3rd Cavalry / 60th Regiment
The Third Cavalry was recruited during the spring and summer of 1861, under the direction of Colonel William H. Young, and for a time was known as Young's Light Kentucky Cavalry. Many of the companies were the first, of this arm of service, organized for the long term.
As a majority of the companies were from Pennsylvania the regiment was assigned to its quota; but, in consequence of its being at first known as the Light Kentucky Cavalry, it lost its precedence in number, and was designated the Third Cavalry, Sixtieth of the line.
- Companies A, C, F, K and M were recruited in Philadelphia
- Company B in Philadelphia and in Chester county
- Company E in Clinton county
- Company D in the city of Washington, D. C.
- Company G in Allegheny County
- Company I in Philadelphia and in Delaware county
- Company L in Schuylkill county
The regiment assembled at Washington during the month bf August, and on the 31st Governor Curtin appointed William W. Averill, a graduate of West Point, and at the time an officer in the Fifth United States Cavalry, to command it. Until its organization was completed under Colonel Averill, drill and discipline had been neglected; but upon his assumption of command the most stringent measures were adopted. The severity of his discipline was at first distasteful, but when the results of his careful instruction, and minute and patient drill, were recognized, an esprit du corps sprang up which was never lost to the end of its term of service, and made it one of the most efficient and reliable of regiments.
The first winter was passed at Camp Marcy, south of the Potomac, and three miles from Chain Bridge. It was a trying time to the whole army. The Third patiently endured all the hardships of a military life in the field, relieved by none of its excitements. The muddy condition of the roads rendered even drilling almost impossible. Picket duty was performed in the direction of Hinson's Hill, and there was some scouting, in which, owing to their inexperience, several men were taken prisoners.
In the advance of M'Clellan, which commenced on the 10th of March, 1862, the Third had the post of honor-the advance guard. Marching through Fairfax Court House and Centreville, it was the first to enter the celebrated works at Manassas, which the enemy had been permitted quietly to occupy during the winter. It found, unexpectedly, no opposition, and captured all the quaker guns which the rebels had left to deceive M'Clellan. A few days afterwards it returned to its old winter quarters, and on the 22d marched to Alexandria, where it embarked for the Peninsula, arriving at Hampton, near Fortress Monroe, on the 30th. A week later it moved forward with the army and was frequently engaged during the siege of Yorktown. After a month's delay the rebels withdrew from their fortifications, and in the pursuit, which immediately commenced, Averill's Cavalry again had the advance. Considerable skirmishing with Stuart's troopers ensued, and on the 6th the regiment was engaged in the battle of Williamsburg. Moving on slowly towards Richmond, by the 22d the advance was within six miles of the city. The battle of Fair Oaks soon followed, but the Third was not actively engaged. The ensuing month was spent sweltering in the heat amidst the unwholesome swamps of the Chickahominy, and many of the command were stricken down with fever. It was kept actively engaged in picketing and scouting, and often met the enemy in hard skirmish fights, one of the most important of which occurred at Jordan's Ford.
From Hanover Court House to Malvern Hill, a week of battles, the men were almost constantly in the saddle, supporting batteries, scouting, picketing and protecting the flanks of the rereating army stretched out upon the march, most of the time under a heavy fire. At Charles City Cross Roads, on the 30th of June, the regiment was engaged in a dashing hand to hand fight with a North Carolina regiment, in which the latter was very roughly handled. In the retreat from Malvern Hill, Averill had the rear. By manoeuvring a part of the cavalry as artillery, he kept up the appearance of a much larger force than he really had, and successfully held the enemy in check.
The rest of that sad summer was passed at Harrison's Landing. While here the enemy attempted to dislodge the army by operating from the opposite bank of the river. On the night of the 31st of July, he opened upon the closely packed camps, and the first notice of his presence was the bursting of shells in their midst. Heavy firing was kept up during the entire night, and on the following day a portion of the cavalry under Averell, consisting of detachments from the different regiments of his command, was thrown across the river, and with a supporting force of infantry and artillery, put the enemy to flight. Soon afterwards the whole army was put in motion, and marching down the peninsula to Fortress Monroe, was shipped to Alexandria.
In the invasion of Maryland, which followed in September, the Third was actively employed. In the battle of Antietam, it engaged the enemy, supported batteries, kept open the communications, and was much exposed to the heavy fire of the enemy. After the battle, while the army was resting along the Potomac, the regiment was kept upon the move, scouting upon the upper waters of the river, and upon the occasion of the raid made by Stuart it was called to pursue him; but too late to be of much avail. Its camp during most of this period was in the vicinity of St. James College.
Late in October the army again crossed into Virginia, and the cavalry covered the right flank of the advance. Stuart and Hampton were performing a like office for the right flank of the enemy, and collisions were frequent along the whole march. At Unionville, Piedmont, Ashby's Gap, Upperville, Corbin's and Gaines' Cross Roads, and at Amissville, the enemy stubbornly contested the ground, but was driven into the fastnesses of the Blue Ridge.
Colonel Averill had previously been promoted to Brigadier General for gallant and meritorious services, and early in November John B. M'Intosh, a subaltern of the Fifth United States Cavalry, was commissioned Colonel, Edward S. Jones, of Philadelphia, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and 0. G. Robinson, of Allegheny county, to Major. From Warrenton, where the army first rested, the regiment moved to the neighborhood of Fredericksburg, and went into winter quarters near Potomac Creek. In the battle which opened on the 13th of December, the nature of the contest rendering the operations of cavalry impracticable, the Third was not engaged. During the winter the cavalry was kept busy in scouting in the direction of Warrenton and the upper Rappahannock, in picketing in the direction of Hartwood Church and the lower fords of the river. The dull routine of this service was frequently enlivened by sharp encounters with the enemy's cavalry.
From the opening of the war, the rebels had claimed, for this arm of the service, great superiority over that of their opponents, and from the time when the much famed Black Horse Cavalry-in which Virginia gentlemen rode their own blooded horses-had created consternation in the Union ranks in the first Bull Run battle, to the beginning of 1863, the claim had been tacitly allowed.
But this judgment was now about to be reversed. From the disparagement which it early met, and the limited opportunity which, in the first stages of the war, had been given it for the display of its prowess, the Union Horse had come to be regarded with something like a proper appreciation, and its organization and appointments were at length made equal in those respects to the other arms of the service. It was now to enter upon a new career, and to display a degree of fortitude and valor rarely equalled in the annals of war. General Fitz Hugh Lee, who commanded the cavalry of the enemy, sent a letter through the pickets to General Averell, who had been his intimate friend and classmate at West Point, inviting the latter to come over to see him and bring him a bag of much needed coffee. Wishing to oblige him, Averill, on the 16th of March, 1863, made a sudden dash in the direction of Culpepper, forced a passage of the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, had a hard fight, lasting several hours, with Fitz Lee and Stuart, overpowered and scattered their forces, left the bag of coffee as requested, and returned in triumph to the northern bank, having inflicted severe loss upon the enemy and suffered much less himself. The success in this encounter, known as the cavalry battle of Kelly's Ford, was a surprise to the country, and the superiority here shown was maintained. Captain Treichel was among the wounded.
The command returned to camp near Potomac Creek, where it remained until the 29th of April, when General Stoneman, with the newly organized cavalry corps, started for a diversion in favor of Hooker, about to strike a heavy blow at Chancellorsville. Crossing the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, where he joined Hooker, Stoneman, dividing his force into three columns commanded respectively by Averell, Buford, and Stoneman in person, commenced one of the most extensive raids as yet undertaken on either side, and traversed the whole country in the rear of Lee. Averill was ordered to move in the direction of Louisa and Orange Court House, to threaten Gordonsville, and to keep the enemy's cavalry engaged. After a series of encounters and hard marches he re-joined the rest of the army.
"The damage done by this expedition was immense; they destroyed railroads, bridges, and depots, railroad trains and locomotives, factories, mills and forges, grain, provisions and ammunition, took five hundred prisoners, and threw the people of Southern Virginia into a panic. The whole of Lee's railroad communications with Richmond were for a time cut off."* The severity of the duty in this campaign bore heavily upon the command, and upon its return to camp many of the regiment, unfit for further service, were sent to the rear for fresh horses and new equipments.
A complete re-organization of the entire army was now effected, and General Pleasanton succeeded Stoneman as chief of the cavalry. General Averell was relieved from the command of his division, and sent to lead the cavalry in Western Virginia, a trying position, in which by his skill and daring he soon rendered his name famous. Colonel M'Intosh was placed in command of the First Brigade, Second Division of the cavalry, and Lieutenant Colonel Jones succeeded to the command of the regiment. After a brief respite, passed in its old quarters near Potomac Creek, a campaign of manoeuvring commenced, and the Third was again in the saddle. For a time the cavalry was kept busily engaged scouting and reconnoitring to discover the enemy's intentions.
On the 9th of June, Pleasanton crossed the Rappahannock, Duffie's Division, to which the Third then belonged, at Kelly's Ford. The enemy was soon encountered and a running fight was kept up as far as Stevensburg, when Duffie moved to the right to the support of Gregg, who was battling against superior numbers and in danger of being overpowered. Breaking through the rebel lines, he formed a junction with Buford and retrieved the waning fortunes of the day. The corps withdrew, re-crossing the river at Rappahannock Station, the Third acting as rear guard, having driven the rebel cavalry, who were in superior numbers, with the great body of the rebel infantry at their backs, and greatly retarded the march of their army for the invasion of the North.
Two weeks later, the rebel horse was again encountered at Aldie, and was driven with considerable loss to Upperville and Ashby's Gap, a distance of eight miles. This engagement resulted in cutting off the enemy's cavalry from the main body of his army, and by pushing the advantage thereby attained, and by constantly engaging him, Stuart was prevented from re-joining Lee until after the battle of Gettysburg, a circumstance which the rebel chieftain bitterly laments in his report.
In this campaign the marching was unusually severe, and for eight days the men were kept in the saddle on an average of twenty hours out of the twenty-four, with little to eat and no forage for their horses. The regiment arrived upon the field at Gettysburg on the 2d of July, and taking position on the right flank between the York and Bonnaughtown roads, was immediately thrown in way of the enemy's cavalry, which, just then advancing to the attack, was handsomely repulsed.
During the morning of the 3d, Gregg now commanding the Second Division, with Custer's Brigade of the Third Division, was in position overlooking the entire field of conflict, which was held during the terrific cannonade of that day. When at length, after two hours of incessant fire, it finally slackened, and the rebel infantry moved out for their last grand attack, Hampton's Division of cavalry advanced upon the Bonnaughtown road, determined to force its way, and gain the flank and rear of the Union army.
The Third being upon the skirmish line first felt the shock, and after a stubborn resistance was driven in. Gregg's supports were close at hand, and when Hampton charged in close column of squadrons, Custar met him face to face with his Michigan Brigade, his wolverines he called them, and the skirmishers rallied and charged upon his flanks. The enemy started with drawn sabres, but according to their individual habits, many dropped them and took their pistols, while the Union men used the sabre alone. After a hard fight, hand to hand, the rebels were driven back with heavy loss. A more magnificent or triumphant sabre charge than this, is rarely witnessed. The loss was severe.
Among the wounded in the Third, were Captains Newhall, Treichel, Rogers and Wetherill, and Lieutenant Edmonds, and twenty-four men were either killed or wounded.
In the retreat of the rebel army from the field of Gettysburg, M'Intosh's Brigade of cavahly, with Neill's Brigade of the Sixth Corps, was sent to follow up the rear and co-operate with the militia which were advancing under Couch by the Cumberland Valley, while Meade with the mass of the army moved by the left flank. M' Intosh came up with the rebel cavalry, at Old Antietam Forge on the 10th of July, and a spirited engagement ensued. The brigade joined the division on the 12th. Gregg, two days later, crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, in advance of the army, and after some resistance occupied the town. The division then moved up the river, and on the 16th marched to Shepherdstown to dispute the crossing of one of the enemy's columns. Upon his arrival, Gregg attacked, and after a severe engagement was compelled to retire, the rebel column having already crossed and being in readiness to receive him on his approach. The division returned to Bolivar Heights, and marched south in rear of the army, along the eastern side of the Blue Ridge to Warrenton. The regiment was kept busy during the remainder of the summer in scouting, picketing, and guerrilla fighting along the Upper Rappahannock, and in the country around Warrenton.
During the month of September the army started on a new campaign, the cavalry corps in advance, Gregg's Division forming the right wing. On the 13th and following day a running fight took place from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan. Near Culpepper Court House M'Intosh's Brigade made a gallant charge, the Third in advance, in which the enemy's cavalry was driven. The excellent conduct of the brigade in this engagement drew from its commander a general order, in which he says:
"The commanding officer of this brigade takes the first opportunity which has presented since your glorious advance from Cilpepper, to express to you his unqualified admiration of your conduct in the engagement near Culpepper, and of your subsequent conduct near the Rapidan Station. It is some satisfaction for you to know that on Sunday, the 13th inst., you fought the severest fight that the corps was engaged in on that day, and it is his greatest pride and pleasure to bear witness to your great gallantry on the occasion. Under the most galling fire you advanced impetuously on the enemy's line, and in one-half hour's time you occupied his chosen position. No troops could have done better. There are no exceptions, for all acted as veteran soldiers."
The position gained upon the Rapidan by the cavalry, was held by hard skirmish fighting until the 17th, when the infantry came to its relief. The division of General Gregg soon after moved back in the direction of Culpepper and Catlett's Station.On the 25th of September, the Third was detached and posted along the line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad for the protection of the line of supplies. It encamped at Kettle Run, near Bristoe Station, and was attached to Eustis' Brigade, Terry's Division of the Sixth Corps. When Lee made his flank movement in October, Meade fell back towards Centreville, and the Third was ordered to report to Buford, his being the nearest cavalry command. At Bristoe Station the enemy was encountered and handsomely repulsed. On the following day, the 15th, the retreat was resumed, Buford's Division covering the immense wagon train of the army, estimated to occupy seventy miles.
Being the guests of the division, General Buford gave the Third the post of honor, the rear guard. The train, a tempting prize, was beheld from the heights around, and the enemy pressed hard to break in upon and capture or destroy it. The rebel cavalry, Gordon's Division, closely pushed the rear guard, the Third, which was some distance from the main body of the command, and when it was discovered that the train was going into park upon the Occoquan, or Lower Bull Run, a vigorous attack was made. Captain Walsh, then in command of the regiment, an old officer, skilled in Indian warfare, immediately threw out his whole regiment as skirmishers, with the exception of three platoons of Captain Wetherill's squadron, well knowing that a bold show of front, and the appearance of a large force, would alone save the train. Gordon, with his entire division and two batteries, moved upon his thin line, and charged and re-charged; but such a sturdy resistance was made that the ground was successfully held for nearly two hours, when supports came to his relief. The loss was nineteen, killed and wounded. Lieutenant Elwood Davis was among the killed. The bravery and skill displayed by the Third in this encounter, was noticed in an order from General Buford, in the highest terms of commendation.
A few days afterwards the army again advanced and re-occupied the line of the Rappahannock, the Third re-joining its division, Gregg's, and resuming its old position along the upper fords of the river. Another period of scouting, picket and guerrilla fighting ensued, in which the regiment was engaged until the opening of the Mine Run campaign, in November. On the 26th Gregg's Division crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and on the day following took the advance of the left wing of the army, the Third having the right of the column, and moving out by the Orange Plank Road. The enemy's cavalry was met at Parker's Store and was driven back upon his infantry supports composed of Ewell's Corps.
At New Hope Church the advance was stopped by the famous Stonewall Brigade, and the First Massachusetts was thrown forward to strengthen the Third. Immediately dismounting, the two regiments fought the rebel infantry for two hours in the dense thickets of the Wilderness, repelling charge after charge of the enemy advancing with fixed bayonets. At length the First New Jersey, under Colonel Kester, came up, when, with a wild cheer, the whole line charged and drove the enemy's infantry, taking a number of prisoners. The rebel troops were heavily reinforced, but the line was firmly held until the arrival of Sykes with his regulars of the Fifth Corps, when the cavalry was relieved and fellback. The loss of the regiment was twenty -five killed and wounded, Captain Englebert being among the latter.
The Third and the First Massachusetts moved back to Parker's Store, where they took position, covering with their pickets, the left flank of the army. On the 29th, Hampton's Division attacked and surrounded these regiments; but by remarkable skill and bravery they succeeded in cutting their way through and making their escape. The loss was about thirty in killed, wounded, and missing. Lieutenant James Heslet was taken prisoner. Nearly all the mess kits, rations, forage, blankets, and overcoats were captured, and in consequence of the loss the bitter cold weather which followed caused intense suffering in the command.
The Rapidan and Rappahannock were re-crossed on the 2d of December, and after considerable manoeuvring the army went into winter quarters, Gregg's Division encamping around the town of Warrenton. Another tour of scouting and hunting Moseby and his guerrillas ensued. The command during this period was in a wretched plight, the duty very severe-being on an average of four and five days and nights out of quarters during the week-the weather very cold and the men poorly clad. For a long time there was not a dozen pairs of good boots in the entire regiment, and the men were under the necessity of tying their feet in old blankets to protect them from the frost. At this unfortunate time the re-enlistment of veteran volunteers took place, and so miserable was their condition that only about seventy-five were willing to bind themselves for another three years of service. The principal excitement at this time in the command was the semi-weekly hunt after the ubiquitous Moseby, and his hair-breadth escapes were the wonder of all.
Near the close of the year a shade of gloom was cast over the regiment by the untimely death of Captain Walter S. Newhall, a fine officer, the pride of the regiment, who for some time had been acting as Assistant Adjutant General on the Brigade staff who had ridden with Zagonyi at Springfield, and had served with the Third from the winter of 1861. He was accidentally drowned, in a creek near Rappahannock Station, while on his way home to spend Christmas with his family.On the 26th of January, 1864, in the re-organization of the forces which was made preparatory to the opening of the spring campaign, the regiment, greatly reduced by the severity of its service, was relieved from duty with the Cavalry corps, and ordered to report at the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, then at Brandy Station, for duty with the Provost Marshal General. The army commenced a forward movement on the 4th of May.
During the terrific fighting in the Wilderness, the Third was constantly at the front, acting as escort to Generals Grant and Meade, filling gaps in lines of battle, and performing the arduous duties of an emergency command. During the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, North Anna and Cold Harbor, the regiment was continually employed upon important and dangerous duties, and gained the approbation of its superior officers to such an extent that all efforts to have it ordered to its place in the Cavalry corps were unavailing. After passing once more through the well remembered swamps of the Chickahominy, the scenes of the disastrous Peninsula campaign, the Third took the advance of the army, and made the first connection with General Butler's command, upon the south side of the James. Generals Grant and Meade, with the Third as escort, crossed the river on a pontoon bridge on the morning of the 16th of June, and immediately pushed forward towards Petersburg. After much manoeuvring and hard fighting the regiment went into camp at General Meade's headquarters, near what was afterwards Meade Station, on the Military Railroad.
About this time Colonel M'Intosh was promoted to Brigadier General. In the fall of 1863, he had been on detached service, Colonel Taylor of the First Pennsylvania taking command of the brigade. During the campaign of the Wilderness he had commanded a brigade in the Third Cavalry Division. In this he continued after his promotion, served in the Shenandoah Valley, and lost a leg at Cedar Creek, the scene of Sheridan's triumph.* *
The three years' term of service of the originally enlisted men had now nearly expired, though of recruits and veterans there were about three hundred, half of the entire number, who had still an additional period to serve. Accordingly on the 27th of July an order was issued from the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, directing the officers and men whose terms had expired, to proceed to Washington and report to General Halleck, Chief of Staff, and those who were to remain in service to be organized into three companies, as an independent battalion, known as the Veteran Battalion of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded by Major J. W. Walsh, officered respectively by Captains F. W. Hess, Charles Treichel, and Louis R. Stille; First Lieutenants William F. Potter and Miles G. Carter; Second Lieutenants William Rawle Brooke, G. S. Luttrell Ward and Thomas Gregg, and Assistant Surgeon Henry J. Durant, and to report for duty with the Provost Marshal General of the army.
In obedience to this order, on the 27th of July the two portions of the regiment separated, the veteran battalion remaining at General Meade's headquarters, and the balance of the command moving by transports to Washington. Upon its arrival at the Capital, although its term of service had expired, it was ordered to duty in the Cumberland Valley, on the occasion of the rebel raid of that year, and continued on duty there until the enemy was driven back into Virginia. After performing signal service and acting with its accustomed gallantry, the Third was sent to Philadelphia, where it arrived on the 20th of August, and on the 24th was mustered out of service.
The veteran battalion continued at its camp near Meade Station, until the movements to the left, during October, rendered a change of headquarters, to a point near the centre of the lines, necessary. During the previous months it had been actively employed in most important service, at times co-operating with its old division under General Gregg, now commanding the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, at others engaged with the various infantry corps, at all times commanding the respect and calling forth the encomiums of its superior officers. It was engaged at Boydton Plank Road, in the many conflicts at Hatcher's Run and along the Weldon Railroad, and in the assaults upon the fortifications of Petersburg. In the engagement at Hatcher's Run, on the 9th of December, while gallantly leading an assault upon an almost impregnable position covering the ford, Captain Ward was severely wounded and several men were lost.
During the fall and winter, a large number of recruits joined the battalion, increasing the number of companies to eight. Major James W. Walsh was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the battalion, and Captains F. W. Hess, and Charles Treichel were promoted Majors. The companies of Captains Potter, Carter, and Brooke were detached, early in the winter, for duty at City Point, at the headquarters of General Grant, where they remained for three months, until the opening of the spring campaign of 1865 called them to the front.
Upon the occasion of the final attack upon Petersburg, the battalion was employed in maintaining communications, and occupying the lines between Sheridan at Five Forks, and the left of the infantry line. On the 3d of April Petersburg was taken, and early in the morning Generals Grant and Meade, under the escort of the battalion, entered the city. They did not remain long in the place, which, for so many weary months, they had sought to gain; but joined in the pursuit of the retreating enemy. Jettersville, Sailor's Creek and High Bridge followed in quick succession, and on the 9th of April the battalion occupied a position between the opposing lines of battle of the two armies, when the surrender of Lee to Grant took place.
On the 11th the command moved back to Burkesville Junction, in company with a considerable part of the army. On the 1st of May, it commenced the march for Richmond, which it entered on the 4th, and was there assigned to provost guard duty. While thus engaged the battalion slowly driftea out of service. Several officers and many of the men were mustered out on the 1st of June, and on the 6th, others whose terms of service had expired.
On the 9th of June, in conformity with an order of the War Department, the remaining members were consolidated in four companies, and, with Lieutenant Colonel Walsh, Majors Hess and Treichel, and Assistant Surgeon Henry J. Durant, were transferred to the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry.On the 7th of August these were also mustered out of service at Richmond, and on the following day proceeded by transports to Philadelphia, where, on the 15th, they were paid and finally disbanded.***
- Company A and parts of E and I, under Captain Stille and Lieutenants M'Tarron and Ebbert, were transferred as company I in the Fifth
- Companies C and F, and part of E, under Captain Carter and Lieutenants Haydon and Wilson, as company K
- Company B, and part of E, under Captain Brooke and Lieutenants Pemberton and King, as company L
- Companies M and D, and parts of E and I, under Captain Ward and Lieutenants Grugan and Ludwig, as company M.
During the latter part of its service, and after the close of the war, a considerable number of officers of this regiment were appointed to commands in the regular army. The following is a list of those in service in July, 1868:
John B. M'Intosh, Colonel of Forty-Second United States Infantry, Brevet Major General United States Army._________________
James W. Walsh, Captain of Tenth United States Cavalry.
O. 0. G. Robinson, First Lieutenant of Second United States Cavalry.
Frank W. Hess, First Lieutenant of Twenty-ninth United States Infantry.
William Redwood Price, Major of Eighth United States Cavalry.
Louis R. Stille, First Lieutenant of Twenty-third United States Infantry.
Edward M. Heyl, Captain of Ninth United States Cavalry.
G. S. Luttrell Ward, Second Lieutenant of Thirty-first United States Infantry.
Frank C. Grugan, Second Lieutenant of Second United States Cavalry.
Charles A. Vernon, Second Lieutenant of Fourth United States Cavalry.
* Chronicles of the Great Rebellion, page 55.
**Lieutenant Colonel Jones was promoted to Colonel of the regiment, but was not mustered as such.
***Every flag which the regiment received was faithfully kept, and on the 4th of July, 1866, each was delivered over to the hands of the Governor of the Commonwealth for preservation at the State Capitol.
Organized at Philadelphia July and August, 1861.
Moved to Washington, D.C., August, 1861.
Attached to Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862.
Cavalry, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to July, 1862.
1st Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac, to August, 1862.
5th Brigade, Pleasanton's Cavalry Division, to November, 1862.
Averill's Cavalry Brigade, Centre Grand Division, Army of the Potomac, to February, 1863.
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863.
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864.
Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Provost Marshal General's Command, to May, 1865.
Duty in the Defences of Washington, D. C., till March, 1862.
Skirmish at Magruder's Ferry September 16, 1861.
Springfield Station September 27.
Hunter's Mills or Vienna November 26 (Co. "F").
Vienna December 3 (Cos. "F" and "M").
Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-15, 1862.
Reconnaissance to Cedar Run March 14-16.
Moved to the Virginia Peninsula March 22-30.Casualties and Losses
Howard's Mills April 4.
Near Cockletown April 4 (Co. "A").
Warwick Road April 5.
Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4.
Cheese Cake Church May 4.
Near Williamsburg May 4.
Battle of Williamsburg May 5.
Expedition to James River May 25-26 (Detachment Co. "I").
Battle of Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, May 31-June 1.
New Market Road June 8 (Cos. "D," "K").
Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1.
Savage Station June 29.
James River Road near Fair Oaks June 29-30 (Detachment).
Jones' Bridge and Jordan's Ford June 30.
White Oak Church July 1.
Malvern Hill July 2. Reconnaissance toward White Oak Church July 10.
Reconnaissance to Jones' Ford July 31, and to Malvern Hill August 2-8.
Sycamore Church August 3.
White Oak Swamp Bridge August 4.
Malvern Hill August 5.
Warrenton August 26.
Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17.
Sharpsburg September 19.
Shepherdstown Ford September 19.
Harper's Ferry September 27.
Four Locks, Md., October 9.
Reconnaissance to Smithfield October 16-17.
Bloomfield November 2-3. Markham Station November 4.
Manassas Gap November 5-6.
Newby's Cross Roads November 9. Newby's Cross Roads near Amissville November 10.
Near Hartwood Church November 28.
Reconnaissance to Grove Church December 1.
Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15.
Expedition to Richard's and Ellis' Fords, Rappahannock River, December 29-31.
Operations at Rappahannock Bridge and Grove Church February 5-7, 1863.
Hartwood Church February 25. Kelly's Ford March 17.
Chancellorsville Campaign, Stoneman's Raid, April 27-May 8.
Near Dumfries May 17 (Detachment).
Brandy Station or Fleetwood, Stevensburg and Beverly Ford June 9.
Aldie June 17.
Upperville June 21.
Aldie June 22.
Lisbon or Poplar Springs June 29.
Westminster June 30.
Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3.
Emmettsburg July 4.
Old Antietam Forge near Leitersburg July 10.
Near Harper's Ferry July 14.
Shepherdstown September 15-16.
Scouting and picketing Upper Rappahannock July to September.
Scout to Middleburg September 10-11.
Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17.
Culpeper Court House September 13.
Near Catlett's Station October 6 (Detachment). Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Warrenton or White Sulpher Springs October 12-13. Auburn and Bristoe October 14. Brentsville October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8.
Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2.
New Hope Church November 27.
Ellis Ford December 3.
Scout to Piedmont February 17-18, 1864.
Sprigg's Ford February 28 (Co. "L").
Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June, 1864.
Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Spotsylvania May 8-12; Spotsylvania C. H. May 12-21; Guinea Station May 21; North Anna River May 23-26.
On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28.
Totopotomoy May 28-31.
Cold Harbor June 1-12.
Before Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865.
Assaults on Petersburg June 16-18, 1864. Charles City Cross Roads June 29.
Consolidated to a Battalion of three companies July 27, 1864.
Non-Veterans on duty in Cumberland Valley till mustered out August 24, 1864. Reconnaissance to Hatcher's Run December 9-10.
Hatcher's Run December 9.
Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865.
Fall of Petersburg April 2.
Pursuit of Lee to Appomattox C. H. April 3-9.
Provost duty at Richmond May 4-8.
Transferred to 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry May 8, 1865.
Regiment lost during service 1 Officer and 41 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 125 Enlisted men by disease. Total 169.
Source: Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.
Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908
© 2015 Alice J. Gayley, all rights reserved