain Leiper, in command, was severely wounded, and Lieutenant Morton and two men were killed. Captain Clark now assumed command. At Cold Harbor, on the following day, it wasagain hotly engaged, fighting dismounted, and driving the rebels back untilreinforced. Lieutenant Murphy was among the killed. During the night abarricade was constructed in front of the bivouac, and early on the followingmorning the enemy attacked with infantry and artillery; but the carbineersheld their position against repeated assaults, repulsing a whole division. Sheridan's second raid, which extended to Trevilian Station, was commenced on the 4th of June. A number of recruits from Philadelphia joined the regiment before starting. Before reaching the station, the enemy was encountered strongly posted in a railway cut. The cavalry fought dismounted, and after a severe struggle was forced back. The loss in the Sixth was forty-one wounded, two mortally. Returning, the corps marched to White House, where the trains of the Army of the Potomac were found and escorted to the James River. After crossing, the cavalry was hastily marched to Ream's Station to the assistance of Wilson, but was too late to render him any aid, and on the 3d of July went into camp in front of Petersburg. Here Major Starr re-joined the regiment and resumed command.
On the 26th of July the command, numbering three hundred and twentysix, moved with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry across the Appomattox and the James. A sharp engagement occurred on the Charles City Road, in which the Sixth lost six wounded, Adjutant Lanigan severely, and one mortally.
Returning to the south side of the river, it was ordered to proceed with other reinforcements to the army in theShenandoah Valley. Onthe 11th of August the cavalry encountered the enemy upon the Opequan, andwas hotly engaged with Gordon's Division of infantry. The Sixth, led byMajor Starr, moved steadily forward under a, severe infantry fire, and held theground gained until relieved by infantry.
On the 24th company A, and fourdays later company B, were mustered out of service. Near Smithfield, on the29th, the regiment was again engaged, losing two killed and sixteen wounded.
On the 8th of September the Sixth was ordered to Re-mount Camp in Pleasant Valley, Maryland. Major Starr was placed in command of the camp. Here, as the terms of service of the men expired, they were mustered out.
Surgeon John B. Coover, who had been appointed Medical Inspector of the Middle Military Department, while on his way from the front to Harper's Ferry, was shot and mortally wounded by guerrillas.
1865About the middle of November the regiment went into winter-quarters at, Hagerstown. In January,its ranks, which had become much reduced, were strengthened by the additionof a hundred recruits, and towards the close of the month broke camp and rejoined the brigade near Winchester. Eighthundred more recruits were herereceived, and Major Leiper was mustered as Lieutenant Colonel, and CaptainMorrow as Major.
On the 20th of February Sheridan received the following instructions fromGeneral Grant: "As soon as it is possible to travel, I think you will have nodifficulty about reaching Lynchburg with a cavalry force alone. From thereyou could destroy the railroad and canal in every direction, so as to be of nofurther use to the rebellion. Sufficient cavalry should be left behind to lookafter Mosby's gang. From Lynchburg, if information you might get therewould justify it, you could strike south, heading the streams in Virginia tothe westward of Danville, and push on to join Sherman."
Accordingly onthe 27th Sheridan moved from winter-quarters with the First Cavalry Divisionunder General Merritt, the Third under General Custer, one brigade of theold Army of West Virginia under Colonel Koephart, and two sections of artillery, and proceeded rapidly over an excellent turnpike to Staunton, meeting little opposition. At Fishersville the enemy's pickets were encountered, andwere driven in upon his main line, well posted, with seven pieces of artillery,at Waynesboro. Deploying two regiments as skirmishers, and following upwith his entire line, by one impetuous charge, Sheridan swept the foe beforehim, capturing nearly the entire force.
The work of destruction now commenced. The iron railroad bridge at South River, depots of military stores, wagon trains, and everything that could yield aid or comfort to the enemy weregiven to ruin. At Charlottsville the force was divided. Merritt proceededdirect to Scottsville and commenced the destruction of the James River Canal,which he followed to Duguidsville, and Custer proceeded down the line of theLynchburg Railroad to Amherst Court House, leaving ruin in his track. AtNew Market, the two columns united, where Sheridan purposed to cross the J ames, proceed to Farmville, and destroy the Southside Railroad towards Appomattox Court House; but the river being high, and the pontoons insufficient to span it, he decided to strike a, base at the White House. At RockfishRiver the bank of the canal was blown up, and at New Canton the guard-lockwas destroyed. This let the James River into the canal, changing its sluggishstream to a raging torrent, sweeping away its banks.
At White House theinfantry, sent out by General Grant in anticipation of his coming, was met,and on the 25th of March Sheridan joined the army before Petersburg. HereLieutenant Colonel Leiper re-joined the regiment and resumed command, andwas soon after mustered as Colonel, Major Morrow as Lieutenant Colonel, andCaptains A. I. Price, Charles B. Coxe, and B. H. Herkness as Majors.
Moving around to the extreme left of the infantry line, General Sheridan stood ready on the 29th for his final ride. The Sixth could muster but a hundred mounted men. The meagreness of the number was owing to lack of horses; for at dismounted camp were plenty of men. "A man," says Chaplain Gracey, "may ride from Winchester to Petersburg, through rain, and mud, and cold, and get little to eat and little sleep, and yet not suffer in health very much. After one ample dinner and one good night's rest, he will, verylikely, be getting uneasy and bored with the quiet life, and be longing for morerides; but the horse that carries him on the trip is apt to reach his journey'send in pitiable plight. Hunger and cold have starved him, the pitiless rainhas pelted him, deepening mud has mired and tired him. His back has beengalled with pinching saddle or frozen blanket; he is leg weary and foot sore;decrepitude is in his gait and dejection in his eye; great scars are scalded onhis weather-beaten front, and on his ribs and rump famine might hang herbanner. Some indomitable wills bear up through it all though, and these deserve to be rewarded of their country, for theyrendered possible the deedsof Sheridan's Cavalry."
Sheridan had been ordered to move upon the enemy's right and rear.At nine o'clock on the morning of the 30th, General Merritt's Division, whichhad the advance, came upon the enemy at Gravelly Run, near Five Forks.After crossing the run, Colonel Leiper, who was at the head of the column,deployed his men in line, and was soon joined by the Second Massachusetts,First United States, and Seventh Michigan. With this impromptu brigade,he advanced against the enemy lying quietly in the woods, and by a sudden charge scattered his lines, and drove them in upon his infantry supports awaiting in rifle-pits an attack. On the following day thebattle was renewed, andthe Sixth, dismounted, fought the enemy's infantry, in a thick wood, near theDinwiddie Road. The ground was stubbornly contested on every part of the line; but, by skillful dispositions, Sheridan was triumphant, successfully holding his position until joined by the infantry, when theenemy sullenly withdrew. The loss in the Sixth, was Lieutenant Magee killed, Lieutenant ColonelMorrow and a considerable number of men wounded. Pursuit was immediately given, and the column soon came upon the rebels sheltered behind his strong fortifications, on the White Oak Road. And here the Sixth Cavalrydismounted to fight in its last battle. There stood in the ranks but forty-eight men bearing carbines. Through the day the position fronting the enemy'sworks was held, the men keeping'up a brisk fire and diverting his attentionfrom other parts of the field, where our infantry was moving for his overthrow.The victory was complete, and the regiment rested that night upon the field.
After this battle, the remnant of the regiment was ordered to General Merritt's headquarters for escort and guard duty. With Sheridan's column it moved to Sailor's Creek, thence to Appomattox Station, and finally to Appomattox Court House, where, on the 9th, Lee surrendered, General Sheridan having the satisfaction of being a witness to the terms of a surrender, which he had largely contributed to secure.With Sheridan the Sixth returned to Petersburg, whence it proceeded tobanville, North Carolina, and, after the surrender of Johnston, returned toWashington,- where it participated in the Grand Review. Retiring across thePotomac, it was consolidated with the Second and Seventeenth Regiments,under the title of the Second Provisional Cavalry, and subsequently orderedto Louisville, Kentucky, where, on the 7th of August, it was mustered out of service.
*Moore's Rebellion Record, Vol. VT1, p. 18, Does.
Source: Bates, Samuel P.History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
OrganizationOrganized at Philadelphia August to October, 1861.
Moved to Washington, D.C., December 10 to December 16, 1861.
Attached to Emory's Brigade, Cooke's Brigade, Cavalry Reserve, Army Potomac, to July, 1862.Command, Army Potomac, to April, 1862.
Emory's 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army Potomac, to August, 1862.
3rd Brigade, Pleasanton's Cavalry Division, Army Potomac, to November, 1862.
Headquarters Left Grand Division, Army Potomac, to February, 1863.
Reserve Brigade, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863.
Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Potomac, to August, 1864.
3rd (Reserve) Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Shenandoah and Army Potomac, to June, 1865.
ServiceProvost duty in the Defences of Washington, D.C., till May, 1862. Scout to Hunter's Mills March 19.
Moved to Fortress Monroe, thence to Yorktown, Va., May 3-5.
Reconnoissance to Mulberry Point, Va., May 7-8 (Detachment).
Reconnoissance to New Castle and Hanovertown Ferry May 22.
Reconnoissance to Hanover C. H. May 24.
Charge on picket line with lances May 25 (Co. "C").
Hanover C. H. May 27 (Co. "A").
Operations near Hanover C. H. May 27-29.
Occupation of Ashland May 30.
Reconnoissance to Hanover C. H. June 10-12.
Operations about White House against Stuart June 13-15.
Garlick's Landing, Pamunkey River, June 13.
Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1.
Beaver Dam Station June 26 (Cos. "B," "C," "G," "H").
Companies "A," "D," "I," "K" with Stoneman on retreat to White House and Williamsburg.
Gaines' Mill June 27.
Savage Station June 29 (Co. "F").
Glendale June 30.
White Oak Swamp June 30.
Company "F" Malvern Hill July 1.
Cos. "C" and "H" at Headquarters, 5th Corps.
Company "F" escort Heavy Artillery from Malvern Hill to Harrison's Landing.
Fall's Church September 2-4 (Cos. "C," "H").
South Mountain and near Jefferson, Md., September 13.
Crampton's Pass, South Mountain, September 14 (Cos. "B," "G," "I").
Antietam September 16-17 (Cos. "B," "G," "I").
Sharpsburg September 19.
Shepherdstown Ford September 19.
Co. "K" at Headquarters, 6th Corps, November, 1862, to February 24, 1863.
Bloomfield and Upperville November 2-3.
Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15.
Occoquan River December 19-20 (Cos. "B," "G").
"Mud March" January 20-24, 1863 (Cos. "A," "D," "E").
Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6.
Stoneman's Raid April 29-May 8 (Co. "L").
Raccoon Ford April 30 (Detachment).
Brandy Station and Beverly Ford June 9.
Reconnoissance to Ashby's Gap June 14 (Co. "A").
Greencastle, Pa., June 20.
Upperville June 21.
Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Williamsport, Md., July 6.
Boonsborough July 8. Funkstown July 10-13. Aldie July 11.
Kelly's Ford July 31-August 1.
Brandy Station August 1.
Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17.
Bristoe Campaign October 9-22.
Manassas Junction October 17.
Bristoe Station October 18.
Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8.
Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2.
Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864.
Custer's Raid in Albemarle County February 28-March 1.
Near Charlottesville February 29.
Burton's Ford, Stannardsville, March 1.
Rapidan Campaign May and June.
Todd's Tavern May 7-8.
Sheridan's Raid to James River May 9-24.
Ground Squirrel Church and Yellow Tavern May 11.
Richmond, May 12.
Mechanicsville May 12.
Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28.
Hanovertown Ferry and Hanovertown May 27.
Totopotomoy May 28-31.
Old Church May 30.
Mattadequin Creek May 30.
Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, May 31-June 1.
McClellan's Bridge June 2.
Haw's Shop June 4-5.
Sheridan's Trevillian Raid June 7-24.
Trevillian Station June 11-12.
Newark or Mallory's Cross Roads June 12.
White House or St. Peter's Church June 21.
Black Creek or Tunstall Station June 21.
Jones' Bridge June 23.
Siege of Petersburg July 3-30.
Demonstration north of James at Deep Bottom July 27-29.
Charles City Cross Roads July 27-28.
Malvern Hill July 28.
Shenandoah Valley Campaign August to November.
Near Stone Chapel August 10.
Toll Gate near White Post August 11, Near Newtown August 11.
Near Strasburg August 14.
Summit Point August 21.
Kearneysville August 25.
Leetown and Smithfield August 23.
Smithfield Crossing, Opequan, August 29.
Ordered to Pleasant Valley, Md., September 8, and to Hagerstown, November.
Sheridan's Raid from Winchester February 27-March 25, 1865.
Waynesboro March 2.
Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9.
Gravelly Run near Five Forks March 30.
Dinwiddie C. H. March 30-31.
Five Forks April 1.
Scott's Cross Roads April 2.
Tabernacle Church or Beaver Pond Creek April 4.
Sailor's Creek April 6.
Appomattox Station April 8.
Appomattox C. H. April 9.
Surrender of Lee and his army.
Expedition to Danville April 23-29.
March to Washington, D.C., May.
Grand Review May 23.
Consolidated with 1st and 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry June 17, 1865, to form 2nd Provisional Cavalry.
LossesRegiment lost during service 7 Officers and 71 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Officers and 86 Enlisted men by disease. Total 167.
Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908
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