22th Cavalry Regiment

Pennsylvania Volunteers

The Twenty-second Cavalry was formed by the consolidation of a battalion known as the Ringgold Cavalry, with a battalion re-organized from a force of five companies, which had been called out for a period of six months, upon the occasion of the rebel advance into Pennsylvania, in the summer of 1863. Two companies of the Ringgold Cavalry, A and G, of the new regiment, were recruited in the summer of 1861, in Washington county; four other Companies, B, C, E and F, also from Washington county, in the summer of 1862; and one company, D, from the same county, in the spring of 1863. The companies became known as:
  • Company A - Ringgold Cavalry
  • Company B - Keystone Cavalry
  • Company C - Ringgold Cavalry
  • Company D - BeallsvilleCavalry
  • Company E - Independent Cavalry
  • Company F - Patton Cavalry
  • Company G - Lafayette Cavalry
These companies had gone into service, as fast as recruited, in West Virginia, and had acted independently, those first entering, taking part in the battle of Rich Mountain, in July, 1861, in which the rebels, under command of General Lee, were defeated and driven with severe losses, and in October, at Greenbrier and Romney. On the 7th of January, 1862, these companies were engaged at Blue's Gap, east of Romney, where the enemy was defeated with a loss of fifteen killed, two pieces of artillery, wagons, tents, and twenty prisoners; on the 14th of February, at Bloomery Gap; on the 19th of March, at Strasburg; on the 22d, at Winchester, in which General Shields defeated the rebel General Stonewall Jackson, inflicting severe loss; on the 15th of April, at Columbia Furnace; on the 17th and 18th, at Two Churches, and at Rood's Hill; on the 15thof August, at North River Mills, and at Dashu's Mills on the 9th of November. During the winter and spring of 1863, they were actively employed in guard and scout duty, in which they rendered most efficient service. When the rebel army advanced in force into Pennsylvania, towards the close of June, many of the Union troops in West Virginia were summoned to the assistance of the Army of the Potomac, in expelling the invader, and these companies hastened forward, arriving near Williamsport, on the 8th of July, where they met some forces of the enemy, and on the following day, at Fairview. The rebel army escaped on the night of the 14th, but was closely followed, and on the 17th the cavalry came up with him at Martinsburg, and skirmished with his rearguard at White Hall, on the 22d. The spring campaign 6f 1864, in West Virginia, opened early, and on the 3d of January, the enemy was met at Petersburg, where the battalion was engaged, and in the beginning of February, at Lexington and Moorefield.

The Six Months' Battalion, which formed the nucleus of the new regiment, was recruited in June, 1863, and was employed under command of Major Morrow, in guarding the fords of the Susquehanna, above and below Harrisburg, and in picketing the roads leading into the Cumberland Valley. After the defeat of the rebel army at Gettysburg, it was pushed up the valley in pursuit, and until the close of its term of service, was engaged with the cavalry in holding the Shenandoah Valley. Upon its muster-oat in February, 1864, in compliance with an order from the War Department, the battalion was re-organized at a camp of rendezvous near Chambersburg, and was recruited for a term of three years. On the 22d, the Ringgold Battalion was united with these re-organized companies, and a regimental organization was effected with the following field officers: Jacob Higgins, Colonel; A. J. Greenfield, Lieutenant Colonel; George T. Work, Elias S. Troxell, and Henry A. Myers, Majors.

On the 1st of 3March, the battalion at Chambersburg, under command of Major Troxell, proceeded to Martinsburg, where it joined the forces of General Sigel, and proceeded thence, by his order, to Cumberland, where the Ringgold Battalion was stationed, and where a union of the two was effected. The regiment remained in camp of instruction here, until April, when that portion of it not mounted, amounting to about seven hundred men, proceeded, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Greenfield, to a general camp of rendezvous for cavalry, in Pleasant Valley, Maryland, where it received horses and equipments, and where it remained until the middle of May, the men receiving, in the meantime, a thorough course of drill and discipline. From Pleasant Valley it moved to Camp Stoneman, near Washington, where its instruction was continued. About the middle of June, it was ordered to Martinsburg, where, upon its arrival, it was temporarily armed with muskets, and under command of Major Troxell, was assigned to the infantry brigade, commanded by Colonel Mulligan, who soon after led his forces to Leetown, to meet the threatened advance of the rebel General Early. On the morning of the 3d of July, the brigade was furiously attacked by a largely superior force. With the most determined bravery, Mulligan's little band stood its ground, and for eight hours held the enemy at bay, keeping open the way of retreat for Sigel, at Martinsburg, and thereby assuring the safety of the army and its material. The detachment, though fighting as infantry, in which it was little schooled, showed such spirit and determination, that Colonel Mulligan placed it at the fore front, where it repelled repeated assaults of the enemy. On the 6th and7th it was engaged in a series of skirmishes on Maryland Heights, and for some days afterwards was on the march with the troops, then retiring before a superior force of the enemy under Early, advancing towards Maryland, with the design of effecting the capture of the National Capital. On the 15th it again crossed the Potomac, and moved through Loudon County to Snicker's Gap, having, on the 17th, a sharp engagement at Snicker's Ferry. It then advanced to Winchester, but on the 22d, was ordered back to the camp at Pleasant Valley, for the purpose of being mounted and thoroughly equipped as cavalry. On the 8th of August it left camp, and joining the force of General Torbert, led the advance of General Sheridan, who had just then been put in command of the entire army in the Shenandoah Valley. On the 9th, it came up with and joined in the attack of the rebel rear-guard, capturing ten men and fifteen horses. On the 20th, under command of Colonel Lowell, it covered the retreat of General Sheridan from Cedar Creek. On the 21st, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Greenfield, it took part in an engagement at Kernstown, where it displayed great steadiness and gallantry, repelling repeated assaults of a largely superior force. On the three following days it was warmly engaged at Opequan and Berryville, and on the 25th at Charlestown, sustaining considerable loss, Captain Thomas D. French and Lieutenant F. B. Smith, being among the wounded. On the 26th, under a severe artillery fire, it participated in an attack upon the enemy's position, charging his lines, and capturing a number of prisoners. Major Myers was severely wounded in this engagement. Soon afterwards the detachment was ordered to Hagerstown, where it was united with the detachment which had been left at Cumberland, in the April preceding. The latter, at this time under command of Major Work, had been in constant and active service during the entire summer, taking part in the campaign of General Hunter against Lynchburg, and serving in the brigade commanded by Colonel Higgins, under Sigel and Crook, with whom it was actively engaged in the battles of New Market, and Kernstown, on the 25th of July. It subsequently joined the division of General Averill, and with him made a forced march in pursuit of M'Causland, after the burning of Chambersburg, coming up with him at Moorefield, where a decisive battle was fought, and the rebel leader was put to rout, losing many men, and all his guns. In this engagement, Major Work was sent with his command to flank the enemy and attack his rear, which was accomplished with the most gratifying success. After the union of the two commands at Hagerstown, the entire regiment, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Greenfield, advanced under General Averill to Martinsburg. On1 the31st of August the division was attacked, and after a severe engagement, was driven towards Falling Waters. On the 2d of September it again advanced to Darkesville, and boldly attacked, capturing the enemy's wagon train. On the 3d, at Bunker Hill, and on the 4th, at Stephenson's Depot, it was engaged with largely superior forces of infantry and cavalry, and on the 7th, charged the enemy at Darkesville, driving him in confusion. On the 12th, it was again engaged in an action at Bunker Hill, and on the 15th, in one at Bucklestown, in each of which the regiment bore itself gallantly.

Sheridan was now ready to move upon Early with all his forces, and of the 18th, the regiment charged the enemy at Martinsburg, checking him in the town, and early on the, following morning, pursued his retreating forces towards Winchester. Captain John H. Boring, and Lieutenant Felix Boyle, were wounded in this engagement. On this day, Sheridan attacked at the Opequan, and at evening, the Twenty-second, led by Major Troxell, joined in the cavalry charge which finally routed the rebel army, and sent him in flight and confusion through Winchester, the regiment capturing a battery and eighty men. Captain William F. Speer was among the wounded. Following the retreating enemy, it came up with him at Fisher's Hill, where it participated in the fierce fighting which again routed the enemy, Lieutenant George Gassbeing wounded, and on the 26th, pushed the advantage by attacking at Mount Vernon Forge. On the 27th, the division was surprised while in camp, by a superior force of the enemy. The Twenty-second rallied, under a severe fire, and delivered a most determined charge, driving the enemy back in disorder, and held the ground in face of an overwhelming force, thereby saving the entire division train. Its loss was very severe. Major Work, and Adjutant Joseph G. Isenberg, were among the severely wounded, and Lieutenant C. L. Mercereau, and Surgeon S. M. Finley were taken prisoners. The regiment was commanded here by Major Troxell, Lieutenant Colonel Greenfield being in command of the brigade, the latter displaying both courage and ability in the disposition of his troops. At Cedar Creek, on the 19th of October, it was again fiercely engaged, losing a number in killed and wounded, Captain Martin Kuhn being of the latter.

A few days after the battle, the regiment was sent in charge of a train bearing the wounded to Martinsburg, where, after its arrival, it went into camp, and remained until the 20th of December. It was then ordered to New Creek, and during the winter, was engaged in active duty in the counties of Hardy, Hampshire, and Pendleton, operating against roving bands of the enemy, which infested the mountains of that region, capturing and driving them away, and completely freeing the country from their presence. To accomplish this, the command was kept almost constantly in the saddle, and was exposed to great hardships and privations, in moving over mountain roads covered with ice and snow and swept by wintry blasts.

In April, 1865, nearly one-half of the men were mustered out of service, their term having expired. The remainder, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Greenfield, continued in service until near the close of June, when it was consolidated with a portion of the Eighteenth Regiment, forming the Third Provisional Cavalry The new command was distributed at various points through West Virginia, and contributed largely to the restoration and maintenance of civil order. It was finally mustered out of service at Cumberland, Maryland, on the 31st of October.

Source:  Bates, Samuel P. History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.


Organization:

Organized at Chambersburg February, 1864, by consolidation of a Battalion of
six months Cavalry and the Ringgold Battalion of five Companies, Washington
County Cavalry Company and LaFayette Cavalry Company, assigned
February 22, 1864.
Moved to Martinsburg, W. Va., March 1, 1864, thence to Cumberland, Md.
Attached to Reserve Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to April, 1864.
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, West Virginia, to August, 1864.
(Dismounted men attached to Reserve Division, Pleasant Valley, Md.,
Dept. West Virginia, to June, 1864.
Kelly's Command, West Virginia, to August, 1864.)
3rd Brigade, Cavalry Corps, Army Shenandoah, August, 1864 (dismounted men).
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, West Virginia, to December, 1864.
Reserve Division, Dept. West Virginia, to April, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, West Virginia, to June, 1865.

Service:

Sigel's Expedition from Martinsburg to New Market April 30-May 16, 1864.
Lost River Gap May 10. Lynchburg May 12.
New Market May 15.
Hunter's Expedition to Lynchburg May 26-July 1.
Piedmont, Mt. Crawford, June 5.
Occupation of Staunton June 6.
Lynchburg May 17-18.
Newtown June 19.
Salem June 20.
Catawba Mountains June 21.
(Dismounted men moved to Pleasant Valley April, 1864, and duty there till May 15.
At Camp Stoneman till June.
Moved to Martinsburg June 16, Leetown and Darkesville July 3.
Operations about Harper's Ferry July 4-7.
Hagerstown, Md., July 6.
Maryland Heights July 6-7.
Antietam Bridge July 7.
Ordered to Pleasant Valley July 22.
Joined Torbert August 8.)
Moved to Shenandoah Valley July 5-15.
Snicker's Ferry July 17-18.
Ashby's Gap and Berry's Ford July 19.
Near Kernstown July 23.
Kernstown, Winchester, July 24.
Bunker Hill and Martinsburg July 25.
Near Moorefield August 7.
Regiment reunite at Hagerstown August.
Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August to November.
Near Opequan Creek August 19.
Opequan Creek August 20.
Near Berryville August 21.
Summit Point August 21.
Charlestown August 21-22.
Williamsport August 26.
Martinsburg August 31.
Darkesville September 2.
Bunker Hill September 2-3.
Darkesville September 10.
Bunker Hill September 13.
Near Berryville September 14.
Near Martinsburg September 18.
Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19.
Fisher's Hill September 22.
Mt. Jackson September 23-24.
Forest Hill or Timberville September 24.
Brown's Gap September 26.
Weyer's Cave September 26-27.
Port Republic September 28.
Battle of Cedar Creek October 19.
Dry Run October 23.
Moved to Martinsburg, and duty there till December 20.
At New Creek and duty in Hardy, Hampshire and Pendleton Counties till June, 1865.
Scout to Greenland Gap and Franklin January 11-15, 1865.
Scout to Moorefield March 14-17, 1865.
Consolidated with 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry June 24, 1865, to form 3rd Provisional Cavalry.

Losses:

Regiment lost during service:

33 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and
1 Officer and 96 Enlisted men by disease.

Total 130.

Source:  Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and Confederate Armies, Reports of he Adjutant Generals of the Several States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908

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