MUNCY TOWNSHIP - WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP - BRADY TOWNSHIP - CLINTON TOWNSHIP - FRANKLIN TOWNSHIP - MORELAND TOWNSHIP.
Aside from the city of Williamsport and its nine boroughs, Lycoming County is composed of forty-two townships, of which Pine is the largest, containing 48,640 acres, and Porter the smallest, with 2,880 acres.
Muncy Township is the mother of all those lying north of the river. It was created as a part of Northumberland before Lycoming was organized, April 9, 1772. It became a part of Lycoming County when it became a separate county on April 17, 1795. It derives its name from the Monsey tribe of Indians who once inhabited the West Branch Valley. Since 1795 large slices of the original territory have been cut off to form other townships until now little of the area it once had is left. It is the twenty-seventh in size in the county and contains 9,440 acres.
Nearly every foot of Muncy Township is historic ground. Within its borders many of the most stirring scenes of the Revolutionary and colonial periods were enacted. Fort Muncy was located here; here Captain John Brady was killed and is buried; it was the home of Samuel Wallis, the great land king of Lycoming County; near the 'river stood the great Indian mound which puzzled scientists and archaeologists for more than a century, and at the mouth of Wolf Run stood an important fortification of Andastes Indians. The history of the township has been recited in song and story and the deeds enacted within its present limits will live as long as the everlasting hills that encircle it.
The township embraces a region of unsurpassed beauty and fertility. Some of the finest farms in the county are to be found within its borders. The character of the country is roiling and flat with but a small portion of it being of a hilly nature.
The first deed recorded in Lycoming County is for a property in Muncy Township. It is from Reuben Haines to Catherine Greenleaf for a large tract of land. Early in its history members of the Society of Friends settled in the township and gave the name of Pennsdale to the little community they established. At first it was known as Pennsville and then Hicksville. In 1829 Job Packer established a pottery there which he called "The Elizabethtown Pottery." But the name did not stick and eventually the little hamlet became known as Pennsdale, and that name has clung to it down to the present day.
Many of the descendants of the original settlers are still living in the village. In 1779 a meeting house was built which is still standing, and is one of the oldest places of worship in this section of the state. The original congregation of this meeting house was made up of such families as Ecroyd, Parker, Warner, Wallis, Ellis, Haines, Atkinson, Whitacre, McCarty and others whose names have become a part of the history of the section in which they lived.
Many distinguished Quakers from abroad have visited the old Friends meeting house at Pennsdale, among them James Wilson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Among the characters who resided in the town was James Kitely or Father Kitely as he was better known. He taught school in the village for many years and was a man of high intellectual attainments.
There is one other hamlet in the township, Halls, at the junction of the Reading and the Williamsport and North Branch railroads. It is composed of only a few houses, but near it is the old Hall Cemetery in which are buried many of the original settlers of the county. The cemetery was established by the Hall family, who became owners of the Wails property after the latter's death. In it are also laid the remains of the gallant Captain John Brady and at his side those of the equally gallant Robert Lebo, who requested that he be buried alongside his lifelong friend. They served side by side in the Revolutionary War and they lay side by side in death. They were close friends and companions in life and the grave could not part them. It is not too much to hope that they are still side by side in another world.
According to the census of 1920 Muncy Township has a population of 687, most of whom are devoted to farming, but there are a number of beautiful country homes located within its limits.
Washington Township. - Lying in the most southerly portion of Lycoming County and extending for a short distance into Union County, is another beautiful valley, known by the picturesque name of White Deer. It is triangular in shape and is surrounded on three sides by portions of the Bald Eagle and White Deer Mountains. Most of the valley is comprised within the limits of Washington Township, which was erected by order of the court of Northumberland County, August 23, 1785. It was taken from Bald Eagle Township which then comprised all the territory lying south of the river and extended as far west as a point opposite the mouth of Pine Creek. From it have since been erected Armstrong, Bastress, Brady, Clinton, Limestone, Nippenose and Susquehanna townships in Lycoming County besides several outside. Its original area was 95,180 acres. It is now thirteenth in size in the county and has an area of 22,400 acres.
White Deer Valley is a fine agricultural region, there being many exceedingly fertile farms within its borders, and its natural scenery is unsurpassed by that of any other section of the county. The view from the top of Bald Eagle Mountain on the road to Elimsport is one of exceeding beauty, the valley stretching away in every direction and forming a delightful prospect. The name was given to it by reason of the fact that in the early days several white deer were killed in the mountains and at one time an entirely black deer was killed within its borders. Up until only a few years ago rumor had it that a magnificent white buck still roamed the woods in the immediate vicinity which for years had defied the skill of the most experienced hunters, and it may be that this tradition still exists among the old hunters of the valley. The name of the valley was originally White Deer Hole. The name "Hole" was added to it, it is claimed by many, on account of the fact that near the center of the valley there formerly existed a large circular basin of low ground about ten acres in extent. It was high on all sides and lowered towards its center, where there was a small island covered with bushes and surrounded by water. A more probable reason for the name, however, may be found in the fact that it was given to it in contradistinction to Black Hole Valley, which adjoins it on the east and was thus called because when the first settlers looked down upon it from the surrounding hills it was so thickly covered with a heavy growth of timber as to have the appearance of a great "black hole." White Deer Valley comprises the townships of Washington and Brady in Lycoming County and Gregg in Union, the latter having been struck off from Lycoming County and annexed to Union in 1861.
Among the earliest settlers in the valley was John Farley, who came here in 1787 and became of considerable prominence. He built the first grist mill in what is now Washington Township. Another remarkable settler was Catherine Smith, who located near the mouth of White Deer Creek some time before the Revolutionary War. She was a widow with ten children and all she had in the world was 300 acres of land in White Deer Valley. She was a woman of great business ability and soon became an important factor in the community. She was early solicited to build a grist mill on her land as one was greatly needed at that point. She borrowed enough money for this purpose in 1774 and in June, 1775, completed the mill, which soon became of very great importance. In the summer of 1776 she built a large boring mill where large numbers of gun barrels were bored for use in the Revolutionary War. It was the only factory of this kind in this section of the state and was of great service to the military authorities. During the Indian wars that followed the close of the Revolution one of her Sons, who was of the most service to her, was killed, and on July 8, 1779, the Indians burned her mill and she was compelled to flee with her children. She returned in 1783 and after much difficulty succeeded in rebuilding the grist mill. Suit was then brought against her in ejectment by parties who claimed the land and eventually she was dispossessed of her property. During the litigation she petitioned the assembly for assistance, but, of course, they had no power to aid her. During the progress of the law suit she walked to Philadelphia and back thirteen times. Part of the stone house in which she lived is still standing and until recently the place of her burial was marked, but the date of her death is unknown. The story of her life is a pathetic one. Her struggles in widowhood, her service to the early settlers in the erection of the grist mill, the manufacture of gun barrels, which was such a material aid to the cause of liberty, the loss of her property and her last futile appeal to the assembly, all revived sad memories of the past, but show in what heroic moulds even the women of that period were cast. Her life and devotion teach a powerful lesson in the cause of true patriotism. The walls of her house that are still standing are just across the county line in Union County and were a part of Lycoming County until it was shorn of this part of its possessions in 1861. One of the most important of the frontier defences, Fort Menninger, which was built in 1778, was situated just west of the widow Smith's mill, forming the apex of an irregular triangle, of which the mill was one base and the widow's house the other.
William Sedam was another early settler and representative man of his time. His hotel, known as "Road Hall," was one of the first in that section and was a famous resort for many years. It is still standing. Robert Foresman was another early settler and was ancestor of the late P. Hammond, Robert M., Seth T., and James Foresman, now deceased, and H. Melick Foresman, all of whom have been closely identified with the social and business interests of Williamsport. The ancestors of Seth T. McCormick, Esq., and the late Hon. Henry C. McCormick also settled in Washington Township and were among the most influential men in the community. Another very important man among the early settlers was Matthew Brown, who came to White Deer Valley about the year 1774. He was a member of the committee of safety for Northumberland County and of the convention that adopted the first constitution of the state of Pennsylvania. He enlisted in the army during the Revolutionary War and died of fever contracted in the service, after returning home.
Elimsport is the only village in Washington Township and is a United States post office. The origin of this name is interesting and unique. It seems that in an early day a German Methodist minister of the gospel came to that section and founded a sort of colony. When it came to giving it a name the minister wanted to call it Elam, after the name of the place in Arabia in which was the first stopping place of the Israelites after they had crossed the Red Sea and to which point the Lord had conducted them after their many complaints, because there were to be found twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees. The settlement in Washington Township was in a section that was unusually well watered and hence the desire to call it Elam. But it was discovered that there was another Elam in the state, in Delaware County, and the post office authorities would not permit two offices in the same state to have the same name. It was therefore decided to call the place Elimsport, which was near enough to Elam for all practical purposes. Although a small place, Elimsport at one time was an important lumber center and there was a large tannery there. It is beautifully situated at the base of the mountain and is in the neighborhood of a fine farming section. Like all the rest of Lycoming County, Washington Township is well watered and there is no more healthful section in the state.
The census of 1920 gives it a population of 670.
Brady Township is situated on the river just south of Clinton Township and lies between it and Washington Township. It was set off from the latter January 31, 1855, and was named after the celebrated Brady family, who lived within its borders. It is the fortieth in size in the county and contains 4,280 acres. It is triangular in shape and is adjoined by Union County on the south.
The most important of the early inhabitants was William Piatt. He was born in what is now Brady Township, January 29, 1795. When he grew to manhood he learned the tanner's trade, which he followed all his life. He was associate judge of Lycoming County for five years and was a member of the assembly for three terms. He also served as county auditor and was president of the Loyalsock Turnpike Company and the Uniontown Bridge Company. He married a daughter of Captain John Brady, the famous Indian fighter and Revolutionary hero, and left numerous descendants, many of whom afterwards became noted in the history of Lycoming and Union counties.
There is no village in Brady Township, although there is a considerable settlement in the neighborhood of Maple Hill. There are two well-known churches in the township, the Mount Zion Methodist at Maple Hill and the Lutheran "Stone church." The latter was founded by Washington Township Presbyterians in 1795 and had a long line of distinguished pastors, among them being Isaac Grier, Thomas Hood, William B. Montgomery, George Junkin, David Kirkpatrick and James Boal. About 1835, owing to internal dissensions, the church property was sold to the Lutherans, one of the terms of sale being that they should keep the burial grounds and graves in good order forever and this stipulation has thus far been religiously carried out. The graveyard is one of the oldest in the county and many of the oldest pioneers of White Deer and Black Hole valleys, who died both before and after the revolution, are buried there.
In 1920 its population was 835.
Clinton Township. -A short distance east of Washington Township there lies another of the wonderfully beautiful and fertile valleys that have made Lycoming County famous. It is known as Black Hole Valley and is wholly included within the limits of Clinton Township. The origin of the name is uncertain and various reasons for the appellation have been assigned. It is said that when the early pioneers penetrated the wilderness by way of the Indian trails and looked down on this valley from the summit of the surrounding hills the forest growth was so dense as to have the appearance of a great black hole. Again it is said that upon the arrival of these early path-finders they found that a fire had burned its way through the dense forest and left in its wake a mass of dead and blackened vegetation. Others assert that it took its name from the fact that the pioneers in crossing the valley suddenly found themselves mired in a swamp of exceedingly black and sticky muck. Hence the name. It is entirely probable that all three reasons may have influenced the naming of the valley. The black swamp actually did exist and was afterwards turned into a cranberry bog and for very many years this toothsome adjunct to the national dinner bird was successfully raised there.
Black Hole Valley is a veritable "Garden of the Lord" and is surpassed in fertility by very few sections in the state. At its lower end stands Penny Hill, a bold and striking promontory which has been long celebrated in song and story on account of the extreme beauty of its surroundings and the magnificent view of the valley and winding river that may be had from its summit. Its eastern escarpment is almost perpendicular where it overlooks the river below Montgomery at which point the rocky cliffs overhang the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad. On the western side the hill gradually recedes to the valley, a few yards east of the famous Road Hall Tavern. The way the hill came by its name is unique and somewhat fanciful. It is said that one of the early settlers, Torbert by name, who lived at the foot of the prominence, had a dog named 'Penny" who had a habit of going to the top of the hill and sitting there for hours at a time, probably enjoying the magnificent panorama of scenic beauty that there unfolds itself and the hill was therefore named in honor of this exceedingly esthetic canine. The hill was at one time, in all probability, a continuation of the Muncy Hills which were subsequently divided at this point by the course of the river.
In 1825 a petition was presented to the court asking for the division of Washington Township and the citizens having voted in favor of the proposition a new township was erected which was given the name of Clinton, in honor of the DeWitt Clinton, the builder of the Erie Canal, and then governor of New York. Clinton Township is the twenty-first in size in the county and contains 12,160 acres. It is bounded on the east by the river where it sweeps around the end of the mountain opposite Muncy, south by the river and Brady Township, west by Armstrong and Washington townships and north by the river below Sylvan Dell.
One of the first settlers in the valley was Cornelius Low, who rented 320 acres from the celebrated Dr. Francis Allison, who also owned a fine tract of land near Lock Haven and who was a son of Dr. Benjamin Allison, the first physician to practice medicine within the limits of what is now Lycoming County. At the time of the Indian troubles Low was advised to fly with his family by a friendly savage. He did send his family to Fort Augusta, but remained himself to "see the fun" and finally barely escaped with his life at the time of the Big Runaway. He went to New Jersey, whence he had come, and never returned. At a later period, however, some of the same family came back to Lycoming County and settled in the same neighborhood.
In 1786 Major John Ten Brook, of New Jersey, took a ten years' lease on this same farm. He was a very considerable figure in that period, having commanded a battalion of New Jersey troops at the battle of Monmouth with rank of major and served with distinction in other engagements of the Revolutionary War. In the winter of, 1787 Black Hole Valley as well as other sections of the county experienced the most severe winter it has ever known. The roads were closed so that the only way of getting about was on snowshoes. Cattle were frozen by the score, the inhabitants were on the verge of starvation, and there was great suffering everywhere. Ten Brook was an excellent shot and endeavored to keep the people supplied with venison and other wild game, but these, too, had been reduced to the verge of starvation and were of little value for food. Finally Ten Brook's father-in-law, whose name was Emmons, succeeded in getting through from New Jersey with a wagon load of provisions and the precarious situation was relieved. Emmons brought with him a large seine and at the first haul in the river at the mouth of Black Hole Creek 2,500 shad were taken and they weighed from two to eight pounds each. At that time the river was full of shad and one of the most important fisheries was located on Lawson's Island at the foot of the Bald Eagle Mountain. This island was washed away after the building of the canal, as the rip-rapping along the hills changed the location of the current. Emmons brought a second load of provisions from New Jersey during the severe winter referred to and while on his way home he was killed by a limb of a tree falling on him while he was asleep in his wagon along the road where he had encamped for the night. Nicolas Shaffer came to Black Hole Valley in 1784. and in 1795 he built a grist mill which was badly needed by the early settlers. An-other pioneer who came to the valley in 1784 and built a grist mill was Conrad Miller, but his customers had to do their share in the grinding, each one being required to turn the mill by hand to grind his own grist. Another early settler of importance was Robert Porter, whose father, George Porter, came from County Donegal, Ireland, and settled in Jersey Shore in 1793. One of the most remarkable men who ever lived within the limits of Clinton Township was Adam Hart, father of Hon-. William W. Hart. He was born at Warrior's Run, in Northumberland County, May 6, 1788, and died May 8, 1890, at the age of 102. He came to Black Hole Valley when a young man and continued to reside there until his death. Even at his advanced age Mr. Hart retained his faculties until the last. He was perhaps the oldest man that ever lived within the present limits of the county. The principal stream in Black Hole Valley is Black Hole Creek, which rises in Loyalsock Gap and flows through Clinton Township into the river. Clinton Township is distinguished for having produced two president judges of Lycoming County, Hon. John J. Metzger and Hon. William W. Hart.
By the census of 1920 the township had a population of 1,279.
Franklin Township. -It seems to be a recognized fact that many people, and the younger generation especially, are more familiar with the geography of South America, or the far off shores of India, than they are with their own country or even their own slate. In fact there are some persons who know more about the exact location of the North Pole than they do about the location of some of the important places in their own county of Lycoming.
If one will take the map of Lycoming County and follow a straight east and west line from Williamsport to the extreme eastern end of the county, a distance of about twenty miles, he will find himself in the neighborhood of Blairsville, in Franklin Township, but if he should attempt to drive it he would find himself interrupted by several intervening hills and mountains.
Franklin Township is situated in the lower end of the county and it and Jordan, its immediate neighbor, are the only two in the county which extend through from one county on the north to another county on the south. Franklin Township was detached from Moreland in 1822 and for thirty-two years included all the territory now within the limits of the township of Jordan and for six years a portion of what is now Penn. As its name indicates it was named for Benjamin Franklin. It is the sixteenth in size in the county and contains 16,320 acres.
The character of the country comprising this township is very much the same as that of its progenitor, Moreland, being composed of a series of wave-like hills, some of the sides of which are almost too step to be cultivatable. It forms a part of the great watershed between Lycoming and Sullivan and Columbia counties. It is drained by the Little Muncy Creek and its tributaries, namely, Big Run, Beaver Run, Indian Camp Run, and Beach Bottom Run. It is bounded on the north by Sullivan County, on the east by Jordan Township, on the south by Columbia County and on the west by Penn and Moreland Townships.
It was settled at a very early clay and some of the early pioneers came to be quite celebrated. Among these was Enos Hawley. He established a tannery at Lairdsville in connection with Thomas Downing about the year 1832. Simon Hawley, a resident of Chester County, was also a member of this firm. Enos Hawley was one of the original abolitionists in this section of the country and belonged to the "Pathfinders," who voted for Fremont in 1856. He was also a prominent member of the association known as "The Underground Railroad," whose purpose it was to aid fugitive slaves to escape from the south into Canada. The route through Lycoming County was a favorite one and many of the prominent citizens of the early days were secret members of the organization.
The late Robert Hawley, at one time postmaster of Williamsport, was a son of Enos Hawley and was born in Muncy, to which place his father removed in 1861 and was appointed postmaster in the same year. Robert Hawley was a well known member of the bar of Lycoming County and a poet and literary genius of no mean order. It is to be regretted that his poems were never collected and published, as they would rank with the best productions of those whose names have become famed. One of his poems entitled, "The Boys in Blue Are Coining," first appeared in 1866 as a campaign song and was published and re-published all over the United States for a great number of years without any credit being given to the author. Indeed, at one time the poem was actually sold to a Republican club in New York for fifty dollars by a man who falsely claimed to be its author.
Lairdsville is the only village in Franklin Township and the only post office. It is located on Little Muncy Creek on an alluvial flat and is in the center of a very prosperous community. It was settled at an early day by Germans who had come from the original counties of the state to find a home among the hills in the lower end of Lycoming County.
Like many other sections of Lycoming County Franklin Township at an early day was an important lumbering center and much valuable timber was cut from the surrounding hills. But these days have passed and now the whole community is devoted to the farming industry, in which they have achieved a success which would hardly have been thought possible considering the hilly character of the land. The original settlers of the township were either Baptists or Lutherans and there are now but two churches in the township, both situated in Lairdsville, one of the Lutheran denomination and the other the Baptist.
At one time there was another post office in the township which was given the name of Mengwe, this being the designation by which the Delaware Indians called the Iroquois or Five Nations. It was located near the northern end of the township at the base of the North Mountain, but was abandoned as a post office many years ago.
Franklin Township, although comparatively small in area, is well supplied with schools, there being seven within its borders, namely, two at Lairdsville, and one each, known as Germany, Fairview, Chestnut Grove and Pleasant Valley. Franklin Township is away off the line of the railroads and is not easily accessible except by wagon or automobile, but whenever reached it is well worth staying in for a short time. Lairdsville is one of those quiet, peaceful, contented places that reminds one of many of the old fashioned villages described so vividly by Dickens, Lowell and other writers of the olden time.
In 1920 it had a population of 817.
Moreland Township. -Scientists tell us that if a polyp, one of the lowest orders of creation, is cut into two or more parts each one of these will develop another polyp, which will have as much vigor and vitality as the original. It is very much the same way with the townships now comprising the county of Lycoming. At the time of the erection of the county, in 1795, there were but eight townships within the present limits of the county, namely, Muncy, Lycoming, Pine, Washington, Loyal-sock, Nippenose, Bald Eagle and Upper Bald Eagle. Bald Eagle and Upper Bald Eagle subsequently became a part of Clinton County, leaving but six of the original townships. These have been divided and subdivided so often that some of the offspring have become of far greater importance than their progenitors.
Moreland Township was taken from Muncy Creek Township in 1818, the latter having been erected out of a part of the original Muncy Township in 1797. From 1813 down to the year 1820 Moreland Township included all of the territory now embraced within the limits of Franklin, Jordan and a part of Penn. There are several theories as to how it got its name, none of them authentic, and all of them more or less speculative. It is said by some that when one of the earliest settlers ascended the hill crest along the ridge of mountains which extends through the township he exclaimed, "More land!" and as that was what they were looking for, the name of Moreland was given to it. Another theory is that when the early surveys were made for this section the work was done so carelessly that the settlers got "more land" than they were really entitled to. It was a very common practice in the early days to give more land to an applicant than his warrant called for so as to be on the safe side and allowances were always made for roads and improvements. Neither of these reasons for the name of the township seems to be worthy of serious consideration and in the absence of conclusive proof it is very probable that the name Moreland was given to the township because the topography of the country so nearly resembled the "Moorland" sections of Scotland.
Moreland Township is situated in the southwestern part of the county and is bounded on the north by Wolf and Penn townships, on the east by Franklin Township, on the south by Columbia and Montour counties and on the west by Wolf and Muncy Creek townships. It is the nineteenth in size in the county and contains 13,210 acres. The land composing nearly all of the township is hilly and mountainous and the timber cut within its limits was originally of very great value and the farms that have been since cleared up on the side hills have become very productive.
Like all other sections of Lycoming County, Moreland Township and the immediate vicinity has great historical interest connected with the war of the Revolution and the early Indian warfare. One of the first settlers was Col. George Smith, who had served in the war for independence and came to what is now Moreland Township about 1790. He had three Sons and three daughters. The Smiths were Baptists in their religious faith and before coming to Lycoming County the eldest daughter, Annie, had married a Quaker named Willian Farr. As this was in violation of the Quaker idea that none of its members should be permitted to marry outside of the faith an effort was made to convince Farr that he had done a great wrong and ought to admit it. This he was unwilling to do and so left the Quaker church and affiliated himself with the Baptists from that time on. The incident is mentioned simply to show the spirit of intolerance that existed in those early days even among the very best of people.
Jonathan Smith, son of Col. George Smith, above mentioned, came to Lycoming County in 1795. He had married Annie Simpson, a sister of John Simpson, of Ohio, who was the grand-father of Ulysses Simpson Grant, the great general of the Civil War. Another of the earlier settlers was William Mears, who became a celebrated singing teacher in that section of the county. The singing teacher in those pioneer days was second in importance to the preacher and in fact was often even of more importance than this individual and his influence was widespread. Mears was one of the most popular of his time and left a lasting impression on the community.
John Opp came from Amsterdam and settled on Little Muncy Creek in 1790. He was one of the most important of the early settlers and did much for the development of the country in which lie lived. He also married into the Simpson family and his son, Lieutenant Colonel Milton Opp, who was born in 1835, was killed in the terrific charge at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. He was a second cousin of the great commander who headed the Union forces on that memorable day, but it is quite impossible that the latter knew that one of his own relatives had laid down his life in that fierce struggle. Colonel Opp was one of the finest men ever sent from Lycoming County into the war of the rebellion and his un-timely death was a great loss to the community in which he lived. It is a remarkable fact that both Abraham Lincoln and General U. S. Grant had relatives in Lycoming County and as might naturally be supposed they were all influential men in their respective communities. Among the other prominent settlers of the early day was Peter Jones, who died in the year 1850 within a few days of being 100 years old. Joseph Hill was another prominent man who had been a revolutionary soldier and served directly under General Washington.
Moreland Township is well supplied with churches and school houses, most of which were built at a very early period. The Little Muncy Baptist Church was organized in 1817 and afterwards became known as the Madison Baptist Church, its membership being composed of people who lived in that section of Lycoming County and also coming from across the mountain, in Montour, Columbia and Northumberland counties. Moreland is a well watered section being drained by both Big and Little Muncy creeks and their tributaries, the most important of which are Laurel Run, Beaver Run, Shipman's Run and Sinking Run. The township is supplied with mail through the rural routes from Muncy. It is a very healthful section of the county and is inhabited by a sturdy set of people who have descended from the original settlers of the Muncy Valley.
Its population in 1926 was 603.
SOURCE: Page(s) 187-203, History of Lycoming County Pennsylvania, Col. Thomas W. Lloyd, Volume 1, Topeka - Indianapolis; Historical Publishing Company; 1929