A Short History of Huntingdon County

Created: Sunday, 29 January 2012 Last Updated: Wednesday, 26 February 2014 Written by Nathan Zipfel Print Email

A SHORT HISTORY OF HUNTINGDON COUNTY

The following history, written by J Simpson Africa of Huntingdon, first appeared in Egle's 1876 "History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania". It  should prove of interest to our readers whose ancestors lived in that portion  of Bedford County which was taken off to form Huntingdon County in 1787.

The entire valley of the Juniata was included tn the county of Cumberland.  From this county Bedford was formed in 1771. Huntingdon was erected from Bedford by an act of Assembly, passed on the 20th day of September, 1787. By  this act, Benjamin Elliott, Thomas Duncan Smith, Ludwig Sell, George Ashman,  and William McElevy, were appointed trustees, who, or any three of whom, were  directed to take assurances of ground in the town of Huntingdon for the site  of a courthouse and jail. By an act passed on the 2d day of April, 1790,  Andrew Henderson and Richard Smith were added to fill vacancies that occurred by the death of one and the removal from the county of another of the  original trustees.

The immense territory of the county, stretching from the line of Franklin  County over the Allegheny to the West Branch of the Susquehanna, was curtailed by the erection of Centre County, February 13, 1800; Clearfield and Cambria Counties, March 26, 1804; Blair County, February 26, 1846, and by the  annexation of a small corner to Mifflin County.

This county lies wholly within the central mountainous region, consequently its surface is very much broken. On the south side of the Juniata there  occur, in passing from the east toward the west, ranged in almost parallel  lines, Tuscarora, Shade, Black Log, Jacks, Sideling Hill, Terrace, and Tusseys Mountains; and on the north side, Jacks, Standing Stone, Broad, Bare  Meadow, Greenlee, Tusseys, and Canoe Mountains. Intervening between these  mountains are numerous ridges of less elevation, called: Pine, Sandy, Saddle  Back, Blue, Owens, Chestnut, Rocky, Clear, Allegrippus, Piney, Warriors,  Shavers Creek, Bald-Eagle, and many others of minor importance.

Broad Top Mountain is situated at the southern line of the county, between  Sideling Hill and Terrace Mountains. Its broad summits tower above the adjacent mountains. The existence of semi-bituminous coal in this mountain was  known a hundred years ago. Mines were opened for the supply of blacksmiths  and others, and the products hauled in wagons to Huntingdon, Bedford, Chambersburg, and other towns, and carried from Riddlesburg in arks to towns along the Juniata and Susquehanna. Two railroads, the Huntingdon and Broad  Top, and the East Broad Top, are now employed in the transportation of the  coal.

The entire county is drained by the Juniata. Its chief tributaries are:  Raystown Branch, Little Juniata River, and Tuscarora, Aughwick, Hares, Mill,  Standing Stone, Vineyard, and Shavers Creeks. Other branches of these streams  are called: Black Log, Shade, Little Auqhwick, Sideling Hill, Three Springs,  Trough, James, Shy Beaver, Sadlers, and Spruce Creeks. These streams afford  numerous and valuable water-powers, many of which are utilized in driving  manufactories of various kinds. Between the mountains are a corresponding  number of valleys of every variety of shape and soil. Some of these contain  as fertile land as is found in the State.

The rich soil of the river flats and the valleys attracted the settler,  and long before the final expulsion of the hostile Indians flourishing settlements of industrious farmers dotted the territory of the county. Of the  575,360 acres of land estimated to be included within its boundaries, not  more than one-third are under cultivation. By the census of 1870, the farms  were valued at 9,445,678 dollars.

About the close of the war of the Revolution the abundance and superior  quality of the iron ores of the county began to attract attention, and a furnace was built on ground now within the limits of the borough of Orbisonia.  It was named Bedford, after the county that then embraced its site. A good  article of iron was manufactured, and the success of this enterprise induced  the erection of Huntingdon, Barree, Union, Pennsylvania, and numerous other  iron works. "Juniata iron" soon became famous throughout the country, and it  continues to be a popular brand. The melting of the forests before the woodman's axe, rendering charcoal expensive and scarce, the increase in the price  of labor, and competition with foreign iron and with that at home more cheaply made from anthracite coal and coke, rendered many of these furnaces and  forges unprofitable, and they have been permitted to decay. A few only are  now being worked. Extensive and valuable iron mines are worked in many localities. From Woodcock Valley large quantities of ore have been carried by rail  to Danville, Johnstown, and other points. The abundance, variety, and value  of the ores, the rich and convenient deposits of limestone, contiguity of the  Broad Top, Allegheny, and Cumberland coal fields, and facilities for transportation by rail and canal, combine to indicate that by the judicious employment of the necessary capital this county can take a more advanced place  in the future than it has ever done in the past in the.manufacture of iron.  The experience of the Kemble Iron Company's furnaces at Riddlesburg, on the  Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, and those of the Rockhill Coa1 and Iron  Company at Orbisonia, on the East Broad Top Railroad, all run on Broad Top  coke, has demonstrated its economy and value in the smelting of iron ores.  Several quarries of "Meridian" sandstone are being worked in the vicinity  of Mapleton. The sand rock is crushed and pulverized in mills or crushers  erected for that purpose, and is transported in large quantities to the glass  works of Pittsburgh and other cities. Mines that give promise of excellent  ochre and umber are being opened in the vicinity of Mapleton.   It is to be regretted that an accurate census of the manufacturing establishments has never been taken. There are in the county furnaces, forges,  rolling mills, foundries, car, and industrial works, water and steam flouring  and sawmills, water and steam sand-crushers, tanneries, furniture, chair,  carriage, broom, shoe, and woolen manufactories, planing mills and numerous  other industrial establishments.

The first highways were Indian paths which traversed the county in many  directions. Along these the traders and pioneers found their way. They were  only bridle paths, and did not admit the passage of a wheeled conveyance.  After farms were opened and mills buiIt, necessity prompted the opening of a  wagon road along the Juniata. This was followed by the cutting of roads in  other directions from "Standing Stone." The river was used for floating arks  and keel-boats, laden with the products of the county, to various points as  far southeastward as Baltimore. A turnpike was constructed from Lewistown to  Huntingdon about 1817, and was extended by the Huntingdon, Cambria, and Indiana Company to Blairsville, a distance of seventy-seven miles, soon thereafter.

The Pennsylvania canal extended through the county from Shavers Aqueduct  below Mount Union to the line of Blair County above Water Street. This improvement was completed to the borough of Huntingdon in November, 1830.  It  is now abandoned above the Huntingdon Dam.

The line of the Pennsylvania Railroad enters the county below Mount Union,  and following the Juniata and Little Juniata, finally leaves the county between Birmingham and Tyrone. On the 6th day of June, 1850, the road was completed to Huntingdon. The opening to Pittsburgh of this great highway of  travel and traffic marked an important era in the history of the Commonwealth,  and has materially increased and facilitated the development of the resources  of the valley of the Juniata.

In 1853 the construction of the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad was commenced. The main line from Huntingdon to Hopewell, a distance of thirty-one  miles, was opened for business in 1855.  It has since been extended to Mount  Dallas, where it connects with the Bedford and Bridgeport Road, running to  the Maryland line, and connecting there with roads entering the Cumberland  coal region. Over four million dollars were expended in the construction and  equipment of the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad. The length of the main  line is forty-five miles, and of the branches fourteen miles. During the last  fiscal year it carried over three hundred and eighty thousand tons of bituminous coal and forty-six thousand tons of iron ore.

The East Broad Top Railroad (three feet gauge) extends from Mount Union  to Robertsdale in the Broad Top region, a distance of thirty miles, and cost  about one million dollars. It was opened in 1873, and during the last fiscal  year carried sixty-three thousand tons of coal.

The earliest permanent settlement effected within the limits of the  county was at the Standing Stone (now Huntingdon). The compiler was informed  some years ago by one of the old citizens that the Indians living at Standing Stone had cleared land and cultivated corn.  In 1754. Hugh Crawford was  in possession of the land, and continued to hold it until the first day of  June, 1760, when he conveyed the tract, containing four hundred acres, to  George Croghan, who, on the 10th day of December, 1764, obtained a warrant  from the Proprietaries, authorizing a survey and return thereof to the land  office.

In 1754 Peter Shaver commenced a settlement at the mouth of Shavers Creek.  In 1760 or 1761, James Dickey commenced an improvement on the south-east side  of Shavers Creek, near Fairfield. Other improvements were made along Shavers  Creek, and on the upper branches of Standing Stone Creek, as early as 1762.

The bottom lands along the Juniata, the Raystown branch, and the Aughwick  Creek, and the fertile lands of Tuscarora, Black Log, Germany, Kishicoquillas,  Plank Cabin, Woodcock, Harts Log, Canoe, Spruce Creek, and Warriors Mark Valleys, were dotted with improvements in 1761-2.

In 1748 Conrad Weiser was sent on a mission from the Provincial government  to the Indians at Ohio. His route was through this county, and in the journal  of his trip, the Black Log sleeping-place, the Standing Stone, and other  points are mentioned. John Harris, the founder of Harrisburg, in an account  of the road from his ferry to Logstown on the Allegheny, taken in 1754, men ..  tions localities on his route, now in this county, as follows: Cove Spring,  Shadow of Death, Black Log, Three Springs, Sideling Hill Gap, Aughwick, Jack  Armstrong's narrows, Standing Stone, and Water Street.

The Cove Spring is supposed to be what is now known as the Trough Spring  in Tell Township; the Shadow of Death was applied to the water gap in the  Shade Mountain, now called Shade Gap; the Black Log was near Orbisonia; the  Three Springs are in the vicinity of the borough of that name; Aughwick was  on the site of Shirleysburg; Jack Armstrong's narrows, now curtailed to  Jack's narrows, designates the narrow passage cut by the Juniata through  Jack's Mountain above Mount Union; and the Water Street to a gorge between  the mountains, through which the waters of the Juniata pass, above the village bearing that name.   The Standing Stone stood between Allegheny Street and the Juniata, above  Second Street in the borough of Huntingdon, and was described by John Harris  in 1754, as being fourteen feet high and about six inches square. It was  erected by the Indians, a branch of the Six Nations, and was covered by their  hieroglyphics. The natives, who seem to have regarded this stone with great  veneration, after the treaty of 1754, by which their title to the lands of  the valley of the Juniata was relinquished to the Proprietary government,  migrated, and as it is generally supposed, carried the stone with them. Another stone, erected soon after by the white settlers, was covered with the  names of traders, residents, and colonial officials. It was broken by a carelessly thrown "long bullet." A part of it, bearing numerous interesting inscriptions, is in the possession of Mr E.C. Summers.   Although Dr. Smith, after laying out the town in 1767, changed the name to  Huntingdon, the old appellation, "Standing Stone," continued for many years  thereafter to be used by the residents of the valley. That name is still  borne by the creek, valley, ridge, and mountain in the vicinity, and its  Indian equivalent, "Oneida," has been applied to a township through which the  creek flows. The seal of the borough has as its central figure a representation of the stone.

Soon after the treaty of the 6th of July, 1754, settlers commenced improvements in choice spots throughout the present county, and early in the  next year a number of warrants were granted by the land office, authorizing  the survey and appropriation of tracts applied for. The Indian troubles following the defeat of Braddock prevented the making of any official surveys  in pursuance of these warrants earlier than 1762.

Three Proprietary manors, Shavers Creek, Woodcock Valley, and Harts Log,  and a part of Sinking Valley are included in this county.

The following list contains the names of early settlers in various localities in the county. The figures following the names respectively indicate  the earliest year in which those persons are known to have resided in the  county. Many of them may have settled still earlier.

Dublin and Tell Townships: James Coyle, John Appleby, James Neely, James Morton, Samuel Morton, and John Stitt, 1778; Samuel Finley; George Hudson, 1786.

Cromwell Township: James, Gavin, George, Robert, and Thomas Cluggage, 1766; Thomas Cromwell, 1785.

Shirley Township: James Carmichael, 1762; James, Robert, and Patrick Galbraith, 1771; James Foley, 1772; Charles Boyle, 1773; William Morris, 1780; Bartholomew Davis, 1774. Clay Township: John and Abraham Wright, 1776; Henry Hubble, 1786; George Ashman, 1779; John Hooper, 1785.

Springfield Township: John anel Robert Ramsey, 1778; Hugh Madden, Trough Creek Valley: Peter Reilley, Law. [Lawrence?] Swope, 1779; Richard Chilcott, 1784; Samuel Lilly, 1788; Thomas H. Lucket, Richard Dowling, 1785; Thomas Cole, 1784; Peter Thompson, John Dean, 1784.

Plank Cabin Valley: Eli McLain, 1784; George Knoblehoff, 1785; Edward Dormit, 1784.

Raystown Branch: John and George Weston, 1766; Samuel Thompson; Martin Kisling, 1791; William Corbin, William Shirley, George Buchanan; Sebastian Shoup, 1775.

Broad Top Mountain: Anthony Cook, 1786; Walter Clark, 1775; Gideon Hyatt, 1787; John Bryan. Mapleton: Jacob Hare and Gideon Miller, 1762.

Brady Township: Peter Van DeVander, 1775; David Eaton, 1775; Joseph Pridmore, 1781; Caleb Armitage.

Henderson Township: John Fee, 1775; John Dorland; Joseph Nearon, 1781; Daniel Evans, 1778; Benjamin Drake, 1785.  Huntingdon: Hugh Brady, 1766; Michael Cryder, 1772; Benjamin Elliott, Adam Bardmess, Abraham Haines, 1776; David McMurtrie, 1777; John , Matthew, and Robert Simpson, 1789; Alexander McConnell, 1786; Rev. John Johnston, 1790; Michael Africa, 1791; John Cadwallader, Andrew Henderson, Peter Swoope, Frederick Ashbaugh, Ludwick Sells.

West Township: Peter Shaver, 1754; Hugh Means, 1773; George Jackson, 1772; Thomas Weston, 1772; Henry Neff, 1780; Alexander McCormick, 1776; Nicholas Grafius, 1778; Patrick Maguire, James Dearment, 1779; Samuel Anderson, James Dickey, 1760 or 1761.

Jackson Township: William McAlevy, 1767; ___ O'Burn.

Barree Township: Gilbert Chaney, 1786; George Green; Richard Sinkey, David Watt, Matthew Miller, John Forrest, William Hirst, Chain Ricketts.

Oneida Township: William Murray, Nathaniel Gorsuch, 1787.

Harts Log Valley: David and Charles Caldwell, 1767; John Mitchell, 1774; Peter Grafius, 1778; John Canan [Canaan?], John Spencer, 1779; Moses Donaldson, Jacob and Josiah Minor.

Woodcock Valley: Henry Lloyd, Joshua Lewis, George Reynolds, 1774; Nathaniel Garrard, 1776; James Gibson, 1781; Solomon Sell, 1785; ___ Elder; ___ Hartsock.

Morris Township: John Bell, Edward Beatty, 1779.

Franklin Township: Benjamin Webster and Absolem Gray, 1779; Alexander Ewing, 1786; Abraham Sells, 1785; James Hunter, 1784.

Warriors Mark Township: Thomas Ricketts.   The following list contains the names of the owners, location, and date  of erection, as nearly as can be ascertained, of the early grist-mills of  the county:

Robert Cluggage's, Black Log Creek, Cromwell Township, before 1773;  Bartholomew Davis', Shirley Township, before 1774;  Michael Cryder's, Juniata River, Walker Township, about 1773;  Abraham Sell's, Little Juniata, Franklin Township, about 1776;  Sebastian Shoup's, Shoups Run, Hopewell Township, 1787;  Huntingdon, Juniata River, Huntingdon Borough, about 1793;  N. Garrard's, Vineyard Creek, Walker Township;  William McAlevy's, Standing Stone Creek, Jackson Township;  Joseph Pridmore's, Mill Creek, Brady Township;  McCormick's, Shavers Creek, West Township;  Little's, Laurel Run, Jackson Township;  Minor's, Little Juniata, Porter Township;  Crum's, Trough Creek, Tod Township.

At least two of the companies sent from Bedford County for the defence of  the colonies during the war for independence were composed of men who lived  within the present limits of Huntingdon County. One of these, attached to  the first battalion, was commanded by Captain William McAlevy, afterward  known as Colonel and General McAlevy, and was in the service in January,  1777. After faithful service in the defence of American liberty, Captain McAlevy returned to his home in Standing Stone Valley, where for many years he  was an active and influential citizen, and until his death enjoyed the universal respect of his neighbors. His name is perpetuated in that of the village called McAlevy's Fort, located upon the tract of land where he resided.  Thomas Holliday was ensign of his company.    Thomas Cluggage, afterwards known as Major Cluggage, was appointed captain,  Hugh Means first lieutenant, and Moses Donley second lieutenant, of a company  of rangers organized in 1779. This company among other duties was engaged in  defending the settlements on the Juniata. In October, 1779, when Captain  Cluggage occupied Fort Roberdeau, in Sinking Valley, he reported that his  company had been reviewed and passed muster with three officers and fortythree rank and file; one of the latter "killed or taken." A company, commanded by Captain Cluggage, was in the Continental service in New Jersey in 17767, and formed a part of the battalion under Colonel John Piper.

In 1781, Dublin, Shirley, Barree, Hopewell, Frankstown, and Huntingdon  Townships, then embracing the whole of the counties of Huntingdon and Blair,  composed one of the battalions of Bedford County.

This region was too far removed from the Atlantic coast to be the scene  of any conflicts with the British invaders, save detached parties sent out  on marauding expeditions, or for the purpose of encouraging the Indians and  Tories. From these the inhabitants constantly suffered. People were murdered  or carried into captivity, buildings burned, crops destroyed, cattle driven  off, and all manner of injury perpetrated by roving bands of the enemy. Many  of the families were removed to the eastern counties. Those that remained  were compelled during the darkest hours of the conflict to seek protection  within the walls of the forts. These were situated as follows:

Standing Stone, east of Third and south of Washington Street, in the borough of Huntingdon. It was built of stockades, and it included dwellings and  magazines. A blacksmith shop that stood at No 205 Penn Street, was constructed of oak logs from the fort, probably a part of a magazine.

In 1778 the inhabitants were much alarmed at a threatened assault by a  band of Tories and Indians, variously estimated at from three hundred to one  thousand in number. General Roberdeau wrote from Standing Stone, under date  of April 23d, 1778, confirming the reports of the alarm of the inhabitants,  and recommended that the militia be called out and sent forward to meet the  enemy. In July, Colonel Brodhead's regiment, then on a march from the east  to Pittsburgh, was directed to stop here, and three hundred militia from Cumberland, and two hundred from York County, were ordered to join them. On the  8th of August, the council informed Dr. William Shippen, director-general,  that there was a body of five hundred men at Standing Stone that would require  a supply of medicine.

Andersons was near the mouth of Shavers Creek, and near the borough of Petersburg.

McAlevys, on Standing Stone Creek, in Jackson Township, seventeen miles north-east of Huntingdon.

Hartsocks, in Woodcock Valley, between McConnellstown and Marklesburg.

Shirley was one of the cordon of Provincial defences erected during the French and Indian troubles that followed the defeat of General Braddock. It was built about 1755, on the bluff at the northern end of the borough of Shirleysburg, on or near the site of the Indian town of Aughwick, often mentioned in colonial annals. In the autumn of 1756, the royal forces evacuated  the fort, and it does not appear to have been afterward used for defensive purposes.

On the 4th day of May, 1812, the "Huntingdon volunteers" tendered their  services to President Madison, in the war with Great Britain, and on Monday,  the 7th day of September following, under Robert Allison, captain, and Jacob  Miller, first lieutenant, they marched to Niagara. On the 2d of October they  arrived at Buffalo. Other companies from Huntingdon County were commanded by  Captains Moses Canan, William Morris, and Isaac Van DeVander. Dr. Alexander  Dean, of the borough of Huntingdon, was chosen surgeon of the Second Pennsylvania regiment.

When war with Mexico was declared, a number of patriotic citizens, probably equal in number to a full company, separately volunteered their services  and were attached to different companies formed in neighboring counties.  They, without exception, behaved gallantly; and most of them, after having  participated in many battles of the war, returned home at the close of the  contest.

The avidity shown by the sons of "old Huntingdon," in rallying to the support of their country in the rebellion of 1861, exhibited a patriotism not  less commendable than that of the sires of '76.

On the 13th or 14th of April, 1861, one or two days after the telegraph  had flashed the intelligence throughout the Commonwealth that "war had commenced," the Standing Stone Guards, of the borough of Huntingdon, tendered  their services to Governor Curtin. Official notification of their acceptance  was received by the company on the 19th, and on the 20th, Saturday, numbering over ninety men, proceeded to Harrisburg, and after discharging all but  seventy-seven, were mustered in as Company D of the 5th Regiment Pennsylvania  volunteers. The company was officered as follows: Benjamin F. Miller, captain;  George F. McCabe, first lieutenant; James D. CampbellL, second lieutenant. The  field officers of the regiment were: R. P. McDowell, of Pittsburgh, colonel;  Benjamin C. Christ, of Schuylkill County, lieutenant-colonel; R. Bruce Petriken,  of Huntingdon, major.

The county was represented in other Pennsylvania regiments as follows:

34th Regiment, 5th reserves--mustered into service, June 21, 1861; mustered out June 11, 1864; George Dare, promoted from major to lieutenant-colonel, August 1, 1862; killed at Wilderness, May, 6, 1864; Frank Zentmyer, promoted from captain, Company I, to major, August 1, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; James A. McPherran, promoted from captain, Company F, to major, May 7, 1864, mustered out with regiment; Company G, commanded successively by Captains A. S. Harrison, John E. Wolfe, and Charles M. Hildebrand, and Company I by Captains Frank Zentmyer and James Porter.

41st Regiment, 12th reserves--mustered into service, August 10, 1861; mustered out June 11, 1864; Company I, commanded by Captain James C. Baker, who died July 7, 1862, and was succeeded by Captain C. W. Hazzard.

49th Regiment--John B. Miles, captain of Company C, mustered into service, August 5th, 1861; promoted to major, October 16, 1862; to lieutenant-colonel, April 23, 1864; killed at Spottsylvania, May 10, 1864; Company C, commanded successively by Captains Eckebarger, Hutchinson, and Smith, and Company D, commanded successively by Captains James  D. Campbell, Quigley, and Russell; were mustered out July 15, 1865.

53d Regiment--Company C, commanded successively by Captains John H. Wintrode and Henry J. Smith; mustered into service, October 17, 1861; mustered out, June 30, 1865.

77th Regiment--Company C, mustered out, December 6, 1865.

92nd Regiment, ninth cavalry--Company M, commanded successively by Captains George W. Patterson, James Bell, Thomas S. McCahan, and D. A. Shelp; mustered out, July 18, 1865.

I10th Regiment--Isaac Rodgers, promoted from captain, Company B, to major, December 21, 1862; to lieutenant-colonel, December 5, 1863; wounded at Spottsylvania, and died May 28, 1864; Company B, commanded successively by Captains Seth Benner, Isaac Rodgers, and John M. Shelly; and Company D, by Captains Samuel L. Huyett and John B. Fite; mustered out June 28, 1865.

125th Regiment, John J. Lawrence, major, Company C, Captain William W. Wallace; Company F, Captain William H. Simpson; Company H, Captain Henry H. Gregg; Company J, Captain William H. Thomas.

149th Regiment, George W. Speer, major--Company J, commanded successively by Captains George W. Speer, promoted to major; Brice X. Blair, lost an arm at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863; Samuel Diffenderfer, discharged May 4, 1864; David R. P. Neely, who was mustered out with the company, June 24, 1865.

185th Regiment, 22d cavalry--Company A, commanded by Captain John D. Fee, nine months' service; Company K, commanded by Captain John H. Boring, three years' service.

192d Regiment, one year's service, William F. Johnston, major--Company B, commanded by Captain Thomas S. Johnston.

195th Regiment, one hundred days' service--John A. Willoughby, quartermaster, Company F.

202d Regiment, one year's service--Company K, commanded by Captain A. Wilson Decker.

205th Regiment, one year's service--Company D, commanded by Captain Thomas Breed.

3rd Regiment, militia of 1862--William Dorris, Jr., colonel; Company F, commanded by Captain George W. Garrettson.

12th Regiment, Henry S. Wharton, major--Company D, commanded by Captain Edward A. Green; Company I, commanded by Captain George C. Bucher.

Rev. George W. Eaton was born in Brady Township, July 3, 1804, and died at Hamilton, New York, August 3, 1872. He graduated at Union College in 1829; was professor of ancient languages in Georgetown College, Kentucky, from 1831 to 1833. Became connected in 1833 with Hamilton Theological Institute, incorporated in 1846 as Madison University, and was successively professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, of civil and ecclesiastical history and of theology. Was president of the college from 1856 to 1868, and president of the theological seminary from 1861 to 1871.

John Canan settled in Harts Log Valley during the Revolutionary War. On the 3d of February, 1781, he was commissioned as one of the justices of Bedford County. In 1787 he was one of the members of the Assembly for that county at the time of the separation of Huntingdon County. The same year he was appointed deputy surveyor for the county of Huntingdon, and held that office until 1809.

Joseph Saxton, born in the borough of Huntingdon, March 22, 1799; died at Washington, D.C., October 26, 1873. He learned, in youth, the trade of watchmaking. He was the inventor of numerous mechanical machines, and was widely known and highly esteemed for his scientific acquirements. In 1843 he became a resident of Washington, and was employed in the Coast Survey office, where he designed and superintended the construction of the apparatus used in that department. He remained in the service of the government until his death.

Rev. John Johnston, born at or near the city of Belfast, Ireland, 1750; died at Huntingdon, December, 1823. In November, 1787, he was installed as pastor of the Harts Log and Shavers Creek Presbyterian congregations. In 1789, his pastoral relation to the Shavers Creek congregation was dissolved, and in 1790 he accepted a call from the Huntingdon congregation for one-half of his time. From this date until the year of his death, a period of thrity-three years, he continued as pastor of the two congregations.

Hugh Brady, a brigadier-general in the United States Army, was born at  Huntingdon, in 1768. He entered the service in 1792 as lieutenant; served  under Wayne in his campaign against the Western Indians, and in the war of  1812 was distinguished for his gallantry and bravery. The township of Brady  was named in honor of the general.

Alexandria is situated on the north bank of the Juniata, seven miles northwest of Huntingdon. It is surrounded by the fertile and well cultivated lands  of the valley of Harts Log, a name derived from a log hollowed out and used  by John Hart, an Indian trader, in feeding his pack-horse. It was laid out  in 1798, and incorporated as a borough April 11, 1827. It contains three  churches and three public schools.

Birmingham, on the north bank of the Little Juniata, on the opposite side  from the Pennsylvania Railroad, seventeen and a half miles north-west of  Huntingdon, laid out by John Cadwallader, of Huntingdon, and called after the  city of the same name in England, was incorporated April 14, 1838.  It is the  site of Mountain Seminary, and has Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and  United Brethren Churches.   Broad Top City, near the summit of Broad Top Mountain, and near the eastern terminus of the Shoups Run Branch of the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, 27.5 miles south-south-west of Huntingdon, was incorporated August 19,  1868, and contains the Mountain House, a well-kept summer resort, a Baptist  church, and an Odd Fellows Hall.

Cassville, in Trough Creek Valley, 17.5 miles south of Huntingdon, was incorporated March 3, 1853, and has Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal, and Methodist Protestant Churches, two potteries, and was, until recently, the site  of the Cassville Soldiers' Orphan School.

Coalmont, on the Shoups Run Branch of the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, twenty-eight miles by rail south-south-west of Huntingdon, was incorporated November 22, 1864.

Huntingdon is situated on the north bank of the Juniata, at the mouth of  Standing Stone Creek, two hundred and two and a half miles west of Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Railroad and canal pass through the borough, and it is  the northern terminus of the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad. Although settled as early as 1754, and widely known to traders and the Provincial authorities as "Standing Stone," it was not regularly laid out as a town until 1767,  when Rev. Dr. William Smith, the proprietor, at that time and for many years  thereafter provost of the University of Pennsylvania, called the town "Huntingdon," in honor of Selina, countess of Huntingdon, in England, a lady of  remarkable liberality and piety, who, at the solicitation of Dr. Smith, had  made a handsome donation to the funds of the University.

During the troublesome times following the defeat of General Braddock, in  July, 1755, until the peace with Great Britain in 1783, this place and its  vicinity was the scene of many important incidents. In 1787, it became the  county seat, on the erection.of Huntingdon County, and on the 29th day of  March, 1796, it was incorporated as a borough.

Before the completion of the canal, this place commanded the principal  trade of the county. This improvement compelled Huntingdon to share the business, of which it had almost a monopoly, with several smaller towns, and for  many years there was no material increase of business or population; but a  marked improvement followed the completion of the Pennsylvania, and Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroads, until it has become, with a single exception,  the most flourishing and populous town in the valley of the Juniata.

The error committed by Dr. Smith of making the streets too narrow and omitting alleys, has been avoided in the plans of lots since laid out. The public  buildings are nearly all, and the residences erected within the last decade  are generally, built of brick. The streets are lighted with gas, and the  sidewalks in all of the built portions of the town paved with brick.

The view from the adjacent hills, taking in the town, the Juniata and  Standing Stone Creek with their bridges, the railroads, canal, cemetery, and  the surrounding scenery, is grand.

The cemetery, located on an eminence having an elevation of about one  hundred and fifty feet above the river, the nucleus of which was a small plot  of ground donated by the proprietor of the town, and enlarged from time to  time, embraces an area of about twelve acres, is used as a place of sepulchre  by all religious denominations save one, and as a place of resort during  pleasant weather by the entire population. It is owned and controlled by the  borough authorities.

The borough contains the courthouse, jail, eleven churches, an academy, incorporated March 19, 1816, three public school buildings, accommodating fourteen schools with eight hundred and ninety-six scholars. The industrial establishments are numerous and varied. The population, according to the census  of 1870, was 3,034; it is now (1876) estimated to be 4,100. The local government consists, besides the usual borough officers, of three burgesses and  nine councilmen, one-third of whom are chosen annually for a term of three  years. These officers constitute the town council, and meet statedly on the  first Friday of each month, the senior burgess acting as chief burgess and  presiding at the meetings.

This town occupies a pretty location. It contains numerous public and  private buildings, having the appearance of elegance and comfort, is well and  economically governed, has about a fair admixture of the conservative and  "young Anerica'' elements; few, if any, towns in the interior of the State  excel it in wealth, or in the intelligence, hospitality, and social qualities  of its people; and with the great natural advantages it possesses, should  become, by a judicious combination of the capital, enterprise, and energy  of its citizens, one of the most populous and flourishing boroughs of central  Pennsylvania.

Mapleton, situated on the Juniata River and Pennsylvania Railroad, eight  and one-half miles south-east of Huntingdon, was incorporated August 18,  1866. The ground upon which the principal part of this borough stands was  owned and occupied by Jacob Hare, a notorious Tory of the Revolution. This,  with all his other real estate, was confiscated and sold.

Marklesburg, on the Bedford Road, in Woodcock Valley, and near the station  of the same name on the Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, twelve miles southwest of Huntingdon, was incorporated November 19, 1873.

Mount Union, on the Pennsylvania Canal and Railroad, eleven and one-half  miles south-east of Huntingdon, was incorporated April 19, 1867. It is the  second town in the county in population, and has a Methodist, Presbyterian,  and United Brethren Churches, Odd Fellows Hall, etc.

Orbisonia, on the Black Log Creek and East Broad Top Railroad, was incorporated November 23, 1855. The borough limits include the site of old  Bedford Furnace. Winchester and Rock Hill Furnaces were located on the  creek, a short distance east of the borough, and the two coke furnaces of  the Rock Hill Coal and Iron Company, now producing thirty-five tons of pig  metal per day, are on the southern side of the creek. The population of the  town has greatly increased since the construction of the railroad.

Petersburg, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, at the junction of Shavers Creek  with the Juniata River, six and one-half miles north of Huntingdon, was incorporated April 7, 1830. It contains a Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches, Juniata Forge, a flouring mill, etc. Stages run to Williamsburg  and McAlevys Fort.

Shade Gap, in Dublin Township, thirty miles south-east of Huntingdon, was  incorporated April 20, 1871. There is in the borough a Methodist and near  its limits a Presbyterian Church.

Saltillo, on the East Broad Top Railroad, twenty-three miles south of  Huntingdon, was incorporated November 10, 1875.

Shirleysburg, on the East Broad Top Railroad, twenty miles south-east of  Huntingdon, was incorporated April 3, 1837. This borough is located upon the  site of the Indian "Aughwick old town," and the Provincial Fort Shirley. From  the latter it derived its name. It contains Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches.

Three Springs, on the East Broad Top Railroad, twenty-five miles south of  Huntingdon, was incorporated November 10th, 1869; has Baptist, Methodist  Episcopal, and United Brethren Churches.

Beside these boroughs the following villages may be named: Barnet, on  Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, in Carbon Township, at the Barnet Mines;  Coffee Run, on the same railroad, in Lincoln Township; Dudley, on same railroad, in Carbon Township; Eagle Foundry, in Tod Township; Ennisville, in  Jackson; Franklinville, in Franklin; Fairfield, in West; Grafton, on Huntingdon and Broad Top Railroad, in Penn; Graysville, in Franklin; Manor Hill, in  Barree; Mill Creek, on Pennsylvania Railroad in Brady; McAlevy's Fort, in  Jackson; McConnellstown, in Walker; Nossville, in Tell; Newburg, in Tod;  Robertsdale, on East Broad Top Railroad, in Carbon; Shaffersville, in Morris;  Saulsburg, in Barree; Spruce Creek, on Pennsylvania Railroad, in Franklin  and Morris; Water Street, in Morris; and Warriors Mark, in the township of  the same name.

Townships--At the time of the erection of Huntingdon County in 1787, the  territory within its present limits was included in six townships, to wit:  Barree, Dublin, Hopewell, Shirley, Frankstown, and Huntingdon. Frankstown,  much reduced in area, is now one of the townships of Blair County, and in the  division of Huntingdon, in 1814, one end was called Porter and the other Henderson. There are now twenty-five townships in the county. Twenty-one were  formed since the erection of Huntingdon County, as follow: Franklin, March,  1789, from Tyrone; Springfield, December, 1790, from Shirley; Union, June,  1791, from Hopewell; Morris, August, 1794, from Tyrone; West, April, 1796,  from Barree; Warriors Mark, January, 1798, from Franklin; Tell, April, 1810,  from Dublin; Porter, November, 1814, from Huntingdon; Henderson, November,  1814, from Huntingdon; Walker, April, 1827, from Porter; Cromwell, January,  1836, from Shirley and Springfield; Tod, April II, 1838, from Union; Cass,  January 21, 1843, from Union; Jackson, January 15, 1845, from Barree; Clay,  April 15, 1845, from Springfield; Brady, April 25, 1846, from Henderson;  Penn, November 21, 1846, from Hopewell; Oneida, August 20, 1856, from West;  Juniata, November 19, 1856, from Walker; Carbon, April 23, 1858, from Tod;  Lincoln, August 18, 1866, from Hopewell.