History of Beaver County, Chapter 10

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CHAPTER X

MEDICAL HISTORY

Tributes to Profession-Scope of Chapter-Sketches of Prominent
Physicians, Deceased-Healthfulness of Beaver County-Noted
Epidemics-Beaver County Medical Society-Hospitals.

By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death
Will seize the doctor too.--Cymbeline, Act V., Sc. 2.

If all men love a lover, they as surely love the physician who is in his calling for the good he can do, and not for self alone. Was it not Charles Lamb who said of the good physician "There is healing in the very sound of his foot-fall on the stairs"? Art and literature have paid him grateful homage. Look at the picture of The Doctor by Luke Fildes! Read Balzac's The Country Doctor and Ian Maclaren's touching tribute to old "Weelum McLure," and Drummond's "Old Docteur Fiset":

But Docteur Fiset, not moche fonne he get,
Drivin' allover de whole contree,
If de road she's bad, if de road she's good,
W'en ev'ryt'ing 's drown on de Spring-tam flood,
An' workin' for not'ing half tam mebbe!

Let her rain or snow, all he want to know
Is jus' if anywan's feelin' sick,
For Docteur Fiset's de ole fashion kin',
Doin' good was de only t'ing on hees min',
So he got no use for de politique.

And no history would be complete which did not give full meed of praise to the labors of this class of the world's benefactors.
Beaver County, even from pioneer times, has had her full share of noble and self-sacrificing physicians. In the earliest period, indeed, they were few and far between, and it some

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times fell to the lot of the hardy wives of the settlers to do the work of the physician and even, occasionally, of the surgeon, as may be read of Mrs. Adams in this chapter, and of Mary Dungan in the chapter on the first settlers. The story of the very earliest laborers in this field can only be imperfectly told, because they have seldom left any records of themselves and of some, doubtless, not even the names survive. Of the living members of the fraternity our space forbids us to speak, but we have made diligent effort to obtain for this chapter notices of all deceased physicians who, by birth or service, have been identified with the history of Beaver County.

One of the earliest physicians in Beaver County, probably the earliest one, was Samuel Adams, who came from Rowley, Massachusetts, and first settled on Chartiers Creek in Washington County, Pa. He removed to what is now Beaver County sometime before 1800, and settled at the Upper Falls of the Beaver, where he bought four hundred acres of land, extending from what is now Seventeenth Street, Beaver Falls, north to the foot of the hill at the old car-barn, and west including what is now called Mount Washington. Here he built a cabin near the present Eastvale bridge. He also erected a dam and a grist­and saw-mill. The place was afterwards called Adamsville. At ninety years of age his eldest daughter used to relate intelligently and interestingly the incidents of the trip to the Falls as she made it with her father, and of their stopping on the way at Fort McIntosh.
Dr. Adams and his eldest son, Milo Adams, were the only physicians at that day on this side of Pittsburg, and they were sent for professionally from points thirty and forty miles distant. Mrs. Samuel Adams herself had acquired considerable knowledge of medicine, often compounded drugs for the doctors, her husband and son, and in their absence frequently prescribed for patients, and even set fractured limbs. Dr. Adams, Sr., became a local minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and religious services and quarterly meetings were frequently held in his house, where he exercised a large hospitality, as many as forty or fifty people with their horses finding accommodation for several days at a time in his roomy house and barn. Dr. Adams died March 6, 1832, in the seventieth year of his age.
Milo Adams continued to practise in Beaver County, and

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held many positions of honor and trust in the county, being at one time (1842-45) sheriff of the same. He died August 18, 1846, at his residence in Sharon, now Bridgewater.
George W. Allison, born in Washington, Pa., in April, 1803, was the third son of Hon. James Allison, Jr. He graduated from Washington College and studied medicine under Dr. Milo Adams at Beaver. In 1828 he attended a course of lectures in the medical department of the University of Maryland. The following year he commenced the practice of his profession in Beaver, where he remained until his death. In 1841 he was married to Sarah K., daughter of James Lyon of the same place. His widow, with two daughters, still resides in Beaver; one daughter is in Pittsburg, and a daughter is employed in the United States Mint at Philadelphia. James Lyon was an interesting character. The story of his captivity among the Indians will be found in the chapter on Beaver borough. Dr. Allison attained the front rank in his profession. He represented Beaver County in the Medical Society of Pennsylvania, being at one time its vice-president. He died December 7,1863, in the sixty-first year of his age.
Zadoc Bliss, mentioned also in our chapter on the educational history of the county, was the eldest son of Artemas and Rebecca Gorrell Bliss. His father came to Beaver County from Massachusetts during the early part of the last century. and his mother was a native of South Beaver township, this county, where the son, Zadoc, was born, August 6, 1821. When quite a young man he began teaching in the public schools of the county, following this work uninterruptedly for a period of ten years. He read medicine with the late Dr. James Barnes, and later entered Sterling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio, where he graduated in 1851. He immediately entered upon the practice of his new profession in his native township, where he continued until his death, May 14, 1875. November 25, 1852, Dr. Bliss was united in marriage to Rebecca McMillen, who, at the age of eighty-nine, resides in Beaver. She is also a native of South Beaver township, where her parents, John and Rebecca (Arbuckle) McMillen of Washington County, Pa., settled in 1802. Two sons and two daughters were born to Zadoc and Rebecca

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Bliss, Howard, now Sheriff of Beaver County; and Wilber F., Professor of History in the State Normal School of San Diego, Cal.; and Sue and Rebecca, of Beaver.

R. J. Brittain of New Galilee was born in what was a part of Beaver County, now Lawrence, in 1838. He was educated at private schools and in the Darlington (Greersburg) and Beaver academies. He studied medicine in 1854 with Drs. Hezlep and Meigs, entered Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1860, and was graduated in March, 1863. For the following two years he practised in Philadelphia, and in 1865 came to New Galilee, where he acquired an extensive professional business. He is now deceased.
Thomas Bryan was born in Hopewell township, Beaver County, April 6, 1797. He was the eldest of a family of nineteen children. His early years were spent in work on the farm and in the mill, and he taught school for twelve years. At the same time he was looking toward the practice of medicine, which he began in 1830, near his birthplace. For the first twenty-five years of his practice he followed the theories of the old school, but then changed to the new school, to which he adhered until his death. His professional life covers a period of forty-seven years, and was one of eminent ability and usefulness. A son, Dr. J OM Bryan, is practising now at Beaver Falls.

John Smith Bryan, eldest son of James and Isabella (Miller) Bryan, was born in Hookstown, this county, March 26, IS46. He served in the Civil War as a drummer-boy, and for gallantry on the field was promoted to the rank of adjutant in the 140th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. After the war he studied medicine, practising for three years at Mexico, Mo. He died January 25, 1876.

William H. H. Chamberlin was born in Litchfield, Conn., June 22, 1810. He graduated in 1834 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City. The same year he came to New Brighton, where he formed a partnership with Dr. E. K. Chamberlin, which lasted eight years. He died December 21, 1847, in New Brighton, of typhus fever.

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E. K. Chamberlin, a brother of the preceding, practised his profession in New Brighton for some years successfully. In 1842 he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and later served as a surgeon in Taylor's army in the Mexican War. He was a great favorite with the troops, who lovingly nick-named him "Old Medicine." Afterwards he served in the Mexican Boundary Survey and as State Senator in California. During the cholera epidemic of 1834 Dr. Chamberlin was very active in the work of relief. He died in 1852 or 1853, while on his way from Panama to San Francisco.

Alexander Young Coburn was a partner of Dr. Samuel Wallace, of Hookstown, Pa., who was a victim of the scourge known as the "Hookstown fever." After his partner's death, Dr. Coburn labored beyond his strength during the epidemic, and was himself stricken by the disease, dying in November, 1845, at twenty-five years of age.

James Cochran, another of Beaver County's early physicians, was born in Adams County, Pa., August 16, 1780, and came to what is now Darlington in 1808. He found the practice of his profession in the new country to which he had removed too hard, and went into other business, retiring about ten years before his death with a moderate fortune. He was for some years a justice of the peace, and took a warm interest in Greersburg Academy and the Free Presbyterian Church of Darlington, of which he was a member, and to which he gave the ground for their church building. He died at Darlington, August 16, 1851, at seventy-one years of age.

Stephen A. Craig was born in Freedom, Pa., March 4, 1848. He began the study of medicine in 1866 and graduated in 1877. He commenced practice in Freedom, and at the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted in Battery D, 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery, and served one year. With his brother, W. H. Craig, an able physician, associated with him, he continued to practise in Freedom for some years, when, on account of failing health, he removed to California, where he remained several years. Returning to Freedom, he died there, August 14, 1893.

J. B. Crombie was located about a year at New Sheffield, this county, when he removed to Allegheny City. There he

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obtained a large and lucrative practice, which he eminently deserved. He was killed at a railroad crossing in Allegheny City in the winter of 1903.

S. P. Cummins practised his entire professional life in Industry, and spent his old age in Beaver, where he died.

Oliver Cunningham was, it is believed, a native of Lancaster County, Pa., and settled early in Beaver. He was previously a skiff builder in Pittsburg. He practised medicine in Beaver for many years, and was regarded as an able and conscientious physician. He is now deceased. His widow, who resided during the latter part of her life with a daughter in one of the suburbs of Pittsburg, died in 1902, above ninety years of age.

Smith Cunningham, a cousin of the preceding and his junior in years, was born in Lancaster County, Pa., January 10, 1804. He began his medical studies with Dr. James Speer of Pittsburg, and after completing his course located, in 1829, in Petersburg, Ohio. Soon after he came to Beaver, where he practised his profession for more than a third of a century. He was for a long time associated with his cousin, Dr. Oliver Cunningham, and like him attained a high rank in his profession. Dr. Cunningham was one of the founders of the Beaver County Medical Society, and was several times its representative in the meetings of the State Society, of which he was once president. As a citizen he was a man of great influence, and was active in all public movements. He married the eldest daughter of Judge Joseph Hemphill, and was the father of Joseph Cunningham and Oliver Cunningham, both graduates of Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., in the class of 1858, the former of whom practised a number of years as an attorney at Beaver and was well known, and the latter of whom became a reputable physician, practising in Allegheny City, now deceased.

Dr. Daugherty practised medicine in Hookstown in 1845, and was very successful in dealing with the typhoid epidemic of that year.

James Dawson was born about 1805, and died in Ohioville, September 21, 1847. Ten days before his death he had a leg

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amputated and never recovered from the shock. He left a widow and six children.

Joseph H. Dickson practised some time in Rochester, Pa., when he located in Pittsburg, corner of Penn Avenue and Ninth Street. There he was associated with his brother John, and they both became eminent practitioners.

Bernard Dustin, Sr., was born in New Hampshire, March 16, 1781, and studied medicine in Utica, N. Y. He came to Beaver County in 1807, from Boston, settling at Greersburg, now Darlington, preceding both Dr. Henderson and Dr. Frazier in that region. He achieved considerable fame as a physician and sur­ geon, had a large and paying practice, and was at the same time the "poor man's friend." Dustin was immense of body and eccentric in manner, and the country side abounded in stories characteristic of the man, many of which were not true. He was found dead in his bed, February 21, 1844, and was buried by the side of his wife in the graveyard at Little Beaver. He built the many-storied house which for seventy-five or eighty years stood on the public square at Darlington, opposite the Greersburg Academy.1 Two of his sons, Bernard, Jr., and Nathaniel, became physicians. A sister, a woman of unusual accomplishments, and thoroughly educated at Boston, taught for many years a private school in the Dustin home at Darlington.

James S. Elliott was born in Trumbull County, Ohio. Attending school at Hookstown. this county, he read medicine with the Drs. Cunningham of Beaver; and after graduation commenced the practice of his profession in Moon township, where he continued it for twenty years. In 1869 he removed to Beaver Falls, where he practised until his death, February 24, 1890.

Benjamin Feicht practised some years in Beaver as partner of Dr. David McKinney, Jr., later removing to Economy, where he died.

Joseph Frazier was one of the eminent early physicians of the county. He was of Irish birth, and obtained his medical

1 See picture of this house in chapter on Darlington borough.

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education in Edinburgh, Scotland. Coming to America, he settled at Darlington, Beaver County, and formed a partnership with Dr. Henderson. He was a man of vigorous physique and aggressive temperament, and in a short time became one of the most noted physicians between Pittsburg and the western boundary line of the State. He perhaps taught medicine to more students than did any other physician in western Pennsylvania. As showing the strong hold his personality had on the people among whom he practised, many of their children were called for him. He was a daring and cruel horseman, and there were always many stories told in the community of his adventures with his equine forces. His practice covered a radius of twenty-five to thirty miles, and he was frequently called for consultation to the towns embraced within these limits. His only child became the wife of Dr. John Wallace, afterwards a member of Congress, who had been his student and medical partner. In the early fifties he removed to Centralia, Ill., where he died not many years ago, beyond the age of ninety. Among his medical students was Daniel Leasure, Colonel of the famous Roundhead Regiment.

Jesse Goodrich was born about 1785, and practised medicine at Hookstown from 1818 to 1828.

William H. Grim practised in Beaver Falls for a lifetime. He was a fine man and a fine doctor. His death occurred at Beaver Falls, April 29, 1896, when he was aged sixty-five years. A son, Dr. W. S. Grim, still practises in that place.

S. T. Hamilton was born at Calcutta, Ohio, February 6, 1820. He came to Georgetown, Beaver County, in 1851, where he practised medicine with marked success for forty years. He was a lifelong member of the Presbyterian Church, and a ruling elder from 1852 until the time of his death, which occurred Sep­ tember 7, 1889.

John Hatch was born in the State of New York about the year 1780. He studied medicine in his native State, and practised at Hookstown, this county, from 1816 to 1819.

David H. Hillman was born at New Lisbon, Ohio, about 1843, at which place he attended school until he was seventeen

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years old. At the opening of the Civil War he enlisted in the 78th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served honorably and bravely to the close of the war. He then took a two-years­ course of medical study at Wooster University, afterwards spending a year and graduating at the Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville, Ky. After completing his medical preparation he settled at Cleveland, Ohio, whence he removed in 1881 to Rochester, Pa. Here he built up a good practice, and earned the esteem of the community as a good physician and a good man. He died at his home in Rochester, April 17, 1891. In 1870 Dr. Hillman married Miss Clara F. Hyde, daughter of Rev. D. V. Hyde of New Lisbon, Ohio, and by her had three children, Irma, Myra, and Clara, all living. His widow still resides in Rochester.

Robert T. Hunter, formerly of Beaver, a successful physician, died at Mt. Jackson, April 2, 1849.

James E. Jackson was born in Beaver County in 1818 and died in 1875. He received an academic education, and learned the blacksmith trade, which he followed for some years, during which he also began to study medicine. He graduated finally from the Cleveland Medical College, and for twenty-nine years practised his profession at Fallston, where he died.

James Patterson Johnston was born at Hookstown, Pa., June 2, 1858. His professional life was outside of this county, but after his death he was buried in Mill Creek cemetery, near his birthplace.

Prestley M. Kerr was born in Raccoon township, Beaver County, in 1835. He studied medicine with Dr. J. Ramsey Miller, and graduated from the Allopathic Medical College at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1869. He began his practice near the home of his childhood, where he remained until his death in 1884. He was a successful army surgeon, a fine general practitioner, and highly esteemed by all who knew him. He left two sons in the profession, Drs. Alvin H. and J. P. Kerr.

George W. Langfitt was born in this county, July 3, 1844. He practised medicine for several years at New Scottsville, and in 1871 he removed to Bellevue, Allegheny County, where he died in June, 1890.

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Milton Lawrence was the oldest son of Samuel Lawrence of Beaver, the second prothonotary of the county. He was born in November, I801, studied medicine with Dr. Milo Adams, and settled in Hookstown in 1826, remaining there until 1839. He was elected prothonotary of Beaver County in the fall of 1839, and was re-elected in 1842 and 1845, holding the office until 1848,-three consecutive terms. In 1849 he returned to Hookstown and resumed the practice of medicine. On March 11, 1862, he was commissioned bv Governor Curtin to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Hon. John Scott, one of the associate judges of the county, and was elected his own successor in October of the same year. He was elected again in 1867, and again in 1872, serving continuously for fifteen years and eight months, when the office was set aside by the provisions of the Constitution of 1874. On one occasion in 1873, the president judge, Alexander Acheson, was suddenly called away, and no substitute was to be had, when Dr. Lawrence presided for the remainder of the term with marked ability. Dr. Lawrence en­ joyed the confidence and affection of all who knew him, and was eminent in his profession. In 1872 he removed to Beaver. While on a visit to his daughter, Mrs. Lizzie McKissock, at Altona, Ill., he was taken ill and died on Sabbath, October 2, 1880. His remains were brought to Beaver for burial.

Joseph Lawrence, son of Dr. Milton Lawrence, was born in Hookstown, November 22, 1839. When the War of the Rebellion began he enlisted in Company H, 140th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and served as hospital steward. After his return home in 1865 he took up the study of medicine, and, having acquired his profession, practised in Beaver until 1884. He then moved to Pittsburg, where he died April 7, 1887.

Archibald Leeper was born near Frankfort Springs, N ovember 26, 1831. In 1856 he went to Coultersville, Ill., and died there in 1896.

John C. Levis was born at Zelienople, Butler County, Pa., January 3, 1830. He was educated at Harmony in that county, and read medicine with Dr. Lusk of Zelienople. He graduated at the Western Reserve Medical College in 1851, and, after one year's practice in Ohio, located in Darlington, where he remained

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until 1857, when he removed to Bridgewater. Enlisting as an army surgeon, Dr. Levis made a brilliant record during the Civil War. He died at his home in Bridgewater, July 26, r887, in the fifty-eighth year of his age.

Joseph Linnenbrink was born in Paderborn, Germany, April 26, r808. He was educated in the common schools and in a private school in that place until he was ten years of age, when he was prepared for the university. He graduated at the University of Paderborn, and afterwards attended lectures at the University of Munster. After attending two courses at the University of Giessen, he went to the University of Berlin, where he took his examination with honor. He was then appointed by the government, surgeon in the 30th Infantry at Luxemburg, in which position he remained three years. From this post he went into Holland and became surgeon in the Marine Hospital at The Hague. Two or three years later he returned to his native place, Paderborn, whence, in 1834, he emigrated to America, landing at Baltimore. Thence he came to Pittsburg and a few weeks afterwards settled at Zelienople, Butler County, Pa. In 1836 he was married to Miss Barbara K. Miller, daughter of Nicholas Miller. In 1845 George Rapp began to call for his services at Economy, and, in 1848, he removed to that place with his family and remained there for a number of years. In 1864 he came to Rochester, Pa., where he practised until his death, September 5, 1871. He continued to be the physician of the Harmony Society until his last illness.

A. G. McCandless, M.D., of Pittsburg, practised ten years­ from 1839 to 1849-at Frankfort Springs, this county. His son, Dr. J. Guy McCandless of Pittsburg, was partly educated in Beaver County.

John McCarrell was born in Washington County, Pa., near Hickory. He settled first in the practice of medicine at Kendall, this county, and then removed to Frankfort Springs, spending twenty years in the two places. In 1866 he went to Wellsville, Ohio, where he died, January 18, 1891 , aged seventy years. He was much in advance of his time. He was an elder in the United Presbyterian Church at Frankfort Springs.

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Cyrus McConnell was a native of Washington County, Pa., born in 1836. Receiving a good education in the common schools and at Florence Academy, he began at twenty-five years of age the study of medicine with Dr. James McCarrell. He entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1863, and graduated in due time. His practice was begun and was continued during his lifetime at Service P.O., Beaver County. He married Margaret Reed, daughter of Samuel Reed, Esq., of Greene township, and died without issue.

William McCullough, M.D., born about 1790, died about 1840, practised at Georgetown, this county.

William McHenry was born May 30, 1842, in Raccoon township, this county. His professional life was spent in Pittsburg. He is deceased.

David McKinney, Jr., son of Rev. David McKinney, D.D., a former editor of the Presbyterian Banner, and of Eliza Finley McKinney, was born in 1840, in Centre County, Pa. He was a graduate of Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., and of Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1861. He was a surgeon in the War of the Rebellion in the 10th Pennsylvania Reserves, and at the close of the war located in Beaver. In 1871 he removed to New Brighton as the successor of the lamented and revered Dr. David Stanton, deceased. He was a member of the State Pension Board, railroad surgeon of the Pennsylvania lines, and was in active practice up to within a year of his death, which took place December 20, 1901.

W. D. McPheeters was born March 25, 1844, in Hanover township, this county. He read medicine under Dr. R. A. Moon, then of Hookstown, and graduated at the Western Reserve Medical College, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1870. He first located at Kendall, then removed to Ohioville and afterwards to Hookstown to succeed Dr. Lawrence, where he remained until his death, January 20, 1896.

David S. Marquis was born April 14, 1821, in Beaver. Receiving an academical training he began the study of medicine with Drs. Oliver and Smith Cunningham of Beaver, and graduated from the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, in 1846. He

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first practised his profession at Hookstown, where he remained for over three years, when he removed to Freedom. Ten years later (1859) he came to Rochester, where he practised successfully until his death, which occurred January 31, 1900.

J. Ramsey Miller was born near Harshaville, this county, August 12, 1827. He read medicine with Dr. John McCarrell, and after graduation practised six years at Holt, this county, removing to Iowa in 1860, where he died, having attained eminence in his profession.

David Minis, Jr., was born in Beaver, December 7, 1831, attended the common schools, graduated from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., in 1850, and from the University of Pennsylvania. He practised his profession in Beaver until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the 48th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and was appointed surgeon of the regiment. Dr. Minis never spared himself during the awful scenes of carnage and in the hospital hells which they created; and it was as the result of excessive labors and exposure in his ministry of comfort that he lost his life, February 14, 1862, after the engagement at Roanoke Island, N. C., on the 8th of the same month. He married, in Beaver, Sarah H. Agnew, daughter of Hon. Daniel Agnew, now the wife of Hon. Henry Hice. 1

R. A. Moon was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., September 17, 1821. He located in Beaver County in 1845 at Hookstown, near which place he married a daughter of William

1 We have found in the Beaver Argus for March 12, 1862, the following contemporary notice of the death of Dr. Minis:

1. At a meeting of the officers of the 48th Regiment, Pa. Volunteers, held at the Colonel's Quarters, on Saturday evening, Feb. 22, 1862, the following business was transacted:
"On motion Col. Nagle was appointed chairman, and Lieut. O. C. Bosbyshell, sec'y.
Col. Nagle stated that the meeting had convened for the purpose of taking some action in regard to the death of our late Surgeon, Dr. David Minis, Jr. The following order was then read:
"Head Quarters. Dep't of N. Carolina,
Roanoke Island, Feb. 20, '62.
General Orders No. 10.

" 2. The General Commanding desires to render a tribute to the memory of Dr. Minis, of the 48th Penn'a Volunteers. He was detached from his own Regiment and appointed to accompany the 9th New Jersey, then going into the field. He lost his life by disease, brought on by his untiring devotion to the wounded. during and after the action of the 8th. To the forgetfulness of self which kept him at his post at the Hospital, regardless of rest, the Department owes a debt of gratitude.
"By command of
"Brigadier General A. E. Burnside.
"(Signed:) Lewis Richmond. A. A. G."

Warm resolutions of respect were then read and adopted, which are too long to reproduce here.

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Sterling. In 1875 he removed to Beaver Falls. Dr. Moon died October 26, 1892. He was one of the oldest practitioners in the county, having been continuously at work since 1845. His son, Dr. Addison S. Moon, continues to practise at Beaver Falls.

S. M. Ross, M.D., practised some years in Darlington, removing from that place to Altoona, Pa., where he recently died.

Isaac Scott was born near Smith's Ferry, Beaver County, Feb. 22, 1822. He became a great physician, distinguished himself as a surgeon during the Civil War, and held many positions of honor and trust afterwards at Parkersburg, W. Va., where he lived until his death in 1888.

Aaron T. Shallenberger was born at Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, Pa., February 20, 1825. Having received an academical education he began the study of medicine with Dr. W. C. Reiter, with whom he remained for three years. He then entered Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating in 1846. After practising some time with his preceptor, he came to Rochester in 1847, and continued in active and successful practice for about eight years, when he began to give his attention to the manufacture and sale of a proprietary medicine. Some years later he retired from business and lived quietly and studiously at his home, an active member of his church, the First Baptist Church of Rochester,- and a useful and honored citizen of the town, with whose advancement he had always been closely identified in interest and labor. On September I, 1846, Dr. Shallenberger was married to Miss Mary Bonbright of Youngstown, Westmoreland Co., Pa., by whom he had nine children. Five of these died in childhood, and of the others Horace Mann, a son, is one of the leading physicians of Rochester; Alethe is the wife of A. A. Atterholt of the same place, and Oliver B. and Herbert B. are deceased. Oliver died January 23. 1898, and Herbert, March 11, 1899. and on February 6, 1901, Dr. Shallenberger himself passed away at his beautiful home on Adams Street, where his widow still resides.

James D. Shields was raised and educated in Beaver County, though born in Washington County. The family occupied the

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old Shields homestead on Service Creek, where the Doctor practised from 1842 to 1847. He died in Iowa in 1886.

W. C. Shurlock, M.D., practised at Darlington some years. He served Beaver County in the Legislature of the State in 1870 and 1871.

William Smith was born in Allegheny County, March 26, 1811. While still young he removed with his parents to Greersburg, now Darlington, this county, where he received his education in the academy. He read medicine with Dr. Henderson of Darlington, and settled at Hookstown in 1839. He attended medical lectures in Philadelphia in 1847. In 1849 he was elected to the Legislature. He died at Enon Valley, July 5, 1871.

David Stanton was born in Salem, Ohio, June 9, 1829, the son of Dr. Benjamin Stanton, an eminent physician of that place. He was a cousin of Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's War Secretary. His mother was a sister of Abel W. Townsend, one of the early settlers of New Brighton. His early education was obtained in the excellent common schools of his native place, and when quite young he commenced the study of medicine in his father's office. He spent two years in attending lectures at the Western Reserve Medical College, Cleveland, Ohio, where he graduated in 1850. In that year, having just attained his majority, he came to New Brighton and commenced the practice of his profession with his brother-in-law, Dr. Charles Weaver, an able and well-known physician of that town. On the death of the latter a year later, he succeeded to his large practice, which he ably maintained and increased. In 1857 Dr. Stanton graduated also at the University of Pennsylvania Medical College, Philadelphia. May 6th of the same year he was married to Miss Lydia M. Townsend, a daughter of Robert Townsend, who bore him two children, Elizabeth T. and Charles Weaver.
Dr. Stanton was a strong opponent of slavery, identified himself with the Republican party at its organization, and on the breaking out of the Rebellion promptly offered his services to the Governor of the State, who appointed him Surgeon, with the rank of Major, in the First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry. For eighteen months he served with his regiment in the field, and during that time, although not required to go into action at all,

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he participated in nearly every engagement in which his command took part, and showed himself as good a soldier as he was a surgeon. February 28, 1863, he was appointed by the President, Surgeon of United States Volunteers, and assigned to duty as Superintendent of Hospitals at Columbus, Ohio; and, October I3, 1864, he became Assistant Medical Director of the Northern Department of the Ohio, Cincinnati. In December, I865, he became Acting Medical Director, with his office at Detroit, Mich. Dr. Stanton resigned from the army, November 20, 1865, but was subsequently twice breveted by the President-Lieutenant-Colonel in 1865, and Colonel in 1866.
On the 18th of May, 1871, he was nominated for Auditor General by the Republican Convention which met at Harrisburg, and in the following October was elected by a majority of 14,000. Less than a month afterwards, November 5, 1871, Dr. Stanton died at his home in New Brighton after a short illness. The funeral took place from the First Presbyterian Church of that town, the entire business of the community being suspended during the services in accordance with a proclamation of the Chief Burgess and the vote taken at a public meeting of the citizens. The interment was in Grove Cemetery, New Brighton.

Simon Strouss of Amity, Washington County, Pa., was born near Hopewell Church, Independence township, this county. His first location as a practitioner was on Raccoon Creek, at the house of Jack McElhaney. This was about 1830. Dr. Strouss was regarded as one of the foremost of the early physicians of the county.

B. A. Vance, M.D., was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, in 1844, and attended Westminster College at New Wilmington, Pa. He read medicine with Dr. Robinson and graduated at Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1874. In 1877 he located in Darlington, this county, and became a successful practitioner. He is now deceased.

Samuel Wallace was born April 20, 1812, in Greene township, Beaver County, Pa. He prepared for college under the Rev. George M. Scott of Mill Creek, and graduated from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. In 1832 he read medicine with Dr. McCook of New Lisbon, Ohio, and commenced the practice of
VOL. 1.-25.

History of Beaver County

his profession in Hookstown in 1839. As mentioned above, he was one of the victims of the "Hookstown fever," dying a martyr for humanity, September 28, 1845, in the thirty-fourth year of his age.

William Warnock was born in Ireland, and began the practice of medicine at Frankfort Springs, this county, in 1810.

John Warnock, a son of the preceding, was born at Frankfort Springs about 1814, and practised as a homoeopathic physician at the place of his birth about 1840.

Hugh Wright of Pittsburg, deceased, was born in 1804 near Hookstown, this county, and practised some years at that place.

C. I. Wendt, M.D., of New Brighton, Pa., died October 22, 1883, in the forty-second year of his age. He was born on the South Side of Pittsburg, formerly called Birmingham, and was the youngest son of Frederick Wendt, Jr., and the grandson of Frederick Wendt of the firm of Eichbaum & Wendt, who founded the first flint glass-works in Pittsburg in the year 1800. His mother was Almyra Taylor Brock, niece of Sir Isaac Brock. His early education was academic, and. later he took up the study of medicine, graduating from the Cleveland Medical College. He began the practice of medicine in New Sheffield, this county, and in 1867 came to New Brighton, where he became the leading representative of the homoeopathic school in the county. In 1876 he was the only representative of the Republican party from Beaver County in the Legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he had been elected. The Legislative Sketch Book said of him while there: "He is a man of most excellent judgment, with keen perceptions and a comprehensive mind." In 1867 Dr. Wendt was married to Miss Agnes Scott, a daughter of Hon. John Scott, an associate judge of Beaver County. There were children of this marriage: John Scott, an attorney, of the firm of Watson & McCleve, Pittsburg; Edwin F., Assistant Chief Engineer of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway; Charles I., a physician of the East End, Pittsburg; and Almyra, a daughter, residing with her mother in New Brighton; and several others deceased.

History of Beaver County 387

Isaac Winans was born in Milton, Mahoning County, Ohio, July 3, 1811. He was a son of Jacob and Elcy (Sutherland) Winans. His early education was obtained at Milton and Georgetown, Ohio, and he was a close student all his life. He read medicine with Dr. John Delenbaugh of Georgetown, Ohio, and received his degree as Doctor of Medicine from the Cincinnati Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio. After his graduation he located for the practice of his profession in New Brighton, Pa., and with the exception of one year (1873) spent in Youngstown, Ohio, remained there from 1844 until 1877. His brother, Dr. John S. Winans, studied with him, and was his partner for a few years shortly after he came to New Brighton. August 1, 1837, he was married to Ann Eliza Sheets of Deerfield, Mahoning County, Ohio. The children of this marriage were Jacob S., Mary E. (now Mrs. Ary W. Browning), Elsie A. (Mrs. John Corbus), J. Alexander, Sarah A. (Mrs. Myron Wood), E. Virginia (Mrs. John M. Evans), Charles W., and Helen (Mrs. S. E. Ward).
Dr. Winans was for many years an elder in the Presbyterian Church of New Brighton. In politics he was a Republican. His death occurred in New Brighton, December 3, 1877, and he is buried in Grove Cemetery, that place.

John Sutherland Winans, M.D., was born September 25, 1812, in the Western Reserve, at Milton, Mahoning County, Ohio, second son of Jacob and Elcy (Sutherland) Winans. His father was of Dutch descent, first settling in Maryland; his mother of the Scotch Highlanders, direct descendants from the Sutherlands of Sutherlandshire, Scotland. His father was a lieutenant in the War of 1812. His collegiate education began at Western Reserve College, Cleveland, Ohio. He graduated from the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery in r8S8, and commenced the practice of his profession in New Brighton, Pa., associated with his brother, Dr. Isaac Winans. Later he practised in Bellaire, Ohio; Rochester, Pa.; and Allegheny, until the time of his death, February 5, 1881. He was a member of Beaver County and Allegheny County medical societies. Dr. Winans was married in New Brighton to Eliza Maria Reno, only daughter of Thomas Thorn Reno, son of Rev. Francis Reno, the first Episcopal minister west of the Alleghenies. His widow and six.

388 History of Beaver County

children survive him; three sons, John S. F., Louis A. R., Thomas R., and three daughters, Elsie M., Margaret A., and Lyda L. (now Mrs. Franklin A. Dean); all residing in Pittsburg.

This finishes the list of deceased Beaver County physicians of whom we have been able to learn anything.1 Many others, no doubt, there were, who did well their part in lessening the ills which flesh is heir to, and whose memories are dear to grateful hearts somewhere. We regret that we cannot speak of them.

Beaver County may be said to be in general a very healthful region. In its principal towns boards of health are established, which discharge measurably well their duties. Two well equipped hospitals, the Beaver Valley General Hospital at New Brighton, and the Beaver County General Hospital at Rochester, are doing a good work, and are generously supported by the citizens of the county. Their history is briefly given below.

This region has been comparatively free from serious epidemics of dangerous diseases. Smallpox has rarely shown itself in epidemic form. Cholera made its appearance here during the periods in which it became prevalent throughout the Union. Great alarm was felt and there were fatal cases in different sections of the county. The disease first appeared in July, 1834. The first case was that of Samuel Hooper, who contracted it in Louisville, Ky. He got as far as Freedom on the steamboat Byron, where he died. The next case was that of Captain Ephraim Knowles, of the steamboat Eclipse, who was set ashore at the mouth of the Big Beaver, and died in five hours after being stricken. In August of that year the village of Fallston suffered severely from the disease. On the eighth of the month Dr. Chamberlin reported the following deaths from cholera asphyxia as occurring under his observation: James McIlroy, Douglas McIlroy, Mary Smith, Mary Worcester, Robert McCreary, Mrs. Baxter, Thomas Sloane, Richard Baxter, and John Collier, all of Fallston. Other fatal cases were those of James Fowler, James Alexander, Mrs. Venatta, Mrs. Dean, Mrs. Gormley, James Courtright, John Murphy, and Alexander Murphy.

In the spring of 1849 the cholera again prevailed in this region. Several deaths occurred in the county. Robert Mc-

1 We are indebted to Dr. George M. Shillito, of Allegheny City, Pa., for data about a number of the South Side physicians.

History of Beaver County 389

Ferren, county commissioner, living near Hookstown, died July 9th. On the 11th John Waterhouse and a Mr. Hill died at Baden, and Emanuel B. Schly at Beaver. Near the same date a Mr. Dunbar died on the steamboat Genesee, and was buried at Georgetown. In September, Richard and James Partington, who were brothers, and father and uncle, respectively, of W. H. Partington of College Hill borough, died on the 9th and 16th. Two deaths from cholera occurred in Beaver County in the season of 1851-52; John Anderson, a shoemaker, near Brady's Run, and Michael Waterhouse at Baden were the victims.

Perhaps the most noteworthy epidemic in the history of the county was that which was popularly known as the "Hooks­ town fever," so called because it was most severe in Hookstown and its neighborhood. It is now believed to have been an epidemic of typhoid fever. It broke out in March, 1845, at Anderson & Shillito's mill (afterwards known as Bock's mill), on Raccoon Creek. The first case was that of Matthew Anderson. Then the following persons were stricken with it: Benjamin Anderson, George Shillito, John Anderson and his wife, Alice Mary Shillito, Mrs. Elizabeth Shillito, and Benjamin, John, and Robert Shillito. The last one named died. The disease spread through the country, reaching Hookstown about three months later. Of the three hundred and fifty inhabitants in that village eighty-six were taken down with it, and eight of the cases were fatal. Other deaths were, perhaps, indirectly caused by it. It lasted about seven months in Hookstown.

Franklin D. Kerr, M.D., formerly of Hookstown, now at Shousetown, Pa., furnished for Warner's History of Beaver County (1888) a full description of this epidemic, which we condense as follows: The period of incubation was about two weeks, and when death occurred it was generally in the third week of the attack. The patient was afflicted with great restlessness and foreboding of evil as threatening himself or his friends. After several days there were chills, thirst, severe aching along the spinal column and behind the ears, pulse slow and feeble in some cases, in others rapid and irregular, with nose-bleeding, the tongue coated brown and finally becoming black; in some severe constipation, in others persistent diarrheea, with stools black as tar and dangerous hemorrhages. About the second

390 History of Beaver County

week there was delirium. One peculiarity was the sense of great oppression in the chest and abdomen, the patient fancying that immense weights were being placed upon him. One man, Mr. Kerr, wanted a knife with which to "remove an anvil, and other blacksmith's tools from his chest." This sensation of weight was extremely distressing to the patients. The active symptoms lasted in some cases thirty or forty days, and when recovery took place it was very slow, in many cases being six or seven months. The following persons died from this disease:
Dr. Samuel Wallace, Dr. Alexander Young Coburn, Mrs. Sarah Miller, Mrs. Martha Witherspoon, Mrs. Althea Cross, Miss Isabella Eaton, William Freasure, and Samuel Carothers. Dr. William Smith of the village was also attacked, but recovered.

Beaver County Medical Society.-The following from the minutes of this Society shows the manner of its coming into existence:

BEAVER, November 23, 1855.
Pursuant to a call made through the county papers, a number of physicians met at the office of O. & S. Cunningham, for the purpose of organizing a Beaver County Medical Society. After the usual preliminaries the society was permanently organized by the election of the following officers: President, O. Cunningham; Vice-Presidents, George W. Allison, and Joseph Linnenbrink; Recording Secretary, David Minis, Jr.; Corresponding Secretary, David Stanton; Treasurer, Smith Cunningham; Censors, George W. Allison, David Stanton, and David Minis, Jr.

A Committee on Constitution was appointed, consisting of Drs. S. Cunningham, Dickson, and Stanton, which, on December 29, 1855, reported and had adopted a constitution which in the year 1903 was altered and amended (as were the constitutions of all the societies of the State) to conform to the con­ stitution of the State Association, which has in its turn been modified to conform to the constitution of the National Association. The Beaver County Medical Society has been in continuous existence ever since its organization, and is today active and influential. It is only through it that a physician can become a member of the State or National Society.
Following is a list of all the members of the Society, with the years of their admission, up to 1904:

History of Beaver County 391

Oliver Cunningham, David S. Marquis, Smith Cunningham, Isaac Winans, David Minis, Jr., Geo. W. Allison, David Stanton, Joseph Linnenbrink, Joseph H. Dickson, 1855; Wm. Stanton, John R. Miller, 1856; David Elder, 1859; P. B. Young, 1860; P. M. Kerr, W. J. Langfitt, A. P. Dutcher, 1861; S. P. Cummins, 1862; S. M. Ross, W. W. Simpson, Thomas Donehoo, I. S. Winans, D. McKinney, A. M. Anderson, J. E. Jackson, 1864; Frank F. Davis, A. C. Barlow, Benjamin Feicht, A. L. S. Morand, 1865; G. W. Langfitt, O. S. Cunningham, ]. M. Cummings, W. L. Morrow,]. S. Elliot, 1866; W. C. Shurlock, T. G. McPherson, A. W. Acheson, Hiram Nye, 1867; G. Y. Boal, 1868; Charles Foerstige, 1869; Joseph Lawrence, E. A. Hepburn, 1873; James Temple, 1876; John Venn, H. S. McConnel, 1877; Stephen A. Craig, 1878; James A. Barr, James McPheeters, J. H. Wilson, W. J. Riggs, 1879; T. P. Simpson, W. C. Simpson, C. T. Gale, W. H. Grim, W. S. Ramsey, James Scroggs, Jr., J. K. White, 1881; B. A. Vance, S. B. Post, 1882; U. S. Strauss, J. B. Crombie, 1885; G. Warburton, 1886; H. M. Shallenberger, 1887; A. S. Moore, J. J. Wickham, W. S. Grim, 1888; W. H. Craig, S. S. Kring, J. W. Coffin, John B. Ague, 1889; R. R. Mitchell, T. B. Gormley, 1890; R. W. Watterson, J. S. Louthan, R. Stanbury Sutton, H. Nye, J. J. Allen, G. J. Boyd, P. Max Foshay, 1891; G. A. Scroggs, S. D. Sturgeon, J. Burt Armstrong, 1892; George Christler, 1893; E. E. Neely, C. E. Gibson, 1894; G. Fay Boal, J. M. Davis, 1895; David Rose, 1896; J. R. Gormley, W. W. Simpson, Jr., Leroy S. Townsend, 1897; W. H. Porter, Guy S. Shugert, F. D. Kerr, J. H. Davis, 1898; O. C. Engle, G. M. McConnell, L. R. Hazlett, C. M. Iseman, Wm. C. Yolton, 1899; H. J. Coyle, J. S. Wade, Francis H. McCaskey, C. B. Denny, W. C. Meanor, Paul G. McConnel, 1901; J. F. Elder, Robert B. Dawson, Boyd B. Snodgrass, Wm. J. Sterrett, 1902; Joseph J. Scroggs, Walter A. Rose, A. E. Torrance, Spencer P. Simpson, 1904.

Beaver Valley General Hospital.-December I3, I894, a charter was granted to the Beaver Valley General Hospital, and it was opened for work January 1, 1895, in the building formerly used as the Merchants' Hotel, in Beaver Falls. Henry M. Myers was the first president, and remained as such until his death, when John Reeves was elected to the office. In I898 the women's auxiliary to the Board of Directors was formed, with Mrs. C. A. Barker, New Brighton, President; Miss Mary Perrott, Beaver Falls, Secretary; and eleven other ladies, well-known in philanthropic work in the valley, members of the auxiliary. Later, the property of the Kenwood School for Boys, at Kenwood, was purchased, and this, with a fine modern brick building recently erected in connection therewith, is the present home of the Hospital.

Beaver County General Hospital, Rochester.-The need of a

392 History of Beaver County

hospital in the lower Beaver valley having long been recognized by the physicians in that part of the county, the Beaver County General Hospital was organized during the fall of 1899 by about a dozen of those most interested, and after considerable effort a site was secured at the corner of Pinney and Kentucky streets, on which there is a fourteen-roomed building now occupied by the hospital.

It was at first a semi-private hospital, but in I902 was turned over to a Board of Directors, comprised of both laymen and physicians. The original members were Drs. Rose, Allen, Gibson, Boal, Baker, Wickham, Scroggs, Jas. Gormley, Shugert, Marquis, Armstrong, and Ague. To these later have been added Drs, Shallenberger, McCaskey, Snodgrass, Peirsol, Marcy, and several others. The hospital had been in operation less than six months when it was partially destroyed by fire on the night of March 11, 1901. Fifteen patients, beside all attendants, were safely removed. After about two months the building was re­ paired and work again resumed. Since its opening in August, I900, the institution has cared for 684 patients, of which 298 have been unable to pay for their care, and 123 of the remainder only partially able.

Rochester is the logical centre of the lower valley, and the location of the hospital within easy access to the manufacturing plants and railroads necessitates an immense amount of surgical work resulting from accidents.

The institution has been successful in obtaining a State appropriation of $14,000, conditioned upon raising an equal amount. It is the intention of the Board to erect as soon as possible a new modern building to accommodate one hundred patients.

The present officers and directors of the hospital are: Blanche K. Fleming, Superintendent Training School; John A. Miller, Rochester, President; J. J. Allen, Monaca, Vice-President; Guy S. Shugert, Rochester, Secretary; Thomas C. Fry, Rochester, Treasurer; Herman Speyerer, Rochester; Jas. T. Conlin, Rochester; Chas. H. Stone, Beaver; W. A. Rose, Rochester; J. J. Allen, Monaca; W. L. Shrum, Aliquippa, Directors.