History of Beaver County, Chapter 13

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CHAPTER XIII

THE PRESS

The First Newspaper - News-letters - First Newspaper in English­
First English Daily - Journalistic Development in the United
States - First Colonial Newspapers - First Religious Journals­
Newspapers in Pennsylvania - Great Modern Newspaper Plants
- Character of the American Press - History of the Newspaper
Press of Beaver County.

Here shall the Press the People's right maintain,
Unawed by influence and unbribed by gain;
Here patriot Truth her glorious precepts draw,
Pledged to Religion, Liberty and Law.
STORY, Motto of the Salem Register.

THE first newspaper, in the modem sense of that term, was the Frankfort journal, published at Frankfort, Germany, by Egenolf Emmel, in 1615, one hundred and sixty-three years after the introduction of printing from metal types. Long before that manuscript news-sheets or news-letters, so-called, had been issued to subscribers, and, in England, this system of distributing news did not cease for a considerable time after the establishment of printed newspapers. The first newspaper in the English language was the Weekley Newes, begun by Na­
thaniel Butter, May 23, 1622; and the first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant, issued in 1702.
The United States has shown a phenomenal activity and enterprise in the development of newspapers. Rowell's American Newspaper Directory for 1899 estimates those published in the United States and Canada at twenty-two thousand, or nearly half the total number in the world, and of the world's
total more than half are printed in the English language. The first newspaper in America in colonial times appeared in Boston,
450

History of Beaver County 451

Mass., September 25, 1690. This was a sheet bearing the title, Publick Occurrences both Forreign and Domestick, published by Benjamin Harris, and printed by R. Pierce. It was a diminutive thing, but large enough to excite the suspicion and hostility of the provincial authorities, who suppressed it after the
first issue. The only copy of it known to exist is on file in the State Paper Office in London.
In his prospectus, the publisher says:
It is designed that the countrey shall be furnished once a moneth (or, if any Glut of occurrences happen, oftener) with an Account of such considerable things as have arrived unto our Nation.
In order hereunto, the Publisher will take what pains he can to obtain a Faithful Relation of all such things; and will particularly make himself beholden to such Persons in Boston whom he knows to have been for their own use the diligent observers of such matters.
That which is herein proposed is, First, That Memorable Occurrents of Divine Providence may not be neglected or forgotten, as they too often are. Secondly, That people everywhere may better understand the Circumstances of Publique Affairs. both abroad and at home; which may not only direct their thoughts at all times, but at some times also assist their Business and Negotiations. Thirdly, That something may be done towards the curing, or at least the charming, of that Spirit of Lying which prevails among us, wherefore nothing shall be entered but
what we have reason to believe is true, repairing to the best fountains for our Information. And when there appears to be any material mistake in anything that is collected, it shall be corrected in the next.

Another publication which has often been called the first newspaper printed in America was the News-Letter, published first April 24, 1704, by John Campbell, the postmaster of Boston. Campbell's prospectus was as follows:

ADVERTISEMENT

This News-Letter is to be continued weekly; and all persons who have any houses, Lands, Tenements. Farms, Ships, Vessels. Goods, Wares or Merchandizes, &c., to be sold or let; or Servants Run-away, or Goods Stole or Lost; may have the same inserted at a Reasonable Rate, from Twelve Pence to Five Shillings and not exceed: Who may agree with John Campbell Post Master of Boston.
All persons in Town or County may have said News-Letter every Week,Yearly. upon reasonable terms, agreeing with John Campbell, Post-master, for the same.

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The Hartford, Conn., Courant is the oldest newspaper in the United States in continuous publication. It was started in that city October 29, 1764, and is believed never to have missed publication for an issue up to the present time.
The question as to what was the first religious newspaper published in the United States has been much disputed. By some it is said to have been the Herald of Gospel Liberty, begun September 1, 1808, at Portsmouth, N. H., by Elias Smith. We are not acquainted with the evidence on which the claim is based. It is certain, however, that the Religious Remembrancer, edited by J. W. Scott, and published at No. 147 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, was started September 4, 1813. A complete file of this paper is preserved in the rooms of the Presbyterian Historical Society in the Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia, and the first number bears that date. It may be a surprise to some of the readers of the New York World to learn that that paper was founded in 1860 by a company of religious gentlemen with the distinct purpose of having one newspaper in the metropolis that would be free from the taint of "yellow journalism!"
There are now published in the State of Pennsylvania alone over fifteen hundred newspapers, of which Beaver County has seven. The Minerva was the first newspaper published in this county. It was printed on brown paper, and the pages were 10 x 17 inches in size. The first colonial sheet spoken of above was smaller still. Its size was three pages of a folded sheet, leaving one page blank, with two columns to a page, and each page was about eleven by seven inches. It will be instructive to put down here, by way of contrast with these, and as showing the marvelous advance in the science and art andmachinery of newspaper publishing, some figures descriptive of the issues and the plants of the big New York dailies.
Nearly all of the metropolitan papers are now practically magazines in size, ranging from ten to sixteen pages for the week-day issues, and from forty to fifty for those of Sunday. Modern presses of the largest kind cost as high as $100,000, and some of these great plants have a dozen or more of such presses, each of which can print in five or six colors, or, by superimposing, in a hundred shades. There are single machines, needing only three men to operate them, which can print, fold, cut, paste, and count ready for delivery forty or fifty thousand copies

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in an hour. The New York Journal alone has fourteen presses that can print in an hour nearly one hundred thousand eight page papers, with five colors on the front and back. These fourteen presses can print in less than three seconds one thou­
sand copies of an eight-page paper, as many as the average country newspaper with good circulation prints in a day of a four-page paper. The largest New York papers have as many as one hundred men serving them in their city department
almost every night, and their pay-rolls alone run from $25,000 to $50,000 a week.
It has been said that newspapers are powerful in three ways - as narrators, as advocates, and as weathercocks. "They report events, they advance arguments, they indicate by their attitude what those who conduct them and are interested in
their circulation take to be the prevailing opinion of their readers." In the first of these respects the American press is the strongest, perhaps, and is certainly unrivaled in this regard by that of any other country in the world. The American pressman has naturally (to use a bit of his own slang) "a nose for news." It may be true that with it he too often smells out the rancid and unsavory messes in the world about him, and "if there's a hole in a' our coats" is too anxious "to prent it"; but we think that on the whole the press in this country has lived up to the motto of the Salem Register which we have put at the head of our chapter, and has been generally the defender of the people's rights and of religion, liberty, and law. That eminently fair and intelligent foreign critic of our institutions, Mr. Brice, has said: "The American press may not be above the moral level of the average good - citizen - in no country does one either expect or find it to be so--but it is above the level of the machine politicians in the cities. In the war waged against these wor­
thies the newspapers of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago have been one of the most effective battalions." And whatever may be true of the city newspapers we are sure that the history of the Beaver County press shows that there has been in this important field of activity a long succession of worthy men who have followed the right as they have seen the right, and have sought to be true to the best interests of the community. Instead of ourselves trying to tell their story, we will give the rest of this chapter to two of the craft, whose long services

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as editors and residence in the county qualify them to speak as having the authority of knowledge. We refer to Mr. Francis S. Reader of the Beaver Valley News of New Brighton, and Mr. Michael Weyand, formerly for years editor of the Beaver Argus and more recently of the Beaver Times. These gentlemen have
collaborated in the preparation of the following

HISTORY OF THE NEWSPAPER PRESS OF BEAVER
COUNTY
BEAVER

The Minerva

The first paper published in Beaver County of which any copy is known to" be in existence was the Minerva of Beavertown, issued every Saturday by John Berry, the first number being dated November 4, 1807. It was a four-page sheet, the pages ten and a half by seventeen inches in size, and was sold at two dollars per year. The motto of the paper, taken from Cowper's Task, was: "This folio of four pages; happy work! What is it but a map of busy life, its fluctuations and its vast concerns." In the centre of the head-line was a somewhat crude representation of the goddess whose name it bears (Minerva). The first and second pages were taken up with European news. The third page had a notice that Coulter, Bever & Bowman had begun building a paper-mill at the mouth of the Little Beaver; and also the proclamation of Governor Thomas McKean, offering a reward of $500 for the arrest and conviction of the person who murdered James Hamilton September 23d last past; said Hamilton having accompanied William B. Irish, deputy marshal in the District of Pennsylvania, George Holdship, Esq., and Ennion Williams, agent of the Pennsylvania Population Company, to dispossess William Foulkes.
The editor said, "The Minerva shall be strictly impartial, free from influence of party and political prejudice. He will not asume the office of Dictator and will gladly receive and publish political essays when such are written with moderation
and couched in respectful language. It shall never become the channel through which partizans may give vent to their gall."

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455
The editor had no hesitation in declaring the politics of the paper to be Republican, and said he was warmly attached to the Constitution of the State and of the Union.
How long this paper was published is not known, but as it was the same in
size, type, and general make-up as the Western Cabinet, it is probable that it was continued until the latter was started. July 4. 1812.

The Western Cabinet

The Western Cabinet began July 4, 1812, "printed and published by Joseph W. White" at Beavertown. Pa., every Saturday at two dollars per year. Its motto was: "The basis of our political system is the right of the people to make and to alter
the constitution of Government.-WASHINGTON." No record exists of how long it was published, but it is believed that it passed out of existence with the advent of the Crisis. which it resembled in size. make-up, and general appearance.

The Crisis and Gazette

Three papers were started in Beaver in May and June. 1813, within three weeks of each other, the Crisis. the Beaver Gazette, and the Crisis and Beaver Gazette, and it has been the belief of some persons that the former two were consolidated into the latter.
The first. the Crisis, was started by J. and A. Logan, May 22, 1813, "printed every Saturday morning at their printing office Centre avenue, adjoining the Court House." The last number known to be in existence was dated April 30, 1814, without the name of the publisher.
The Beaver Gazette was begun June 8, 1813, the same size as the Crisis, by A. Logan, published every Saturday at two dollars per year. Its motto was, "Free, but not Licentious." The last copy of the paper known to exist is dated March 15, 1817, but whether it was continued later than that date is not known.
The Crisis and Beaver Gazette, began June 10, 1813, of which three copies are known to be in existence, one dated September 30, 1815. and the last one April 18, 1816, all published by A. Logan. The last number had the same motto as the Gazette. "Free, but not Licentious." This paper, it is believed, was

456 History of Beaver County

published until September 1, 1818, when James Logan, one of these brothers, began the Western Argus. In his salutatory in the Western Argus, James Logan announced that he "sent on the first number to the patrons of the Beaver Gazette," showing that this paper then existed and was the predecessor of the Western Argus.

The Western Argus

James Logan began the publication of the Western Argus, September 1, 1818, and conducted it until 1825, when he disposed of the establishment to Thomas Henry, who had just closed his work as sheriff of the county (see biographical sketch, Chapter IX.).
January 28, r83I, Thomas Henry sold the paper to his son William Henry, who was born June 28, 1808. At the age of sixteen years the latter entered the office of the Western Argus as an apprentice, and was its editor at twenty-three years of age, which position he held until 1851. Mr. Henry was an earnest advocate of public improvements in the county, among which may be named the Erie Canal from the Ohio River to Lake Erie; the Beaver and Conneaut Railroad, which was surveyed in 1836, but work on which was prevented by the panic of 1837, on the line now covered by the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad, and the Ohio & Pennsylvania Railroad, now the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, & Chicago branch of the Pennsylvania lines. He took an active part in the discussion of the great questions of the day, notably the nullification movement, the tariff, the United States Bank, and the Mexican War. Mr. Henry was one of the ablest editors in western Pennsylvania, with a terse, vigorous, and aggressive style that attracted attention. He was treasurer of the county, 1857-58; a member of the Legislature, 1861-2-3;
and served the people faithfully in every position he held.
The name of the paper was changed to the Beaver Argus, August 2, 1843, and it was enlarged, June 26, 1850, when A. G. Henry, brother of William, was taken into partnership, which relationship was continued until November 26, 1851, when William Henry sold his interest to Michael Weyand, and the firm became M. Weyand & A. G. Henry.
The name of the paper was changed, July 27, 1853, to the Beaver County Argus.

History of Beaver County 457

M. Weyand was born in Somerset, Pa., June 11, 1825, the son of Henry and Magdalena Weyand, both natives of Somerset County, Pa., and of German descent. When a year old his parents removed to Beaver County, Pa. At the age of twelve years he entered the office of the New Castle, Pa., Intelligencer as an apprentice and served one year, and in the spring of 1838 entered the office of the Western Argus, served four and a half years as an apprentice, and afterwards was a journeyman printer. He was married to Amanda Somers, November, 1851,
having four children.
On June 28, 1854, Jacob Weyand, brother of Michael, bought A. G. Henry's interest in the paper, which he held until December 16, 1 g 57, when he sold his share to his brother and engaged in newspaper work in Carrolton, Ohio, purchasing the Free Press, which he sold at the beginning of the Civil War, raised a company of volunteers of which he became captain, and was attached to the 126th Ohio Infantry. Jacob Weyand was born in Beaver County, Pa., March 29, 1828. He worked on a farm until he attained his majority, attending the country
schools until he was fifteen, and afterward school in Beaver for a short time. He was a brave soldier, was twice wounded in battle, and at the battle of Monocacy, Md., July 9, 1864, he was in command of his regiment and was publicly mentioned in the official report of the battle for his courage and skill. For his gallant services he was recommended to the Secretary of War for brevet promotions as major and lieutenant-colonel. He was married, July, 1857, to Victoria, daughter of the late Dr. Milo Adams. They had seven children, four of whom are living: Emma, wife of Harry W. Reeves, Beaver Falls, Pa.; Edwin S., attorney at Beaver; Blanche, stamp clerk at the Beaver Falls post-office; and Paul, a minister of the M. E. Church. He was married a second time to Miss Mary Cooke, daughter of Major J. M. Cooke, late of Rochester, Pa. Colonel Weyand is a member of the M. E. Church. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature for two terms, 1893 and 1895.
In December, 1859, Michael Weyand sold the paper to Samuel Davenport, who changed the name again to the Beaver Argus. Mr. Davenport was President of Beaver College and Musical Institute, and in 1862 was appointed Assessor of Internal Revenue. After the war he removed to Indiana, where he died.

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December 28, 1861, Mr. Davenport was succeeded in the paper by Thomas C. Nicholson, who took charge, January 1, 1862, the publishers being T. C. Nicholson & Co. In September, 1862, he enlisted in the 140th Pennsylvania Regiment, and later moved west. The acting editors, Rutan and Anderson, were left in charge. February 11, 1863, D. L. Imbrie assumed control of the Argus as editor and proprietor. He continued in charge until November 2, 1864, when he announced his retirement, and the next week D. W. Scott, jr., took charge as
editor and manager. On account of ill health he sold his interest in the paper at the close of the year, and died of consumption, April 6, 1865. He was a student of Beaver Academy and a graduate of Jefferson College and intended to enter the ministry.
January 4, 1865, Matthew S. Quay and James S. Rutan, who had bought the paper, assumed control and conducted it together until October 18, 1865, when Mr. Rutan announced that he had purchased Mr. Quay's interest and would thereafter conduct it as sole editor and proprietor. This continued until
November 22, 1865, when J. S. Rutan & Co. were published as editors and proprietors, J. L. Anderson being the other member of the company.
July 11, 1866, Jacob Weyand bought the paper and took charge as editor and proprietor. September 17, 1873, the Argus was consolidated with the Radical, under the name of the Argus and Radical, published by the Beaver Printing Company, with Mr. Rutan as editor and Mr. Weyand as business manager.
The office was burned down, March 17, 1874, and publication was resumed April1st.
In December, 1879, Smith Curtis bought the interest of Mr. Rutan in the paper, and W. L Reed bought Mr. Weyand's interest, Mr. Curtis being editor and Mr. Reed business man­ ager.
Smith Curtis was born in Sherburne, N. Y., December 21, 1834, was graduated from Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., in 1858, and from Union Theological Seminary, New York City, in 1861. In the same year he was ordained a minister by the Congregational Association of Ohio at Columbus, and had charge of a Presbvterian Church at Fostoria, Ohio, for three years, where he conducted an academy for two years. He was elected a chaplain during the Civil War, but did not serve. He came

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to Beaver County in 1865, and was married, March 1st, that year, to Isidore Calhoon, who bore him five children. He was principal of the Beaver public schools, 1868-9, and was editor of the Radical after Senator Quay's retirement until the consolidation in 1873.
Mr. Reed was a member of one of the prominent families of the county, and a well-equipped and thorough journalist. They started the Daily Argus in May, 1883, the second daily paper in the county, which was run for a few years and then discontinued.
September 1, 1885, W. F. Bliss and Howard Bliss bought Mr. Reed's interest, and the firm name became Curtis & Bliss, Howard Bliss being business manager. Later, W. F. Bliss, who had been deputy sheriff, moved to California, and the Bliss
interest was sold to John E. Smith in 1890. Howard Bliss continued in the newspaper business, and was recognized as one of the best reporters in the county, retiring January, 1903, when he became sheriff of the county. On the retirement of Mr. Bliss as business manager of the Argus and Radical he was suc­
ceeded by T. S. Laughlin, son-in-law of Mr. Smith, who retired after a few years, the paper then becoming the property of Mr. Curtis alone, who conducted it as a weekly until it was discontinued in May, 1903.
January 3, 1903, a charter was granted at Harrisburg, Pa., to the Radical Printing Company of Beaver, capital $15,000, which absorbed the Argus and Radical, and started a daily paper called the X-Ray, May 4, 1903. The officers of the company were named as follows: President, H. P. Brown; Secretary, Milton J. Patterson; Treasurer, Joseph L. Holmes; Editor, Smith Curtis; Business Manager, F. L. Parker; Circulation Manager, J. H. Hamilton. The paper was suspended, July 13, 1903, and the weekly Argus and Radical was then resumed by Smith Curtis.

The Beaver Radical

In November, 1868, Matthew S. Quay established the Radical in Beaver, in opposition to the Argus, which was kept up until the fall of 1873, when the Radical, under the management of James S. Rutan who bought it the previous year from Mr. Quay, was consolidated with the Argus, under the name of the

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Argus and Radical, published by the Beaver Printing Company, with Mr. Rutan as editor and Jacob Weyand of the Argus as business manager. The Radical was an ably edited paper, and became an authority in Republican politics of the State. (See biographical sketch, Hon. M. S. Quay, Chapter VI; and of Hon.
J. S. Rutan, Chapter IX.)

The Beaver Times

The Beaver Times was established as a Republican weekly paper by Michael Weyand, April I, 1874, a nine-column folio, and was continued by him as editor and publisher until February, 1898, when he disposed of the plant to G. A. Hays of Sewickley, Pa. September 22d of the same year Mr. Hays assigned his interest to the Beaver Publishing Company, whose officers are as follows: President, Henry Hice; and H. Dwight Anderson, Manager. The company began the publication of a daily issue, April 27, 1899, in connection with the weekly issue.
Mr. Weyand was retained as editor until January 1, 1900, when he was appointed postmaster of Beaver, and was succeeded by Ellis N. Bigger, Esq., a prominent attorney at the Beaver bar, who was editorial writer until his death in July, 1902. Mr. Weyand was perhaps the longest in newspaper work of anyone in western Pennsylvania, and the oldest in service as editor in Beaver County, but not in continuous service on any one paper, which distinction belongs to F. S. Reader, editor of the Beaver Valley Neus, New Brighton, Pa.
J. L. Deming, of Bethany, W. Va., was appointed general manager of the paper when the daily edition was started, and after a few months' service retired and was succeeded by T. S. Laughlin, formerly business manager of the Argus and Radical. Mr. Laughlin resigned, January, 1891, and Robert La Ross of New Brighton was elected in his place, and after the death of Mr. Bigger was in editorial charge until his death in January, 1903. After the death of Mr. La Ross, H. Dwight Anderson was elected business manager.
The Daily Times is a six-column quarto, and the weekly is the same size. In October, 1902, a Mergenthaler Linotype was installed in the office, the second in the county.

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DEMOCRATIC PAPERS

The first Democratic paper at the county-seat was the Beaver Republican, which was started, June, 1826, by Logan & English. It was a five-column four-page paper, and carried at the head of its columns the name of Andrew Jackson as the Democratic-Republican candidate for the Presidency. June 20,
1834, Andrew Logan, editor of the Republican, retired, and was succeeded by his brother, James Logan, who was a prominent man in his day, and was prothonotary and clerk of courts. In September, 1834, Andrew Logan again became editor, and about the 1st of November, 1834, J. and E. Beeson, newcomers, but a few days from Ohio, became the editors. The Republican
ceased to exist, May 6, 1835.

Democratic Watchman

The first number of the Democratic Watchman, the successor of the Republican, made its appearance, Friday, June 19, 1835, published by J. Beeson. It was backed by the same interests that controlled the Republican, and its policy was the same. The paper was discontinued in the second week of December
1835.

The Aurora

The Aurora was started by Alexander R. Niblo of Brighton township, in March, 1836, as the successor of the Watchman. The paper suspended in the fall of 1838, and was revived early in December, 1838, with J. W. White of Massillon, Ohio, as editor, with Mr. White and David Porter, proprietors. The paper was much improved in appearance over its predecessors, but was unable to find sufficient support to make it a success, and it was discontinued, March I, 1839.

Beaver River Gazette

Amid the struggles of these papers to gain a permanent foothold in their party, the Beaver River Gazette was started February 13, 1834, by Dr. R. B. Barker and Reese C. Fleeson, printed and published on Main (Third] Street, Beaver, every
Thursday. It was a six-column four-page paper, and was declared to be decidedly Democratic. The last reference to the

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paper in the Argus was May 3. 1834. and it is probable that it passed out of existence in that year. The Argus, in speaking of the death of the Republican, May 6. 1835, said: "We have now the whole field to ourselves; and as long as this is the case, we are willing to extend to our Jackson friends liberties and acts of courtesy that under other circumstances could not be asked," which shows that no other paper existed in the town at that time.

The Western Star

The Western Star, successor of the Aurora, was started December I5, 1843. by Washington Bigler and William Denlinger, both from the eastern part of the State, under the firm name of Bigler & Denlinger. This was a six-column four-page paper. and was first printed in a row of old wooden buildings which
stood at the south end of the Porter Hotel, now the site of the Parkview Hotel. Mr. Bigler retired from the firm, January 7, 1846. He was a brother of the famous Bigler brothers, John and William, who were chosen Governors respectively of the
States of California and Pennsylvania, on the same day in 1851.
In September, 1846, Mr. Denlinger temporarily retired from the paper, and was succeeded by Major John Irons of the Genius of Liberty, Uniontown, Pa., who remained but a few months on the paper and then returned to Uniontown, where he died July 30, 1850, and Mr. Denlinger returned to the Star.
January 7, 1848. Dr. R. B. Barker purchased a one-half interest in the paper and became senior editor. He remained but a short time. P. B. Conn, a practical printer, was associated with him and retired December 7, 1849. He was succeeded by D. P. Work, who formerly worked on the Argus. He retired from the Star, March 17, 1852, and was succeeded by Samuel Gaither of Somerset County. The paper was then conducted by Mr. Gaither and Mr. Denlinger, under the firm name of Gaither & Denlinger. The latter finally withdrew from the paper, Sep­
tember 8, 1852, and was succeeded by H. C. Connelly. In September, 1853, R. Gregor McGregor1 of North Sewickley township. purchased Mr. Gaither's interest in the paper and became associated with Mr. Connelly in its management. The latter retired in January, 1855. leaving the entire management
1See biographical sketch of R. Gregor McGregor, ante pp. 404-05.

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to Mr. McGregor. In the early part of November, 1857, the Star suspended for a short time, until "some needful collections" could be made. By the latter part of the month the stringency was relieved and the paper was resumed under N. C. Barclay as publisher, and McGregor & Barclay as editors. At a later time A. C. Barclay became a member of the firm. On Thursday, June 30,1861, the office of the Star was entered, the press taken apart and the arms, with several cases of type, carried off and dumped into the Ohio River. The parts of the press and nearly all the type were recovered, so that not much loss was sustained.
July 10, 1861, A. C. & N. C. Barclay disposed of their in­ terest in the Star to O. S. Long, a professor in the Beaver Seminary. With him was William Pusey, who remained but a short time. In August, 1864, Mr. Long leased the paper to R. Gregor McGregor and Samuel K. Alexander, the latter a practical printer, one of the best in the county, who continued at the trade until 1901, occupying in his time some of the best positions in the county.
In November, 1865, Mr. Long sold the paper to James H. Odell, who had just returned home from service in the Union army. He changed the name of the paper to The Local. He was an aggressive writer, and was in frequent jangles with his political opponents and members of his own party. In 1867 he was prosecuted for libel by Elijah Barnes, a former treasurer of the county, was found guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $200 and undergo imprisonment in the county jail for sixty days. He conducted the paper from his cell and made it as lively as ever for his opponents. November 3, 1869, Mr. Odell sold the paper to Thompson Burton and Thomas Williams, who retired from the business in November, 1870, and the paper passed into the hands of W. H. Swartz, and after a few months was discontinued, and the material sold at constable's sale.
May 19, 1871, E. B. Williams secured the material of the office, and, changing the name, began the publication of the Conservative, which he continued alone until January, 1873, when John Bigger bought one half interest, and in August, 1873, bought the entire interest, Mr. Williams retiring. Mr. Bigger published the paper until January, 1874, when it was discontinued, and the material passed into the hands of Robert L. Treiber, a Beaver printer, who associated with him M. J. White,

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and the name of the paper was changed to the Democrat. After a few months Mr. White retired and Mr. Treiber continued publication until October, 1876, when
the plant was sold at sheriff's sale and was bought in by John J. Wickham, Esq.
Shortly after the sale, John S. Hoopes of New Brighton, Pa., secured the material and began publishing the Beaver County Post. In a short time it passed under the control of James M. Phillis and M. J. White, and was soon discontinued.
In October, 1877, Dr. R. S. Kennedy, a Beaver County physician, bought the material, refitted the office, and resumed publication of the paper under the name of the Commoner, which he changed to the Star in October, 1879, greatly enlarging and improving the office with new type and presses. It was then issued from a frame building near the corner of Third and Beaver streets, with the press-room near the end of the same lot. In 1881 Dr. Kennedy erected a brick building on Turnpike Street, on the rear of the lot now occupied by Caler's jewelry store, and the Democratic organ for the first time had a home of its own, where it continued to shine brilliantly. In October, 1884, the doctor leased one half interest in the paper to Charles F. Whisler, and for a short time it was published by Kennedy & Whisler, when the other half was leased to Lewis W. Reed, the firm name thenceforward known as Whisler & Reed, until October, 1885, when Dr. Kennedy resumed control and published the paper until September, 1887, when he disposed of it to John A. Mellon, at that time editor and publisher of the Beaver Falls Globe. Mr. Mellon consolidated the two papers under the name of the Globe-Star. September 10, 1891, he sold one half interest to W. H. Porter, and, September 28, 1891, they changed the name to the Star and began the publication of the Daily Star. In November, 1891, they were prosecuted for libel by Hon. M. S. Quay, and were tried in January, 1892, the jury returning a verdict of guilty, January 18, 1892. They were sentenced in February to pay a fine of $600 and undergo imprisonment in the county jail for six months, but were pardoned March 25, 1892. Mr. Mellon disposed of his interest to Richard W. Stiffey, and the paper was then publisbed by Porter & Stiffey. In January, 1894, the plant passed into the hands of a stock company. with Mr. Porter as managing editor. In Feb­
ruary, 1895, the "Star Publishing Company" was chartered.

History of Beaver County 465

Its officers are now John Conway, President; John M. Buchanan, William B. Dunlap, Thomas Bradford, Lewis W. Reed, Henry E. Cook and George R. Wilson, Directors; with William B. Dunlap, ex-State Senator, editor. In April, 1896, the office was removed from the Kennedy building into the Buchanan building, Third Street, and new material and presses added. The plant was burned in the morning of March 25, 1897, between the hours of five and six o'clock, when the entire outfit
was destroyed. The Beaver Valley News, of New Brighton, Pa., telephoned at once to the editor, offering the help of its office, and the same day an issue was published in the News office, and the paper was printed there for a few days, when new material was purchased and set up in an old frame building in the rear of the Argus and Radical office, Beaver, where the type was set, and the paper was printed in the press-room of the Argus and Radical. In July, 1898, a new building was erected for the Star immediately in rear of the new Buchanan block,
and a complete new plant installed, and soon afterward a simplex type-setting machine was placed in the office. The edi­ torial and business office was established in the Buchanan building. In February, 1899, Mr. Porter resigned his position, and D. L. McNees, reporter on the paper, and a skilled newspaper man was appointed as his successor. In J900 the weekly Star was changedto a semi-weekly. The daily Star is an eight­ column folio.

NEW BRIGHTON AND FALLSTON

Fallston and Brighton Gazette

This paper was established at Fallston, Pa., August 5, J835, by Dr. E. K. Chamberlin of New Brighton, and N. P. Fetterman, Esq., of Beaver. It was a Democratic paper, representing the Muhlenberg wing of the party, while the Watchman of Beaver represented the Wolf wing. It was printed on a large imperial sheet and was an excellent paper and ably edited. It was discontinued by these gentlemen in November, 1836. (See notice of Dr. Chamberlin, Chapter X., and of Mr. Fetterman, Chapter IX.)
The paper was revived in December, 1836, under the proprietorship of Dr. John Winter, who changed it into a Whig paper. In November, J837, he retired from the paper and was
VOL. 1,-30.

466 History of Beaver County

succeeded by John B. Early, who published it until January 6, 1838, when it passed into the hands of B. B. Chamberlin, Esq.
Rev. John Winter was born in Wellington, England, July, 1794. He entered the Theological College of the Baptist Church at Bradford, where he was graduated in 1820. His first charge was in South Shields. He married Eliza Wilson in 1819, and
they, with one child, came to America in 1822. He preached and taught school in Pittsburg, and preached in various places in Allegheny and Beaver counties. He wrote much for the religious and secular papers, and wrote the life of Massie Har­
bison, who had been captured by the Indians and escaped from them, and also a work entitled What is Baptism. He was an able preacher and built the first Baptist church in New Brighton, while pastor there He had the following children: Mary, wife of Dr. John Irvin of Sharon; a daughter, died in infancy; John S., journalist; William Hart, M. D.; and Eliza Winter. His wife died November 7,1866, and he married for his second wife, Ann Snively, who died September 24, 1899. Dr. Winter died in Sharon, Pa., November 5, 1878.

Beaver Falls Union

The Beaver Falls Union and Beaver County Advocate, published weekly by the Beaver Falls Press Association, the successor of the Gazette, was begun January 6,1838, with B. B. Chamberlin, Esq., as editor. It was a six-column four-page paper, subscription price, two dollars per year, and contained a large amount
of reading matter, mostly general news, political and miscellaneous reading, but not much attention was paid to the local news. It was the only paper then in the county outside of Beaver. It was a strong Whig paper. B. B. Chamberlin, Esq., retired from the paper, January 12, 1839, and gave his reasons in an editorial one column in length, dwelling on the necessity of a paper. During his work on the paper, his office was in New Brighton, while the publication office was in Fallston.
The paper was continued in operation until March 2, 1839, when it was discontinued, the last paper published in Fallston. After that time the papers representing the two towns were wholly operated in New Brighton. (See Chapter IX. for notice of B. B. Chamberlin, Esq.)

History of Beaver County 467

New Brighten Record

Dr. D. H. B. Brower and Wm. T. Purviance began the publication of the Record in May, 1854. The people desired a paper, and an earnest effort was made to sustain it, but it passed out of existence, April 23, 1856, when John Cuthbertson, assignee, advertised in the Argus the sale of the press, material, and book
accounts of the firm.
In the Argus of February 7, 1855, an editorial mention was made of the Young American, a paper published by Dr. D. H. B. Brower simultaneously in Pittsburg and New Brighton. Nothing further is known of it.

New Brighton Times

The New Brighton Times was started October 21,1857, by W. H. Johnston of Butler, Pa. It was a neat paper, but was short-lived, being discontinued the latter part of the same year. January 21, 1858, it was revived by William B. Lemmon, who had an interest in the Butler American, which he sold to his partner in January, 1858. Mr. Lemmon was born in Lancaster County, Pa., December 9, 1809, and died June 25, 1879. He moved to Butler in early life, where he was educated and taught school in that county. Later he went to Allegheny and learned the tinner's trade, and went back to Butler County. He worked in the old car factory in New Brighton for a while, operating a hydraulic press. After the suspension of his paper he worked in Merrick & Company's foundry. The Times was published in the old Shuster building. The paper was discontinued in 1865.
February 28, 1866, O. P. Wharton printed a paper in Allegheny, Pa., and dated it at New Brighton, called the Beaver Falls New Era. It lasted but a few weeks.

New Brighton Herald

This paper was established July 14, 1869, by Captain G. S. McKee of Alliance, Ohio, and Dr. N. M. Wilson of Lancaster. Pa. Captain McKee was interested in a paper in Alliance, and retired from the Herald, October 20, 1869, to devote all his time to the paper there. The paper came out in a new dress of type,

468 History of Beaver County

January 19, 1870, and was changed in name to the Beaver Valley Herald. Dr. Wilson sold his interest in the paper to Major J. B. Hays of Meadville. Pa., November, 1870, and afterward moved to Philadelphia, where he engaged in the practice of his profession. February 13, 1871, the Herald office was destroyed by
fire.

Beaver County Press

Major Hays purchased a new outfit and resumed publication of the paper. March 24, 1871, under the name of the Beaver County Press. He had the most complete plant then in the county, and made one of the best local papers the county ever had. It went along with varying fortunes until January 14, 1874. when it was suspended. Afterward the material was sold by the sheriff, and was bought in by J. C. Hays of Meadville, Pa.

Beaver Valley News

The Beaver Valley News was established by Major David Critchlow and Francis Smith Reader, May 22.1874. who bought the material of the Beaver County Press. The Major was business manager, popular with the people and especially with the old soldiers, and soon secured a good circulation, the paper paying expenses from the start. He was a brave and gallant officer
of the 100th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry (Roundheads), and after the Civil War was one of the firm of Miner & Company, lumber dealers and saw- and planing-mill operators. He married Caroline, daughter of John Miner, one of the most prominent business men and citizens of the valley, and one of its
early settlers.
F. S. Reader was editor of the paper from the beginning, bought out the Major's interest, January 1, 1877. and began publication of the daily Beaver Valley News, February 5, 1883, the first daily paper in Beaver County, Pa.
F. S. Reader was born in Washington County, Pa., November 17,1842, and is the descendant of a prominent line of pioneers in that county. Of his maternal ancestors, the Scotts came from the North of Ireland to America in 1670, settling in eastern Pennsylvania; the Agnews came about the same time from the same place and intermarried with the Scotts; Rev. John Smith

History of Beaver County 469

who married Annie Agnew, of the Scott-Agnew union, was sent as a missionary to Pennsylvania in 1771 by the Associate Presbytery of Stirling, Scotland; and the Wallaces came from Scotland to Maryland about 1675, descendants of Sir Malcolm Wallace, the Knight of Elderslie. William Wallace, a descendant, a Revolutionary soldier of Maryland, came to Washington County, Pa., in 1779; and Rev. John Smith settled there in 1795. James Agnew Smith, son of the latter, married Martha Wallace, daughter of William Wallace, and their daughter Eleanor B., married Francis Reader, whose parents came from Warwickshire, England, in 1804, settling in Washington County, Pa., the two last named being.parents of the editor of the News. F. S. Reader was a Union soldier for over three years in the Civil War, in the 5th West Virginia Cavalry; was educated in the public schools and Mount Union College, Ohio; was in the civil service for about ten years; and married Merran Darling, of New England Revolutionary ancestors, December 24, 1867. They have two sons, Frank E. Reader, a member of the Beaver bar, and Willard S. Reader, who became a partner in the News, September 28, 1892, his twenty-first birthday, having been connected with the paper from his sixteenth birthday, and is now associate editor.
The News was always a Republican paper, supporting the principles of the party with vigor. In 1878 the paper advocated a primary election law, and in 1879, its editor, while Secretary of the Republican County Committee, prepared a bill which was passed by the Legislature and became a law in 1879, governing the Republican primary elections in Beaver County, Pa., the first law of the kind in the State.
The News plant was burned down, February 21, 1899, and was restocked and in operation, April 21, 1899, with one of the best outfits in the county. The daily issue is a six-column quarto, and the weekly the same. In January, 1901, a Mergen­ thaler Linotype was installed, the first in the county. The editor is the longest now in active service in the county, and the longest in continuous work as editor ever in the county. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of the Grand Army of the Republic, and of the Pennsylvania Society Sons of the American Revolution, both his sons also being members of the latter.

470 HISTORY of BEAVER COUNTY

ROCHESTER
Beaver Falls Chronicle

The first paper in Rochester was the Beaver Falls Chronicle, which was started October 12, 1839, and was the Democratic successor of the Aurora, The name of J. Washington White was placed at the head of the paper as editor and proprietor.
The motto of the Chronicle was, "Our country, right or wrong." It was a six-column four-page paper, and in the amount of reading matter would compare favorably with many of the weeklies of to-day. It remained in Rochester until July, 1840, when it was removed to Brighton (now Beaver Falls), which closed its
career as a Rochester institution. In June, 1840, the Chronicle hauled down the Van Buren banner and enlisted under that of Harrison for President.

The Commoner

May 1, 1897, the Commoner was printed by the Rochester Publishing Company, with R. W. Stiffey, editor. The company was composed of R. W. Stiffey, H. Dwight Anderson, and Wm. Lutz. It was organized into the Commoner Publishing Company, May 1, 1900, with Charles R. Eckert, an attorney at the Beaver bar, as editor. The company issues a weekly alone.

BRIDGEWATER

Beaver County Patriot

In June, 1841, Jonas B. Shurtleff brought from the East a complete newspaper plant, and started a Democratic paper called the Beaver County Patriot. It was in principle the political successor of the Beaver Falls Chronicle, and was an able supporter of its party, having many warm political discussions with the Argus. On January 11, 1843, B. B. Chamberlin, Esq., assignee, announced the sale, January 21, 1843, of the subscription and advertising accounts of the paper, "published at Bridgewater up to the 30th day of December, 1842." A num­
ber of Democratic politicians bought the material of the plant, and it was continued with Mr. Shurtleff as editor to October, 1843, when no further record of it is known, and it was succeeded by the Western Star.

471 HISTORY of BEAVER COUNTY

BEAVER FALLS

Beaver County Palladium

The Beaver Falls Chronicle removed from Rochester to Brighton, July 23, 1840, was formally transferred by J. W. White to E. Burke Fisher, August 29, 1840, and its name was changed to the Beaver County Palladium, the first paper published in the town. Mr. Fisher had been a publisher for more than ten years and came from Pittsburg, where he edited the Literary Examiner and Western Monthly Review and the Saturday Evening Visitor. He espoused the cause of General Harrison for President. The motto of the paper was, "Take away the sword -the pen can save the State," an exclamation attributed to Richelieu, which the editor made the text for a two-column article, political to the core. The paper was similar in size to its predecessor and was published at two dollars per annum. From December 12, 1840, the name of E. Burke Fisher disappeared from the paper, and the prospectus is signed, "Publisher of Beaver County Palladium." In the issue of December 26, 1840, a notice for insolvent debtors appeared, signed by E. Burke Fisher and W. H. Whitney, late printers. February 6, 1841, the firm name of Wm. H. Eskridge & Company appears at the head of the paper, which disappeared after the issue of March 12th. The motto of the paper then was, "The throne we honor is the people's choice." March 19, 1841, the name of John B. Early appears as editor. Mr. Early made an excellent paper, doubtless too good for the patronage, and it was discontinued in the fall of 1841.
John B. Early was born February 22, 1816, at Chambersburg, Pa., learned the printing trade in 1831 at New Lisbon, Ohio, worked on the Aurora between 1835 and 1838, ran a job office in New Brighton, 1840, was editor of the Palladium in
1841, went to New Castle the same year, where he was foreman of a paper; returned to Beaver County and was foreman on the Argus under Mr. Henry; held cases later on the Pittsburg Dispatch, and returned to Beaver in 1860, where he worked on the Star. He was married to Miss Mary Taylor of New Brighton,
September 1, 1836, and had ten children. Mr. Early died March 16, 1862, while his widow is still living in Beaver.

472 History of Beaver County

Beaver F alls Tribune

There is no record of any other paper in the town until I875, when the Beaver Falls Courier was started by John T. Porter. In the summer of 1879 he sold it to Roberts & Van Horn of Syracuse, N. Y., who changed the name of the paper to the Beaver County Enterprise. In 1880 it was purchased by Colonel Jacob
Weyand, who again changed the name, calling it the Beaver Falls Tribune. January 1, 1882, Colonel Weyand sold the paper to John H. Telford and W. S. Fulkman, the latter retiring after a few months. In 1889 G. L. Eberhart, Esq., of New Brighton, became interested in the paper and was its editor one year. With this exception, Mr. Telford has been editor of the paper since the purchase from Colonel Weyand, a period of nineteen years, the third in term of service in the county, now in active work. In 1890 the concern took the form of a company styled The Tribune Printing Company, which was chartered September 26, 1902. The daily Tribune was started August 25, 1884, the third daily paper in the county. John H. Telford was born in Allegheny, Pa., August 8, 1848, and is a son of James and Sarah Telford, of Scotch-Lrish descent. He is a graduate of the
public schools of his native city, and learned the printing trade, after which he was in the employ of the Christian Adoocate of Pittsburg for eight years, the Methodist Recorder, Pittsburg, eighteen months; and was foreman in the job office of Moore & Nesbit, Pittsburg, for four years. He was married to Maggie
Hale at Pittsburg in 1873 and has four children, his sons James and John being associated with him in the printing business. The daily is a six-column quarto, and the weekly a seven-column quarto.
In April, 1882, the Beaver Falls Index was published by W. S. Fulkman, who also published the Spray of the Falls in 1887 and 1888, both long since discontinued. In I882 the Beaver Falls Independent was published by W. F.
Hanrahan and Frank A. Lewis, who were succeeded by W. W. Shields, and soon after the paper was discontinued.

The Globe Advertiser

A monthly paper, was published from I875 to I879 by the Globe Printing Company. Later it was changed to a weekly

473 HISTORY of BEAVER COUNTY

and published by W. C. Fessenden and John Rohm. Others connected with it from time to time were Ed. Hutchinson, G. W. Penn, and John A. Mellon. A morning edition of the paper, called the Herald, was started by the Globe, but soon succumbed. Mr. Mellon later secured control of the Weekly Globe and con­
solidated it with the Beaver Star in 1887.

The Review

In June, 1888, J. E. McClure and J. W. Carson formed a company and started the Beaver Falls Evening journal. During the same year George Warrington began the publication of a monthly paper named the Psalm Singer. In 1889 Mr. Warrington and L. L. Carson became owners of the journal, and, in addition to
the daily, began the publication of a weekly edition, of which Mr. Warrington became the sole owner in 1890, conducting it until 1892, when it passed into the hands of J. H. Irons and Smith Curtis. In 1894 J. W. Carson and the Broadbent brothers purchased J. H. Irons's interest, and the daily edition was discontinued. In 1895 L. L. Carson started the Daily Recorder in the journal plant, but it, too, proved unsuccessful and passed out of existence. In the spring of 1896 a company of New Castle newspaper men bought out the plant and started the Daily Republican, which was discontinued in September of the same year. J. W. Carson purchased the good-will of the paper and continued the weekly edition, which was changed in name to the Review in 1897. It has been successful and continues under J. W. Carson's management.

(Source: History of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, it's Centennial Celebration by Rev. Joseph H. Bausman, Vol. 1, The Knickerbock Express, New York, 1904.)