Borough of Bedford

Indian Traders- Ray and Others at Raystown-Driven Away by Indians- Gen. Forbes at Raystown in 1758- A Fort Built - John Fraser and Family - Capt. Ourry Grants a Lot in the Original Town of Bedford - Bedford Manor Surveyed- Prominent Features and Residents in 1761- Description of Fort Bedford- Four Eminent Pioneers- Town Laid Out According to Present Plan in 1766- Made the Seat of Justice in 1771 of a Vast Territory-Its Residents at That Time- Mention of Many Other Early Settlers- The First Postmaster, Etc- President Washington's Visit in1794 Incorporated as a Borough- A Letter from President John Adams- The Town in 1883 Corporate History - An Early Celebration - Banking - Manufacturing - Secret Associations - Religious History.

WITH the Indian traders of the colonial period, and indeed at a much later date, it was customary, after the site for the establishment of a trading post had been settled, to erect at least two or three log buildings for the accommodations of themselves, their goods and their servants or retainers. One of these-the trading-house proper - was especially constructed (quite frequently of hewn timbers, and loop-holed) with the view of securing as safely as possible the stock in store, besides affording a place of refuge and defense in case of sudden attack. The traders, usually, were widely separated one from another, and in course of time, their posts became known among themselves, the white hunters and trappers, and the Indians, as towns. Hence the names of Ray's Town, Frank's Town, John's Town, Hanna's Town, Beeson's Town, etc., terms which appear so frequently in colonial history.

It is traditionary, and quite evident, too, that about the year 1750, an Indian trader named Ray established himself on or near the site of the present town of Bedford, and erected three log buildings, but how long he remained, or what became of him, tradition saith not. However, the locality was known for a number of years as Ray's Town, and the stream (Ray's Town branch of the Juniata), on which, it is presumed, Ray's trading-post was built, still perpetuates his name.

After Ray, or perhaps with him, came one Garrett Pendergrass, Sr., who, by consent of the chiefs of the Six Nations (see general chapter entitled "The 'White Men as Settlers"), resided here, made some improvements, probably did a thriving trade with the Indians, and claimed about three hundred acres of land, which included the "Three Springs" as well as land on the left bank of the Raystown branch. But according to the statement set forth in the Indian document referred to, he, also, removed from this locality soon after the beginning of the French and Indian war, and sought personal safety at a point far to the eastward.

As shown by the following memorial, William Fredregill was another adventurous spirit, and one of the very first to locate on the site of Bedford:

To the Honourable the commissioners of Property of the Province of Pennsylvania:

The Memorial of John Ormsby of the Town of Bedford in the County of Bedford in the Province of Pennsylvania Humbly Sheweth -

That a certain William Fredregill in the year of our Lord 1755 in Consequence of the Encouragement given to people to settle on the vacant Lands on the Western Frontiers of the said Province did settle on a certain Tract of Land near Raystown now called Bedford then vacant, which Tract of Land the said Fredregill occupied, built a dwelling House thereon, and made several other Improvements and continued in possession until he was driven off by the Indians in 1757, and his House and other Buildings were by them burnt and destroyed. That some years after the said Tract of Land and Improvements were included in the Survey of a Manor laid out for the Honourable the Proprietaries.

That your memorialist having purchased the said Fredregill's Right and Title in and to the said Tract of Land for the Consideration of one hundred pounds current money of this province as may appear by a certain Instrument of writing of Bargain and Sale bearing date the twenty second Day of December 1764 and made several Considerable Improvements on the same at a very great Expence, did in the year 1766 apply to the Honourable proprietaries Land Office in Philadelphia to have the said Land confirmed to him but at that Time could only obtain a Warrant to have the Land surveyed with a Clause 'On condition that he shall pay such purchase money as the Commissioners of property shall agree upon with the Memorialist.'

That the memorialist humbly hopes the Honourable Commissioners considering the true State of his case will not charge him with more purchase money than is usually paid by Settlers on vacant Land with the usual Quit Rent and Interest from the Date of the original Settlement in 1755, as the Land was actually settled and improved according to the Custom of Settlers, long before the laying out of the said Manor, and considering that it has been improved at great Hazard and Expence, the first Buildings and Improvements having been Destroyed as before set forth, he therefore prays the said Land may be confirmed to him on making such payments.


Philad, Feb. 24, 1772."

It is quite apparent, then, that although the provincial authorities attempted to open a wagon-road for military purposes, from Fort Loudon to Raystown, in 1755; that Col. John Armstrong was ordered by Gov. Denny, in the spring of 1757, to march from Carlisle with a provincial force of three hundred men and occupy Raystown (a feat he was unable to accomplish by reason of lack of supplies); that during the same season Col. Armstrong suggested the building of a fort at Raystown, and that during the summer of that year, 1757, Capt. Hamilton led a scouting party from Carlisle to the site of the present town of Bedford, yet from the time of Braddock's defeat, in 1755, until the vanguard of Forbes' army occupied the last-mentioned point in the summer of 1758, it was hardly possible for an isolated white man to remain at Raystown; nor is it probable, after its abandonment by Pendergrass and Fredregill, that any attempted it until the construction of a stockade in July and August of the latter year, and the establishment of a permanent garrison rendered it safe for them to do so.

The history of Bedford as a town, therefore, properly begins with the year 1758-a time when it was honored by the presence of such distinguished military celebrities as Forbes, Washington, Boquet, Armstrong, Burd, and an army of some six or seven thousand men; when quarters for officers, barracks and numerous shanties for sutlers and other camp followers were built; when a road was opened southward to Fort Cumberland, and when the great military route through the province via Carlisle, Shippensburg, Chambersburg, Loudon, Rays-town and Ligonier to Fort Pitt was completed. It appears that when Forbes' troops first occupied this point it was termed in letters and orders the" Camp at Raystown" or "Raystown Fort," but before the close of a twelve-month it was called Fort Bedford, in honor of "his Grace the Duke of Bedford," one of the "Lords Justices," also one of "his Majestie's Principal Secretaries of State" during the reign of George II.

Of those, other than soldiers, who came here with Forbes' army and remained permanently, John Fraser and his wife Jean are the only ones of whom anything is known. Fraseir, a Scotch-man, or Scotch-Irishman, was an intrepid frontiersman, and a small trader among the Indians before the inception of Braddock's disastrous campaign. He then resided in Virginia. When Braddock's army marched toward Fort Du Quesne, Fraser (accompanied by his wife) went as a guide and scout. Some household goods and a considerable stock of wares, suitable for the Indian trade, were also taken, it being Fraser's purpose to settle permanently on the head-waters of the Ohio. But, as already shown in these pages, Braddock met with defeat and death. The remnant of his army retreated, panic-stricken, to Fort Cumberland, and thither, too, proceeded Fraser and wife, where, for a time, they resided. A few months later, while near Fort Cumberland, Mrs. Fraser was captured by the Indians and taken as far westward as the present State of Ohio. After a captivity of about eighteen months, she escaped, and, in company with two white men, returned to her husband at Fort Cumberland.

When the Virginians, under Washington and Burd, marched from Fort Cumberland northward to join other detachments of Forbes' army at Raystown, Fraser and wife accompanied them, and on their arrival at this point, a small log cabin was built on the right bank of the Raystown branch, just below the present iron bridge, where meals were cooked for officers. The place finally became known as Fraser's Inn. Their son William, whose birth occurred in 1759, was, it is claimed, the first white child born within the present limits of Bedford county. Fraser became one of the most prominent men in the region surrounding Fort Bedford. As shown in a chapter relating to the first settlement of the three counties, he was present at Fort Pitt, in 1768, during a grand council meeting held between the representatives of the province and the chiefs of the Six Nations and other tribes, and with Capt. William Thompson (also a resident of Bedford in, 1768) was chosen as a messenger to visit and warn off the trespassing settlers located west of the Alleghenies. When Bedford county was organized he was appointed one of its first justices of the peace, and served as such until his death, which occurred before the beginning of the revolutionary war. Subsequently his widow married Capt. Richard Dunlap. She was the mother of children by both husbands, and thus became the ancestor of the Frasers of Schellsburg and the Williamses of Napier, Rainsburg and Everett. She died in 1815, in Colerain township. Capt. Dunlap, her second husband, was killed in a fight with the Indians near Frankstown in 1781. (See general chapter relating to "The Revolutionary Period.")

As another pertinent matter regarding the early history of the town we append the following:

By Louis Ourry Esq. Captain Lieutt, in the Royal American Regiment of Foot, & Aid, Deputy Quarter Master General, Commanding His Majesty's Troops at Fort Bedford.

To Tobias Risenor, Baker.

By virtue of the Power & Authority unto me Given by John Stanwix, Esqr, Major General and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Forces in the Southern District of North America, I do by these Presents, Grant unto you during His Majesty's Pleasure, the use & Possession of a certain Lot of Ground, situate near this Fort, on the South side of Bedford Street ** in the Town of Bedford, Province of Pennsylvania, thereon to build & make gardens for, your own private use & advantage, & for the better accommodating & Supplying this Garrison & other His Majesty's Troops employed on this Communication. (Having reference to the route or line of communication leading westward to Fort Pitt.) In consideration of which Grant from the Crown, you are to pay as an acknowledgement to His Majesty one Spanish Dollar per Annum Ground Rent. Given under my Hand & Seal at Fort Bedford this Twenty sixth day of March, 1760, And in the Thirty third year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord, George the Second, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France & Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., &c., &c.



Capt. Commandant.

Register'd in the Book of Grants at Fort Bedford this 7th day of April, 1760.


Upon the back of the old document of which the foregoing is a literal copy were the following indorsements:

"Lot No. 11, containing in Forefront 25 feet, Backside 25 feet, Upperside 150 feet, Lowerside 150 feet. L'Ourry, A .D.Q.M.G. Capt. Commandant." "Ground Rent paid to the 25 March, 1764. L'Ourry, March 9, 176-I." "Bedford the 28" Day of May, 1764. These are to Certify that I, Alexander Lutes, give over my Right & title Mention'd on the other Side unto Henry Road, as Witness my Hand.


The next important event was the survey of Bedford Manor. Concerning this and similar proceedings throughout the province it appears that on the 1st day of September, in the year 1700, William Penn issued his warrant or order to Edward Pennington, then surveyor-general of the province of Pennsylvania and territories, for the survey of one-tenth of all the lands that should be laid out in the said province for the use of the proprietor and his heirs. This warrant or order was as follows:

PENNSYLVANIA. William Penn Absolute Proprietary and Governor in Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania and Counties annexed:

According to the Primitive Regulation for laying out of Lands in this Province, by which it was provided that one tenth part of all the lands therein surveyed should be appropriated to me the propriatary thereof, I do hereby require and command thee to Survey or cause to be surveyed to my proper use and Behoof and my heirs after me, five hundred acres in every Township consisting of five thousand acres that shall be Surveyed, and generally one tenth part of all the lands that shall be laid out in this province or territories and make due Returns thereof into my secretaries office.

Given under my hand and seal this first day of September 1700.


To Edward Pennington, Surveyor General of the Province of Pennsylvania and territories.

On the 25th of November, 1748, the lieutenant-governor of Pennsylvania, James Hamilton, issued a second warrant or order directed to Nicholas Scull, *** Esq., at that time surveyor-general of the province, in the language following, to wit:

Pennsylvania, By The Proprietaries.-Whereas, by a warrant under the hand and seal of our late Father, dated the first day of September 1700, Edward Pennington, then Surveyor General of this province and Territories thereunto belonging, was required and commanded in pursuance of time primitive Regulation for laying out lands in this Province to survey or cause to be Surveyed, to the proper use and Behoof of our said Father and his heirs five hundred acres in every township consisting of Five Thousand Acres that should be Surveyed, and Generally one tenth part of all the lands that should be laid out in this Provence or Territories. These are therefore to authorize and require you to make Strict Examination what has been done in pursuance of the above mentioned Warrant, and to make exact returns of such Surveys into the Secretaries office, as also of all other Lands whatever that have by warrants heretofore Issued been appropriated to our use.

Witness James Hamilton, Esq., Lieutenant Governor of the said provence, who in pursuance and by virtue of certain powers and authorities to him for this purpose (Interalia) granted by the said propriataries hath hereto set his hand and caused the seal of the Land office to be affixed at Philadelphia this twenty-filth Day of November, 1748.

To Nicholas Scull, Surveyor General.


By virtue of these warrants Col. John Armstrong, deputy surveyor-general, made and returned to the land office a survey of Bedford Manor, upon which he indorsed the following:

A Draught of a Tract of Land, situate at Bedford, in the County of Cumberland, containing two thousand eight hundred and ten acres, and an half of one acre, with the usual allowance of 6 p'cent for Roads, &c. - Surveyed for the Honb the Proprietaries, time 29th day of October, 1761. In pursuance of a warrant bearing date the 25th day of November, One thousand seven hundred and forty-eight-I 748.



To John Lukens

Surveyor General - copy

This draft of the manor grounds, as sketched by Col. Armstrong, represents the Raystown branch, Schober's run, Cumberland Valley run; the old military road leading toward Fort Pitt; bridges over the Raystown branch at the point below the present town where the ford is now located, and across Dunning's creek at the same place where bridges are now found; Fort Bedford with its five bastions; the "Commandant's House" (the central part of time old building near the southeast corner of Pitt and Juliana streets, formerly known as the "Rising Sun" inn, and which was built about 1760); twenty-seven wooden structures, chiefly of logs, which, standing rather compactly on grounds now occupied by the Washington house and others to the westward, and from the site of the same house southward, were designated "Houses built by sutlers who followed the army." The manor lines embraced Garrett Pendergrass' and John Ormsby's(4) claims on the north, Philip Baltimore's (4*) claim and Samuel Drenning's "clearing," in the southwest part, the claims of the two last named being located on the west side of Cumberland Valley run. At the same time, 1761, those owning or claiming lands adjoining the manor were Col. Geo. Croghan (Sir William Johnson's chief deputy Indian agent) on the northeast-a large tract containing more than one thousand acres; Christopher Lewis' "lot," which was on the left bank of time Raystown branch just below the present Richard street bridge; Winemiller's "place" on the east, mentioned as a house and "old mill," the mill being located on Schober's run about half a mile from its mouth; Joseph Shenewolf's "land" on the southeast; Samuel Drenning's "claim" on the southwest; John Dougherty's "land," Thomas Jamison's "claim," John Holmes' "land," and Barnard Dougherty's "land" on the northwest.

The stockade already referred to as Fort Bedford stood upon the grounds bounded north by the Raystown branch, east by Richard, south by Pitt and west by Juliana streets. It embraced about seven thousand square yards, and, besides its five bastions-places prepared for the use of swivel guns - it had a "gallery with loopholes" extending from the central bastion on its north front to the water's edge, "to secure the water and secure the banks" of the stream. The main gate was on the south side, and parallel with the southern rampart ran Forbes' road or avenue, now known as Pitt street. There was, also, a smaller gate on the west side, and a postern gate opening northward. Ample quarters for the officers and men composing the garrison were arranged inside, but the storehouse and hospital buildings were situated outside and to the southward of the fort, while, as already mentioned, the sutlers' houses were located about one hundred yards to the southwestward.

The manner of constructing this and other stockades of that period was as follows : Around the area to be enclosed a ditch was dug to the depth of four or five, feet. In this oaklogs, or logs of some other kind of timber not easily set on fire or cut through, about eighteen feet long and pointed at the top, were placed side by side in an upright position. Two sides of the logs (or "pallisadoes" or "stoccadoes," as they were termed in those days) were hewn flat, and the sides were brought close together and fastened securely near the top by horizontal pieces of timber spiked or pinned upon their inner sides, so as to make the whole work continuous, firm and stanch. The ditch having been filled up again, and the loose earth well rammed down about the base of the "stoccadoes," platforms were constructed all around the inner sides of the enclosure some four or five feet from the ground, and upon these, in case of an attack, the garrison stood and fired through loopholes cut at the requisite height above the platforms. For the swivel guns portholes were cut on either side of the bastions. Fort Bedford was also protected on the south and west sides by a moat about eight feet deep, ten feet wide at the bottom and fifteen feet wide at the top. The great mass of earth taken from the ditch was thrown outward, and the same being graded down into an easy slope formed the glacis. The near proximity of the stream on the north and the peculiar formation of the original slim-face of the ground on the east front of the fort precluded as well as rendered unnecessary the construction of a fosse or moat on those sides. In, a word, the site of Fort Bedford was an admirable one, and the fort itself was strongly and very regularly constructed. Built by the vanguard of Forbes' army in the summer of 1758, it had become a ruin before the beginning of the revolutionary struggle and was never rebuilt.

As early as 1765, four men whose names are prominently and indissolubly connected with the history of the town, county, province and commonwealth, became residents at Fort Bedford- Barnard Dougherty, Robert Galbraith, Thomas Smith and George Woods. It is believed that all were of Scotch descent, and it is known that all were men of great activity, ability and sterling worth. All of them served as early justices of the peace of Bedford county, were active in the formation and organization of the county, and during the revolutionary period assisted largely in shaping the destinies of the state. They have been referred to so frequently in the general chapters of this work, that it is not deemed essential in this connection to add other than a summary to what has already been written.

Barnard Dougherty became a justice of the peace in this part of Cumberland county in 1767. He was reappointed to the same office when Bedford county was formed, and served in the same capacity for many years, frequently acting as the senior justice or president of the courts of quarter sessions. He also officiated as county treasurer for a number of terms. In June, 1775, he was appointed one of the Council of Safety, a famous body of men then preparing for the long struggle with Great Britain. He afterward served as a member of the Supreme Executive Council and in many other honorable capacities. He died in Bedford, and was buried, it is said, in the old burial-ground fronting on Penn street.

The following extract from the provincial records will explain itself:

At a Special meeting of the Board on Monday the 5th of May 1766, Present, His Honour the Governor, Mr. Secretary Tilghman, Mr. Receiver General Hockley, and Mr. Surveyor General Lukens, Ordered, That the Surveyor General with all convenient speed repair to the place called Fort Bedford, in Cumberland County upon the waters of Juniata and lay out a Town there to be called Bedford into 200 lots, to be accommodated with streets, lanes, and alleys, with a Commodious Square in the most Convenient place. The main streets to be eighty feet wide, the others sixty feet wide, the lanes and alleys twenty feet wide. The Corner Lots to be reserved for the Proprietaries and every tenth lot besides. The lots to be sixty-five, feet on the front and two hundred feet deep if the ground and situation will conveniently allow of that depth.

It is likewise ordered that the streets be laid out as Commodious as may be to any buildings now on the place worth preserving, and that the surveyor after laying out the Town receive applications and make entrys to be returned and recorded in the Secretary's office from any person or persons inclined to settle and build in the same Town. And that the people there now settled have preference as to their own tenements on which they are now settled. That the ground rent for the present be seven shillings sterling per annum; and the takers up of lots be obliged to take out their patents within six months from the time of application and give bond to build within three years a house of twenty feet square with a brick or stone chimney, and in case of failure the lots to be forfeited.

It is further ordered that the Surveyor General make survey and return a plan of the lands nearly adjacent to the Town and report the nature and quality of them.

When and how the surveyor general, John Lukens, performed the duties imposed by the foregoing order is best told by himself as follows:

Upon my arrival in Bedford June 4th 1766, having called together the principal inhabitants to consult with them concerning the streets and size of the lots, being also assisted by the Sheriff of the county; It was concluded the streets running East and West should run parallel with Captain Lewis' new house, (the solid and commodious stone structure on Pitt street, now owned and occupied by Adam B. Carn, Esq., which was built, probably, in the year 1765, and, apparently, is yet good for another century, or more, of years), and on measuring the ground, we found that the size of the lots mentioned in the order for laying out said Town would not answer so well as to lay them out sixty feet in breadth by two hundred and forty feet in length, which was accordingly done except the eight short lots fronting the Great Square, and those lying between Pitt street and the Raystown Branch of Juniata which are of various lengths.

To do the work it required the presence of Mr. Lukens at Bedford from the 4th to the 14th days of June inclusive, and at the conclusion of his task the following-named streets intersected and bounded the original plot (5*) of the town Pitt, Penn and John, running east and west, and East, Bedford (by the proprietaries called Shelburne), Richard, Juliana, Thomas and West, running north and south. On the southeast corner of Juliana and John streets two acres were granted Barnard Dougherty and others for "a burying-ground," and on the southeast corner of John and Richard a plot, sixty by one hundred and twenty feet, was designated as "a burial-ground for the People called Quakers, if the Governor would please to grant it." Those then mentioned as owning lots in the town were Barnard Dougherty, Robert Galbraith, Thomas Smith, Esq., George Woods and Phoebe Wolf. Thereafter the residents in the new town gradually increased in numbers, and very early one morning, in 1769, they were aroused, and the startling intelligence imparted that a king's fortress, Fort Bedford, had been surprised and captured by Capt. James Smith and his Black Boys. (See Chapter VII.)

In the spring of 1771 the county of Bedford was organized as the ninth civil division of the province, and the residents and lot-owners of Bedford, which was then the county-seat of a region embracing the southwest quarter of the present state, were as follows: Anthony Adams; Carling & Casebeer, blacksmiths; Samuel Davidson, Barnard Dougherty, Esq., John Fraser, Esq.; Jean Fraser, innkeeper; George Funk, innkeeper; Robert Galbraith, Esq., attorney; John Hite, George Keeler, George Litenberger; James McCashlin, (6*) shopkeeper and constable; Samuel McCashlin, Cornelius McCauley, Matthew McAllister, William McCall; Frederick Nawgel, merchant (in those days termed a shopkeeper); Charles Ruby, Frederick Rehart; Andrew Steele, owner of a sawmill ; Adam Saam, Samuel Skinner, Jacob Saylor, George Millegan, George Swigart and George Woods, Esq., the latter of whom owned three servants, six town-lots and thirty acres of improved out-lots. There were, beside, a number of single taxables, among whom were David Espy, Esq., and David Sample, Esq., attorneys at law.

From the time last mentioned, 1771, until the closing years of the revolutionary war, the records mention as additional lot-owners and residents: James Beatty, Capt. Richard Dunlap, Ebenezer David, James Millegan, Godfrey Nippen, John Ormsby, John Swigert, Thomas Anderson, Henry Didier, Samuel Drenning, Jacob Hersh, John Kassler, Samuel McCashlin, Jr.; Dr. John Peters, who became Bedford's first resident physician in 1778; Jacob Rine, George Sill, Samuel Todd, and Henry Wertz, an innkeeper, tanner, distiller, and in later years a brewer.

Near the close of the war for independence, or in 1782, those owning lots in the town were Jacob Saylor, Anthony Nawgel, John Hite, George Funk; Ebenezer David, a carpenter; Thomas Anderson, Barnard Dougherty, Michael Sill; Andrew Casebeer, blacksmith; John A. May, Rebecca Smith; Hugh Simpson, blacksmith; Jane Dunlap, the widow of John Fraser, Esq., and of Capt. Richard Dunlap; George Sill, Elizabeth Henry, Frederick Reigher, George Millegan, David Erwin, Henry Wertz, Jacob Hersh, Samuel McCashlin, Charles Ruby, Hector McNeal, George Woods, Esq., Dr. John Peters, Cornelius McAuley, David Espy, Esq., John Fraser's heirs and Frederick Nawgel's heirs. At the same time the town could boast of thirty-four dwellings and business houses. Of these George Woods, Esq. (who then resided in the building now owned by Adam B. Carn), and the heirs of Frederick Nawgel owned three each, George Funk, Ebenezer David and Thomas Anderson each owned two, while Anthony Nawgel, Barnard Dougherty, Esq., Michael Sill, John Casebeer, John A. May, Rebecca Smith, Hugh Simpson, Elizabeth Henry, Jane Dunlap, George Sill, Frederick Reigher, George Millegan, David Erwin, Henry Wertz, Jacob Hersh, Samuel McCashlin, Charles Ruby, Jacob Miller, Hector McNeal, Cornelius McAuley, David Espy, Esq., and John Fraser's heirs, each owned one house.

Of other early lot-owners and residents of the town Thomas Vickroy is first mentioned in 1785; Baltzer Hess, Thomas McGaughey, John McGaughey, Peter Miller, Terrence Campbell, and Hugh Barclay (7*) in 1787 ; William Beatty, Adam Croyle, Thomas Kennedy, Philip Knight, Martin Reiley, a merchant, Henry Sides, John Scott, Mathew Taylor, William Ward, Felix Mellen and Martin Pfeifer in 1788.

On November 9, 1789, Hugh Barclay was commissioned postmaster of the town of Bedford by Samuel Osgood, of Massachusetts, postmaster-general during Washington's first term. Doubtless this was the precise date of the establishment of postal facilities here. The records state that in July, 1795, Jacob Nagle paid three shillings and nine pence postage on two letters sent from Huntingdon to Philadelphia. Jacob Nagle and Thomas Vickroy, of Bedford county, and David Stewart, of Huntingdon, were the commissioners then engaged in adjusting and settling the delinquent taxes of Bedford, Somerset and Huntingdon counties.

During the autumn of 1794 the town of Bedford was again the scene of stirring events. The "Whisky Insurrection" (see general chapters) was about being crushed by the use of a strong military force. Seven thousand three hundred Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops of all arms, under the command of the governors of their respective states, passed westward and returned homeward through the streets of Bedford. For a time, too, the commander-in-chief of the whole army -Gen. Henry Lee, governor of Virginia, the "Light-Horse Harry" of revolutionary fame, and father of Gen. Robert E. Lee, the famous confederate commander in the war of 1861-5-designated this point as his headquarters. Indeed, it was while Gen. Lee was here, that the "father of his country" made his second and last visit to the town. It appears that President Washington, with Gen. Henry Knox, secretary of war, and Gen. Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, left Philadelphia on October 1 and proceeded by way of Harris' Ferry (now Harrisburg) to the headquarters of the right wing of the army at Carlisle. From that place on the 11th be went to Chambersburg, and thence by way of Hagerstown and Williamsport to Fort Cumberland, where he arrived on the 14th, and where he reviewed the Maryland and Virginia troops, composing the left wing; after which he proceeded to Gen. Lee's headquarters at Bedford. This point was reached on horseback on the 19th, and here the presidential party remained two or three days, when the homeward journey was resumed via the old military road, and ended at Philadelphia on the 28th. While Gen. Washington was at Bedford he was the guest of Col. David Espy, who then owned and occupied the two-story stone mansion now standing on Pitt street, west side of the alley, and opposite the Bedford house. It is also related that William Hartley, Esq., is now in possession of a backgammon board, with which the first president of the United States and the grandmother of Mr. Hartley played during the eventful month of October, 1794.

By an act of the state legislature approved March 13, 1795, the town was incorporated as a borough. The following year, 1796, the tax-paying inhabitants of the borough of Bedford, the amount and kind of property owned by each, were enumerated as follows: Thomas Anderson, 3 horses, 2 cows; Dr. John Anderson, a single man, 3 horses; James Beatty, wheelwrig1it, 1 house, 1 cow; Hugh Barclay, Esq., 2 houses, 6 horses, 4 cows; William Beatty, carpenter, 2 houses, 1 cow; George Beeler, 1 cow Simon Claar, 1 lot; Widow Espy, 1 house, 1 barn, 2 horses, 2 cows; George Funk, shopkeeper, 3 houses, 1 barn, 4 horses, 3 cows; Martin Holderbaum; James Heyden, shopkeeper, 3 houses, 1 barn, 2 horses, 4 cows; William Henry, hatter, 1 house, 1 barn, 2 horses, 1 cow; Widow Henry, 1 house; Baltzer Hess, shoemaker, 1 house, 1 horse, 1 cow; David Keeffe, tailor, 1 house, 2 cows; Daniel Liaberger, blacksmith, 1 house, 1 cow; Samuel McCashlin,1 house, 1 horse, 4 cows; Mary Miller, 1 lot; Cornelius McCauley, 1 house and lot; John McCartney, shopkeeper, 1 house, 4 horses, 1 cow; William McDermit, innkeeper, 1 horse, 3 cows; John Mackey, 1 house; Anthony Nawgel, I house, 1 barn, 3 horses, 4 cows; Jacob Nagle, lawyer, 2 houses, 2 horses, 1 cow; Thomas Norton, plasterer, 1 house, 1 cow; Martin Pfeifer, a single man, shopkeeper, I house; Martin Reiley, shopkeeper, 1 house, 1 horse, 1 cow ; Henry Reicher, saddler, 1 horse; John Reamer, 1 house, 1 barn ; Christopher Reiley, saddler, 2 houses, 1 barn, 1 horse; Widow Skinner, 1 house; Robert Spencer, innkeeper, 1 house, 1 barn, 3 horses, 2 cows; Andrew Sheetz, blacksmith, 1 house, 1 barn, 1 cow; John Scott, shopkeeper, 1 house, 1 horse, 1 cow; George Smith, shoemaker, 1 horse, 1 cow; Henry Sides, gunsmith, 1 house, 1 cow; William Small, innkeeper, 1 house, 1 barn, 1 horse, 2 cows; James Taylor, innkeeper, 1 house, 1 barn, 3 cows; Thomas Vickroy, surveyor, 1 house, 1 barn ; William Vickroy, clockmaker, 1 house; George Woods, Esq., 3 houses, 2 barns, 6 horses, 8 cows; Henry Wertz, 3 houses, 4 horses, 7 cows; John Williams, tailor, I house, 1 cow.

The single freemen at the same time, 1796, were: John Anderson of James, Jacob Aker; John Boyce, who owned one horse; Jacob Bonnett, who owned a horse; Charles Croyle, Adam Crim, David Croyle; Valentine Crow, blacksmith; John Davidson, William Devore, Frederick Dibert, David Dibert; Richard Ewalt, tanner; Adam Fisher, William Graham, Henry Givens, James Hartford; Jacob Holtz, who owned a house and barn ; George Henry; ---- Hunter, a storekeeper at Anderson's mill ; (8*) Frederick Imbrick, Michael Holderbaum, John McCashlin, Samuel McCashlin, William Moore, Robert Noble, William Proctor, Jacob Painter, George Painter, Melchoir Roastgarver, George Ray, John Richards, Thomas Ray, William Ray, James Stafford, John Smith, Henry Skinner, William Stein, John Searight, Michael Samuels, Robert Simpson, Henry Scoville, Jacob Saylor, Jr., John Swigert, John Utler, George Williams, Henry Whitstone, John Wallack, Hill Wilson; Henry Woods, an attorney; Valentine Wertz, James Williams, Henry Walter and Eli Williams. Hon. George Woods was then the largest property-owner in the borough, his possessions being valued at $7,428. The total amount of taxes levied upon the property of residents was $895.25; upon non-residents, $143.48.

In the early part of the year 1798, the inhabitants of the borough and county of Bedford, in the exercise of their rights as citizens and freemen, addressed a communication to, the President, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, The reply of President John Adams, and the letter of transmittal from United States Senator William Bingham to Col. Hugh Barclay, of Bedford, were as follows:

To the Inhabitants of the Borough and County of Bedford in Pennsylvania:

GENTLEMEN: Your address to the President, Senate and House of Representatives of the United States has been presented to me, by one of your Senators in Congress; Mr. Bingham.

I believe, there never were three men together, if there were two, who did not find some difference of Sentiment to prevail among them on various subjects,-unanimity in all things is never to be expected; yet, when the essential happiness of a people, when the Independence of a Nation is at stake, any irreconcilable difference of opinion is the infallible proof of a corruption that must produce ruin,- this I will confidently affirm is not the melancholy situation of America. All inferior considerations will be laid aside, and we shall be, and we are united in one opinion and sentiment in the great cause of our Country, at least so far as to render all dissentients impotent.

Your Government is your own. If you cannot select persons in whom you can confide, who can? Where, where will you look? To foreign Governments, Generals, or Ambassadors? No; let us trust in the direction of the Supreme Being and unite as a Band of Brothers. JOHN ADAMS.

PHILAD, June 21, 1798.

PHILADA June 22, 1798.

Sir: On the receipt of the address of the Inhabitants of the Borough & County of Bedford to the President, Senate, & House of Representatives, I presented in compliance with your request one copy thereof to the President & another to the Senate of the United States.

The Sentiments conveyed therein made a very favorable Impression & I have the Honor of enclosing to you the Reply, on the Part of the President which I shall take the Liberty of having inserted in the public news Papers.

I am with Regard Sir,

Your obed't h'ble servt,


At the beginning of the century there were, apparently, not so many residents in the town as during the year 1796. The tax-payers being Dr. John Anderson, John Anderson, Hugh Barclay, George Beeler, Simon Claar, John Claar, Widow Jane Espy, George Funk, Sr., John Graham, Martin Holderbaum, William Henry, James Heyden, David Keeffe, Daniel Lybarger, John McCartney, Samuel Means, Anthony Nawgel, Martin Reiley, Christopher Reiley, Robert Ramsey, John Raymond, William Reynolds, Robert Spencer, Henry Sides, John Scott, William Drenning, James Taylor, Henry Wertz, Sr., John Williams and Hon. George Woods. As single freemen there were William T. Davidson, David Reiley, Matthias Zimmer, John Anderson, Esq., William Reynolds, Esq., John Lyon, Esq., Henry Woods, Esq., Michael White, William Proctor, Jr., Daniel Zimmer, George Henry and Henry Wertz, Jr.

Having shown at some length who the very earliest residents of the town were, subsequent business and professional men up to the year 1860 will be named by decades as follows:

1810.-John Anderson, physician; Elijah Adams, Joseph Bailor, John Reiley, William Richards, George Smith, John Sanders, cordwainers ; Elias Ackert, Thomas Mathewson, butchers; Jacob Bonnett, Robert Culbertson, Humphrey Dillon, Thomas Moore, James Taylor, innkeepers; John Claar, Daniel Lyberger, blacksmiths; William Creichbaum, Jacob Fletcher, Thomas Hunt, Adam Miller, Henry Scovill, carpenters; Jacob Diehl, clockmaker; George Funk, Thomas Heyden, Maitin Reiley, John Schell, Robert Shannon, merchants; John H. Hofius, physician; George Henry, Andrew Sheetz, hatters; Christian Houcher, clergyman; David Keeffe, John Keeffe, tailors; William Kohrson, coppersmith ; James Linn, cabinetmaker ; Robert McCormick, schoolmaster; Charles McDowell, printer, who published the first newspaper in the county - the Bedford Gazette- the first number of which was issued September 21, 1805 ; Hon. David Mann, prothonotary; Anthony Nawgel, farmer; John Rymond, wheelwright; Christopher Reiley, saddler; Samuel Riddle, Esq., attorney at law John Risinger, barber; Jacob Shortz, tinner; Daniel Shuck, wagonmaker; Jonathan Walker, Esq., president judge; Henry Wertz, Jr., postmaster; and William Watson, physician. Among the thirty-five single freemen were Terrence Campbell, merchant; Henry Claar, saddler; Zadock Defer, tailor; Josiah Espy, merchant; John Edmiston, physician; Frederick Fletcher, carpenter; Samuel Funk, hatter; John Lyon, attorney at law; James McDonald, merchant; James M. Russell, attorney at law; John Tod (who was postmaster in 1805), attorney at law; Jesse Slick, tailor; and Hon. Henry Woods, attorney at law. The town then contained sixty-three houses of all classes.

1820. -John Anderson, president of the "Alleghany bank of Pennsylvania," which was established about the year 1815; John Brice, innkeeper; Jacob Bonnett, innkeeper; George Burd, attorney at law; Humphrey Dillon, innkeeper; William Drips, merchant; Thomas R. Gettys, printer; Frederick Gabe, Jr., merchant; John H. Hofius, physician and druggist; John Harshberger, merchant; Thomas Heyden, merchant; Charles McDowell, printer; Thomas Moore, innkeeper; Martin Reiley, merchant; Samuel Riddle, Esq., attorney at law; James M. Russell, attorney at law ; William Reynolds, merchant; John Schell, merchant; Alexander Thomson, attorney at law; John Tod, attorney at law; William Watson, physician ; Augustus Coolage, physician; William D. Smith, attorney at law; William Greer, printer; Abraham Kerns, merchant; Nicholas Lyons, merchant, who began business here in 1812. He was a native of Ireland, the stepson of Thomas Heyden, and the father of Capt. Thos. H. Lyons; William Swift, attorney at law; John H. West, merchant, and William Van Leer, physician. The borough then contained seventy-nine dwelling houses, and one hundred and fifty taxable inhabitants, of whom ninety were married.

1830.-John Anderson, banker; Elijah Adams, innkeeper; George Burd, attorney at law John Brice, innkeeper; Francis B. Barclay, physician ; William Bowman, merchant; Samuel Brown, teacher; Thomas Bonnett, innkeeper; William Clark, innkeeper; Humphrey Dillon, (9*) innkeeper; George R.H. Davis, merchant; Philip Fetterly, physician; Philip Fishburn, teacher; Henry Gerhart, clergyman; Thomas Heydon & Lyon, merchants; John H. Hofius, postmaster, physician and druggist; Joseph Hammer, merchant; Abraham Kerns, merchant; Henry Leader, Thomas Ray, John Riley, William Watts, innkeepers; F.B. Murdock, attorney at law; Job Mann, prothonotary, etc.; Daniel McKinley, clergyman; John Piper, merchant; Martin Reiley, merchant; James M. Russell, attorney at law; Peter Schell, merchant and innkeeper; John H. West, merchant; William Watson, physician; John Young, confectioner. Among the single freemen were: William Fletcher, merchant; William F. Boone, Samuel M. Barclay, Andrew J. Cline, David R. Denny, Alexander King, William Lyon and James Reynolds, attorneys at law. Number of private buildings, including dwellings, stores, offices, mills, etc., but not barns, one hundred and ten. Number of taxable inhabitants, one hundred and seventy-eight. Total population, eight hundred and seventy-nine, of whom fifty-seven were colored.

1840.-Espy L. Anderson, Samuel M. Barclay, George Burd, John A. Blodgett, William C. Logan, William Lyon, Job Mann, John Mower, James M. Russell, attorneys at law; George W. Bowman, Charles McDowell, Jacob Slentz, printers; William H. Watson, Francis B. Barclay, John H. Hofius, physicians; John Brice, William Clark, Jr., Humphrey Dillon, Joseph W. Duncan, Joseph May, Samuel Walters, John Whitehead, John Young, innkeepers; Samuel Brown, Thomas R. Gettys, Thomas Harris, teachers; John H. Hofius, druggist; William T. Dougherty, Robert Fyan, George R. Holsinger, Nicholas Lyons, Thomas B. Miller, John G. Martin, William Ottinger, Edmond Peel, Peter Radabaugh, James Reamer, merchants; George Espy, Jacob Fletcher, Thomas Heyden, Lawrence Taliaferro, William Tate, gentlemen Joseph S. Morrison, associate judge; Joseph B. Noble, prothonotary; Robert Stewart, surveyor. Among the single freemen were: George W. Anderson, physician; H.N. Dillon, Samuel Rippey, Alexander L. Russell, gentlemen; James M. Gibson, William Hofius, Charles McGlathery, Richard McGlathery, Thomas Sill, merchants; William Ridenbaugh, printer; Geo. C. Gettys, teacher; Rev. Thomas Heyden, .Jr., B. Franklin Mann and Samuel L. Russell, attorneys at law. Bedford then boasted of one hundred and thirty-four houses, stores, etc., and two hundred and fifty-four taxable inhabitants, of whom eighty-seven were single freemen.

1850.-John A. Blodgett, William P. Schell, William M. Hall, Jr., Joseph F. Loy, O.E. Shannon, attorneys at law; Samuel Carn, William Compher, George Espy, John Ottinger, James M. Reynolds, gentlemen; Daniel Crouse, Valentine Steckman, Charles Williamson, innkeepers; Thomas R. Gettys, Thomas J. Harris, teachers; F.M. Hohman, W.H. Kelly, Henry Nicodemus, A.B. Cramer, John Dugdale, John M. Gilmore, Samuel Shuck, merchants; Edwin Neff, jeweler; John P. Reed, prothonotary; Robert Stewart, surveyor; F.C. Reamer, Samuel D. Scott, John Compher, physicians; A.J. Snively, sheriff; L. Saupp, brewer; David Over, printer; Thomas Heyden, P.A. Waters, clergymen. The town then contained one hundred and forty-four seated lots, and three hundred taxable inhabitants, of whom sixty-five were single freemen.

Property owners in 1860.- John P. Arnold, Espy L. Anderson, Capt. John Arnold, Daniel Border, John Brice, John Boor, George Blymyer, William Bowles, Samuel Bagley, Jacob Bollinger, Samuel Brown, S.M. Barclay's heirs, Martin Boor, F.D. Beegle, Mary Burns, Camilla Barclay, George W. Bowman, Jonathan Brightbill, John Claar's heirs, George Claar's heirs, Daniel Cromwell's heirs, James Callan, John Claar, Jr., Sophia Claar, John Cessna, Esq., Simon Cook, W.T. Chapman, Wood's heirs, Samuel Carn, Joseph Crawley, John Crawley, Rachel Claar, Henry Crawford, William T. Dougherty, Henry Duffey's heirs, Alexander Defibaugh, Defibaugh & Mardorff, Henry Dorsey, Elizabeth Dishong, Catharine Earnest, Robert Fyan, Elias Fisher, Sarah Fulford, Funk's heirs, John Fidler, Elizabeth Fetterly, Benj. W. Garretson, James Gibson's heirs, George Grey, B.F. Harry, Rev. Thomas Heyden, William Hartley, Mary Hunt, Elwood Hammer's heirs, Jonathan Horton, Lawrence Jamison, Francis Jordan, Esq., John R. Jordan, Alexander King, Esq., William Kiser, Abraham Kern's heirs, Jane Kane, Mary Lentz, Colin Loyer, Nicholas Lyons, John Lutz's heirs, John L. Lessig, Thomas Lynch, William Lyon, Esq., John Love, John Mower, Esq., Henry Mower, Joshua Mower, A. Wayne Mower, James McMullin, John G. Minich, Job Mann, Esq., Charles Merwine, Thomas Merwine, William Milburn, Isaac Mengel, Sr., Sophia Morrison, Metzger heirs, Widow McCausland, Henry Nicodemus, Edward Norris, Jacob Over, Catherine Over, Eben Pennel, Catharine Powell, Christopher Reily, Dr. F.C. Reamer, Henry Reymond, John P. Reed, James M. Russell, Esq., Samuel L. Russell, Esq., Alonzo Robbins, Solomon Reymond, John H. Rush, Samuel Radebaugh, Eli Rouse, Peter H. Shires, Daniel J. Shuck, William Stahl, Anthony Stiffler, Wm. P. Schell, Esq., William Schafer, Jacob Smith, Peter Smith, O.E. Shannon, Esq., William Spidel, Daniel Shuck's heirs, James Steckman, Sarah Sellers, Harriet Sansom, Andrew Saupp's heirs, Samuel H. Tate, Esq., Taylor & Mowry, Lawrence Taliaferro, Samuel Vondersmith, Dr. William H. Watson, Dr. William Watson's heirs, Mrs. Eliza Watson, Philip Weisel's heirs.

At the present time, 1883, the town contains six hundred and sixty-six taxable inhabitants, of whom three hundred and twenty-two are freeholders, two hundred and twenty-two are tenants, and one hundred and twenty-two are single men. Its six hundred and thirteen town lots are valued at $547,115 ; its one hundred and nine horses and eighty head of cattle at $9,433; the emoluments of all trades, offices, professions, etc., at $105,000, while two hundred and eighty-two men are subject to military duty.

Of its present professional and business men, we mention : John Mower, Samuel L. Russell, John Cessna, John P. Reed, John W. Lingenfelter, John Lutz, Moses A. Points, Jonathan B. Cessna, Edward F. Kerr, Jacob H. Longenecker, Hayes Irvine, Alexander King, John M. Reynolds, Humphrey D. Tate, William C. Smith, John H. Jordan, James C. Russell, Frank Fletcher, Thomas M. Armstrong, Robert C. McNamara, Nicholas L. McGirr, J. Frank Minnich, Howard F. Mowry, Rufus C. Haderman, Joseph S. Stayer and J. Alsip, attorneys; J.L. Marbourg, Simon H. Gump, William T. Hughes, John A. Clark, C.P. Calhoun, George C. Barton and Americus Enfield, physicians; Kerr & McNamara, of the Gazette, Mullin & Jordan, of the Inquirer, and Lutz & Smith, of the Republican, newspaper publishers; John E. Shires, James Cleaver, T. Speer Gilchrist, D.G. Herring, A. E. Fyan, J. Harry Gilchrist, S.C. Burns, W. Lysinger, Capt. S.S. Metzger and S.A. Middleton, merchants; John A. Cone, of the Washington House, Valentine Steckman, of the Union House, and H. Clay Lashley, of the Bedford House, hotelkeepers; Adam B. Carn, dealer in tobacco and cigars, who owns and occupies the oldest substantial building in the town, Hartley (John G.) & Bowers (John S.), bankers; F. Benedict, insurance agent; E.D. Shoemaker, register and recorder; Americus Enfield, sheriff; Humphrey D. Tate, prothonotary, etc.; William Hartley, retired; John Alsip and William G. Eicholtz, farmers; William F. Mann, William W. Barclay, Shines (Peter H.) & Jordan (John R.), founders and machinists; Moore & Jordan, insurance agents; F.P. Gilchrist and J. Brightbill, carriage and wagon manufacturers; John W. Ridenour, jeweler, etc.; Heckerman Bros., druggists; R.V. Lee, undertaker; J.H. Cessna, county superintendent of schools; W.L. Newman, lessee and operator of gristmill; William L. Horn, owner of planing-mill, builder and contractor; J.W. Knox, carriage manufacturer; J.N. Killinger, of Freed & Co., kegworks; H.R. Hershberger, liveryman; Dexter White, restaurant and wholesale liquor dealer; Hasse, merchant tailor; Louis Saupp; Revs. Daniel O'Connell, Charles M. Stock, H.D. Cone, Ellis N. Kremer, S.W. Sears and Dr. Langdon, clergymen; A.J. Sansom and William C. Smith, justices of the peace.

Having traced in the foregoing pages the history of the town from its incipiency to the present date, and noted a large majority of those who have been its prominent residents, we will only add, in this connection, that it is centrally located in the county of which it is the seat of justice. Its location is twenty miles north of the Maryland, or Mason and Dixon's, line, at an elevation of one thousand and sixty-two feet above the ocean level, and in longitude 10 30' west, of 40° 15' north latitude. With the completion of the proposed Harrisburg & Western railroad it is safe to predict that the present population of about two thousand six hundred will be doubled within the next ten years. Other matters pertaining to the history of the borough will be treated under topical headings as follows:


Although by an act of assembly, approved March 13, 1795, the town of Bedford was designated a borough, it appears that for nearly a quarter of a century thereafter it was a borough in name only, and that the only benefits its citizens derived from the act mentioned was the fact of being entitled to their own justices of the peace and constables. On February 5, 1817, a second act of incorporation was approved, and in accordance with its provisions an election was held at the court-house on the first Monday in May following, which resulted in the choice of borough officers as follows (Vol. I, Minutes of Town Council, begins with the record of this election):

James M. Russell, chief burgess; James Williams, assistant burgess; John H. Hofius, John Hershberger, John Tod, William Watson, William Reynolds and Elijah Adams, members of council, and Peter Saurman, high constable. Henry Hoblitzell, Charles McDowell and John Sanders served as inspectors of this election, and at an early meeting of council David Mann was appointed secretary, and George Henry treasurer, of the incorporation. Chief Burgess Russell was sworn into office May 10, and on the third Saturday in May, 1817, a borough seal was adopted, described as follows: "On the margin thereof the words 'Seal of the Borough of Bedford' and the figures '1817,' and in the center thereof for a device, a hydrant with running water."

Following is a complete list of those who have held the office of chief burgess during subsequent years: James M. Russell, 1818, 1819; David Mann, 1820, 1821 ; Henry Woods, 1822 David Mann, ]823; Josiah E. Barclay, 1824,1825 ; Charles McDowell, 1826, 1827, 1828 George Henry, 1829; James M. Russell, 1830; Joseph S. Morrison, 1831 ; Peter Schell, 1832;Thomas B. McElwee, 1833; Joseph S. Morrison, 1834; Charles McDowell, 1835; Peter Schell, 1836; Job Mann, 1837; James M. Russell, 1838 ; Daniel Shuck, 1839 ; George R. Holsinger, 1840; John Arnold, 1841; Samuel Brown, 1842, 1843; Solomon Mason, 1844, 1845; David H. Hofius, 1846, 1847; Solomon Mason, 1848; William P. Schell, 1849; Samuel L. Russell, 1850; Samuel Carn, 1851, 1852; Samuel Davis, 1853 ; William P. Schell, 1854; Francis Jordan, 1855, 1856 ; William P. Schell, 1857; Jacob Reed, 1858, 1859; John H. Rush, 1860, 1861, 1862; Valentine Steckman, 1863, 1864, 1865; George W. Blymyer, 1866 ; O.E. Shannon, 1867; Valentine Steckman, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871 ; John A. Mowry, 1872, 1873; S.S. Metzger, 1874; A.J. Sansom, 1875, 1876; Espy M. Alsip, 1877 ; Samuel F. Statler, 1818 J.B., Cessna, 1879, 1880; Joseph W. Tate, 1881 ; Jacob H. Longenecker, 1882, and William L. Fyan, 1883. Other borough officers at the present time are Jonathan Brightbill, William L. Horn, E. W. Harmer, Frank Thompson, Dr. John A. Clark and Robert Steckman, councilmen; N.L. McGirr, secretary; William Dibert, constable; George C. Hawkins, superintendent of waterworks; J. Wy. Boor, collector and treasurer; A.J. Sansom and William C. Smith, justices of the peace.

In August, 1817, it was determined by the first board of councilmen that a reservoir of the capacity of sixteen thousand gallons should, be constructed "near the public springs," and that supply pipes be laid there from under the direction of Charles D. Bishop for the purpose of furnishing the inhabitants with a pure and ample supply of water. Soon after a contract was concluded with Abraham Kerns to build the reservoir, and James Williams, John H. Hofius, William Reynolds and John Tod were named by council as members of the committee to superintend the entire work of construction. To carry forward the enterprise, the sum of $2000 was borrowed from the Allegheny Bank of Pennsylvania - a Bedford institution -and a long period passed before the obligation was canceled. The castings used were procured at Pittsburgh, and before the beginning of the winter of 1817-18, the works were in operation.

Regarding other matters of historical and local interest, the minutes of councils likewise inform the reader that in April, 1839, a fire-engine was purchased of the United States Engine Company, for the sum of $500 - Hon. J.S. Morrison loaning the borough authorities the money with which the payment was made. An engine-house was erected soon after, and in 1842 the same building was occupied by the military companies known as the "Bedford Artillery" and "Independent Greys," as an armory. In November, 1846, the Atlantic & Ohio Telegraph Company - a corporation which has since become part of the great Western Union - obtained permission to run its wires through the town. In April, 1861, at the outbreak of the war of the rebellion, a rumor gained general credence among the town's people that their neighbors south of Mason and Dixon's line were about to invade and lay waste the country hereabouts, that Bedford especially was marked for destruction. To add to the terror of the most nervous, some parties (doubtless young men of the town) proceeded to the mountain lying southeast of the borough, charged sundry large trees with powder, and exploded them at will. Many really believed this to be the work of an enemy, and thereupon a night watch, consisting of eighty-eight men, was organized under the command of Capt. Samuel Davis. Armed with all manner of weapons, this valiant watch was divided into two companies or detachments of forty-four men each, and while one detachment patrolled the outskirts and maintained a particularly sharp outlook toward the front - Dunning's mountain -from 10 P.M. to 1.30 A.M., those composing the reserve or second relief retired to their respective places of abode. When the hour approached for the relief guard to be called out, Capt. Davis also performed the duties of sergeant, and assembled his men by going from house to house and arousing them from their slumbers. The second relief remained on duty from 1.30 to 4 A.M. Many amusing stories are told concerning this epoch in the history of the borough, which will hardly bear recording here.


(JULY 4, 1808.)

"Yesterday," said the editor of the Gazette, in his issue of July 5, 1808, "the anniversary of American Independence was celebrated at this place with unusual demonstrations of joy and enlightened patriotism. At 12 o'clock Capt. Lyon's company of infantry paraded and marched out to Davidson's Spring - a beautiful and romantic spot previously designated as the place for the entertainments of the day. At 1 o'clock a number of citizens, among whom were some of the respectable farmers of the neighborhood, joined them, when a committee from the infantry company waited on Henry Woods, Esq., and requested him to sit as president of the day. At the same time a committee from the citizens informed Capt. John Lyon that he had been nominated by them as vice-president. Lieut. Samuel Davidson, James M. Russell, Esq., and Charles McDowell were appointed a committee to draft or to select from those already furnished a number of patriotic toasts for the occasion; which were reported and adopted by the citizens present. At 2 o'clock (immediately after a discharge of musketry) the whole company sat down to an elegant and well arranged dinner, prepared under the direction of Mr. John Fleming. After the cloth was removed seventeen regular toasts were drank with unanimous bursts of applause-intermingled with martial music and a number of patriotic and sentimental songs. The Light Infantry then resumed their arms, and with much order and exactness fired a platoon in honor of each of the above toasts-with reference to the seventeen states of the Union. The company again seated themselves, when, with increased joy, approaching to enthusiasm, they drank several volunteer toasts. The latter were proposed by the president of the day, the vice-president, James M. Russell, Esq., Josiah M. Espy, Esq., Charles McDowell, Dr. John Anderson, Dr. George D. Foulke and Mr. Charles J. Smith. At sundown the company rose from the table and formed themselves into a line, the citizens in the center, the military in the front and rear. In this order, emblematic of the protection which the citizens ought to receive from the soldiers, they marched to the center of the town, where the joyful and interesting scenes were closed by a discharge of musketry. Such is a correct account of this patriotic festival, which, for a display of social harmony, order, friendship, ease and convivial gaiety, has never been in this place surpassed. Every countenance beamed with the joyful feelings of the heart, and each one's sentiment appeared the sentiment of all. In fact no cause of regret appeared but the absence of a number of citizens, which it had been presumed the spirit of the day would have brought out."


"The Allegheny Bank of Pennsylvania," Bedford's first banking house, was established soon after the close of the second war with Great Britain, or April 2, 1815. Its president was Dr. John Anderson, while Josiah M. Espy, Esq., served as cashier. The building occupied (on Pitt street), the offices, vault, etc., are still in a good state of preservation, and are yet owned by the Anderson heirs. The Allegheny was a bank of issue, and was deemed one of the most reliable and prosperous moneyed institutions in the state. In the final settlement, which occurred after a decade or more of years had passed, William Hartley (the father of John G. and William Hartley) was prominent, he having bought the assets and guaranteed the liabilities. Eventually (with great gain to himself), he redeemed every dollar of the paper outstanding.

In later years, Reed (Jacob) & Rupp (George W.), and afterward Reed & Schell (Jacob J.), conducted a banking business for a brief period. Subsequently, yet only for a few months, Oliver E. Shannon & Rupp were known as bankers.

The present banking house of Messrs. Hartley (John G.) & Bowers (John S.) was established by W.M. Lloyd, of Altoona, in 1869. The latter controlled it until the panic of 1873 disposed of him and his numerous banks of exchange scattered through several counties. His successors here were Hartley, Russell & Co., who continued from January, 1874, until January 1, 1876, when Messrs. Hartley & Bowers began their present business relations.


Though possessing many of the requisites, Bedford has never been noted as a manufacturing center, consequently hundreds of towns throughout the Union of less than fifty years' growth surpass it in population, business activity and material resources.

The Foundry and Machine Shops now owned and operated by Messrs. Shires & Jordan have been prominent as landmarks in the eastern part of the town for the past forty years. About the year 1840, Daniel Washabaugh (an active business man in his day, a brewer, distiller, likewise a noted militia officer) erected the foundry buildings, but they remained unoccupied some two years, when a firm composed of Daniel Washabaugh, William Howser and Michael Bannan began work as founders and machinists under the name of Washabaugh, Howser & Bannan. About 1846, Howser withdrew, and Washabaugh & Bannan continued until 1855, when Washabaugh retired, renting his interests to Bannan. This condition of affairs existed until 1858, when Peter H. Shires and John R. Jordan, the present proprietors, purchased the fixtures and business at public sale. They rented the real estate until 1870, when that, also, was purchased.

Messrs. Shires & Jordan are manufacturers of and general dealers in all kinds of farm implements, steam engines, separators and sawmills, threshing-machines, mill-gearing, stoves, cord-binders, reapers and mowers, hayrakes, grain-drills, plows, iron railing's, etc., etc., and repair to order. Mr. Shires was born in Center county, and Mr. Jordan in that part of Bedford now known as Fulton county. Both are gentlemen of high social and commercial standing in the community in which they reside.

The Bedford Planing and Saw Mill, William L. Horn, proprietor, was built by its present owner in 1882. Besides the twelve men steadily employed at the mills, others are engaged in the construction of buildings at Everett and other points in the surrounding country. Mr. Horn is a native of Cumberland, Maryland, but became a resident of Bedford in 1855. He is a manufacturer of doors, sash, blinds, siding, flooring and surface lumber of all kinds; also a dealer in building material of every description.

The mill stands near the site of a planing-mill which, built by the Nycum Bros. about 1872, was burned in 1880.

The Bedford Keg Works were established in August, 1881, by the firm now in control, Messrs. Freed & Co. The works have a capacity for the manufacture of one hundred thousand kegs (used for packing and shipping white lead and zinc) per year, a capacity which is soon to be doubled. Twenty-four men and boys are steadily employed. It is stated that but two manufactories of this kind are in operation in the United States-those at Bedford and Pittsburgh.

The Planing-mill of Hedding & Covalt, situated on the north side of the Raystown branch, was completed in the autumn of 1882. The same firm has been engaged in general merchandising in the town of Bedford for the past ten years, and is also largely interested in coal-mining at Six Mile run, Broad Top region. Though natives of Pennsylvania, both members of the firm were for a number of years extensive dealers in merchandise, etc., at Hancock, Maryland.

Hartley's Gristmill, the first steam gristmill erected in Bedford county, was built by John G. and William Hartley in 1865. With the grounds occupied, it cost $24,000. It has four runs of stone and a capacity for the manufacture of fifty barrels of flour per day. William D. Newman, the present lessee, was born in Adams county, Pennsylvania. When sixteen years of age he removed to Franklin county, Pennsylvania, where he remained twenty years. For the past ten years he has resided in Bedford and operated this, mill.


At an early day, long before the disappearance of Morgan, and the consequent formation of an Anti-Masonic party, a Masonic lodge was organized in Bedford. Its members met in a tavern or inn kept by one Patrick McMurray on West Pitt street. Among them were Samuel Riddle, Esq., George Burd, Esq., and other prominent citizens, cotemporaries of theirs but, it is presumed, by reason of the death by suicide of McMurray, and the excited state of public feeling during the last part of the third decade of this century, the Bedford lodge of A.Y.M. gave up its charter - at least it ceased to exist.

The present Masonic organization, Bedford Lodge, No. 320, A.Y.M., was chartered March 1, 1858, and the first officers were: N.E. Gilds, W.M.; James Patton, S.W.; Daniel Minnich, J.W. Subsequent presiding officers have been John W. Lingenfelter, Benjamin F. Meyers, Charles N. Hickok, George H. Mengel, H.F. Irvine, H.G. Weimer, H. Oscar Kline, D.W.Crouse, William M. Lessig, Atchison L. Hench, John M. Reynolds, James Cleaver, T. Speer Gilchrist and P. Etter Irwin.

The present officers are Humphrey D. Tate, W.M.; John H. Uhl, S.W.; William Lauder, J.W.; Howard F. Mowry, Treas.; Charles M. Stock, Secy.; David R. Smith, John Wy. Boor and John O. Smith, Trustees. The members in good standing at the present time are eighty in number. Meetings were first held in Odd-Fellows' Hall; subsequently for ten years in the Shoemaker building, and since the completion of the Brode building in the latter structure. The rooms are spacious and elegantly furnished, over three thousand dollars having been expended for furniture, fixtures, carpets, etc. Regular meetings are held Wednesday evenings on or before the full moon.

Bedford Chapter, No. 255, H.R.A.C, was organized in 1876. Its present officers are James Cleaver, M.E.P.; D. Stewart Elliott, K.; T. Speer Gilchrist, S.; William Lauder, Treas.; Charles M. Stock, Secy.; Oliver L. Lockwood, David R. Smith and John M. Reynolds, Trustees. The present members number forty-one.

Bedford Lodge, No. 436, Knights of Pythias, was organized September 24, 1874. The officers first installed were: Samuel F. Statler, C.C.; Isaac Pierson, V.C.; Henry S. Dibert, Prel.; -Rautenberg, M. at A.; P. Etter Irwin, K. of R. and S.; Joshua Pierson, M. of F.; D.S. Griffith, M. of E. Subsequent Chancellor Commanders have been P. Etter Irwin, Joshua Pierson, D.S. Griffith, J.J. Wolf, Isaac Pierson, Henry S. Dibert, Moses Lippel, Simon H. Gump, John O. Smith, William C. Smith, Alfred J. Stiver, J.O. Williams, James Cleaver, John Wy. Boor, William Line, William L. Horn, H.P. Shires, Josiah Amos, Samuel D. Sansom and R. Sewell Wright. The present officers are Daniel C. Burns, C.C.; Joseph C. Deal, V.C.; William Newman, Prel.; J.W.S. Nycum, M. at A.; Josiah Amos, K. of R.and S.; James F. Mickel, M. of F.; William Line, M of E. Present members number eighty-four, and meetings are held every Monday in the Brode building.

William Watson Post, No. 332, G.A.R., named in honor of Major William Watson (deceased), of Bedford (late surgeon 105th Penn. Vols.), was organized May 9, 1883. The officers then elected and now serving are: Samuel F. Statler, C.; John D. Horn, S.V.; William G. Eicholtz, J.V.; C.P. Calhoun, Surg.; Levi Smith, O.D.; John B. Helm, Q.M.; William L. Horn, Adjt.; Samuel Ake, Sergt. Maj.; Philip Huzzard, Q.M.-Sergt.; Dexter White, I.S.; Biven Melloy, O.S.; William G. Eicholtz, S.S. Metzger, and Dexter White, council of administration.

The members at this writing (representing both commissioned officers and enlisted men) are as follows (the company and regiment mentioned after each name indicates the organizations in which members served during the late war): S.F. Statler, Co. H, 55th Penn.; Andrew Biddle, Co. E, 138th Penn.; James Cleaver, Co. F, 8th Penn. reserves; S. S. Metzger, Co. D, 55th Penn.; D.M. Blymyer, Co. K, 138th Penn.; David Price; John B. Helm, Co. G, 101st Penn.; William G. Eicholtz, Co. H, 208th Penn.; Dexter White, Co. K, 122d Penn.; A. Enfield, Co. G, 22d Penn. Cav.; H. Clay Lashley, Co. D, 55th Penn.; John W. May, Co. F, 138th Penn.; John D. Horn, Co. D, 55th Penn.; William L. Horn, Co. H, 54th Penn. D. W. Mullin, Co. G, 101st Penn.; Josiah Hissong, Co. H, 55th Penn.; Abram Oyler, Co. D, 55th Penn.; Jacob Dibert, Co. A, 135th Ill.; John Keeffe, Co. C, 2d Cal.; Samuel Ake, Co. H, 22d Penn. Cav.; Henry Shoenfelt, Co. D, 55th Penn.; John C. Beneigh, Co. E, 13th Penn. Cay.; William Agnew, Co. H, 55th Penn.; William C. Kean, Co. A, 125th Penn.; Theophilus R. Gates, Co. K, 55th Penn.; John I. Miller, Co. C, 110th Penn.; Adam Benner; C.P. Calhoun, Co. F, 138th Penn.; William W. Barclay, Co. A, 1st Cal. Cav.; Jacob Stoudenour, Co. E, 76th Penn.; George C. Hawkins, Co. B, 46th Penn.; Biven Melloy, Co. B, 138th Penn.; Aug. K. Hanes, Co. F, 19th Penn. Cav.; Thomas Wolfkill, Co. K, 19th Penn. Cav.; John A. Wertz, Co. K, 82d Penn.; John Miller, Co. G, 101st Penn.; Philip Huzzard, Co. E. 76th Penn.; Adam B. Carn, Co. A, 184th Penn.; Levi Smith, Co. E, 76th Penn.; John W. Barndollar, Co. U, 13th Penn.; William Weisel, Co. D, 55th Penn.; James W. Leary, Co. E, 76th Penn.; Malachi Mock, Co. B, 138th Penn.; George Stuffler, Co. H, 55th Penn.; George W. Gates, Co. D, 1st Penn. Rifles; John D.Amos, Co. D, 55th Penn.; M.A. Stoner; A.H. Wise, Co. E, 138th Penn.

Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month.


Bedford Lodge, No. 202, the pioneer lodge in the county, where there are now fifteen lodges, with a membership of over nine hundred, was instituted on Wednesday evening, October 15, 1846, by District Deputy Grand Master John Mull, of Franklin county, assisted by Maj. Wm. Gilmore, of Chambersburg, Dr. F.C. Reamur and others.

The charter members were James Reamer, N.G.; Francis Haley, V.G.; Solomon Mason, Secy.; Wm. C. Reamer, Asst. Sec.; and P.I. Daniels, Treas.

Those initiates on the night of institution were John R. Jordan, Dr. C.N. Hickok, Maj. Samuel H. Tate, Dr. I.M. Russell, James W. Skillington, Colin Soyer, Joseph Mann, and J. Cook, Jr., of which all are dead or have removed, except Messrs. Jordan and Hickok. The other initiates during the first few weeks were Hon. Alex. King, Hon. S.Q. Russell, Dr. Wm. H. Watson, John Arnold, Gen. Alex. Q. Russell, Wm. Bowles, Wm. Kirk, Hon. John G. Hartley, Thomas King and others.

Mr. Jordan and Dr. Hickok have worked side by side in the lodge and the order ever since. Mr. Jordan has been District Deputy Grand Master of the county and Representative to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and has been for over thirty years, and is now, the secretary of the lodge.

Dr. Hickok was District Deputy Grand Master and District Deputy Grand Patriarch of the county for several years; was Representative to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for eleven years; was Grand Representative from the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania to the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the World, from 1870 to 1879 inclusive; was Grand Warden in 1881, Deputy Grand Master in 1882, and is now- 1883 -Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with its one thousand subordinate lodges.

Recently, in recognition of the steadfast labors of these two brothers, the lodge had magnificent life-size oil portraits of them (painted by one of the best American artists), in full regalia, elegantly framed and hung in the lodge-room as a perpetual reminder of their services.

The following are the names of the Noble Grands (presiding officers) of the lodge from its institution to the present, viz:

James Reamer, Francis Haley, Solomon Mason, Wm. C. Reamer, J.P. Daniels, Samuel H. Tate, Samuel L. Russell, L. W. Smith, William C. Mann, John G. Hartley, C.N. Hickok, A.J. Middleton, John R. Jordan, Wm. Gephart, H. Nicodemus, John Arnold, Alexander King, B.F. Horry, Wm. Bowles, Wm. F. Moorehead, Wm. Simpson, Jno. L. Lessig, Eben Pennel, Hiram Lentz, G.R. Gettys, Samuel Stohl, J.M. Shoemaker, R.D. Barclay, Wm. W. Shuck, John G.Minnich, Sr., P.H. Shires, J.H. Hutton, Wm. L. Horn, A.J. Sansom, J.G. Minnich, Jr., Jacob Barnhart, Isaac F. Grove, A.B. Carver, David Prosser, Moses A. Points, H.J. Henderson, Levi Smith, H.F. Irvine, D.W. Crouse, George C. Leader, T.J. Thompson, John H. Jordan, James E. Shires, J. M. Gephart, A.B. Cobler, Isaac Pierson, James F. Mickle, David Zimmers, H.G. Weimer, H.D. Tate, W.B. Pierson, M.P. Heckerman, Nathan Schock, W.C.Smith, Josiah Amos, W.W. Stifler, S.F. Statler, B.F. Horelerode, Wm. Line, Joseph Evans, R.C. McNamara, Joseph W. Tate.

The history of the lodge is a record of almost unbounded success, both financially and in beneficent result. It is one of the richest lodges in the state. It has done a most efficient work of " benevolence and charity," and has lived to subdue all the opposition that met it in its early days, and to win the respect and confidence of the entire community by its faithful and consistent exemplification of the professed principles of the order, that require its members to "visit the sick, re1ieve the distressed, to bury the dead and educate the orphan" and many suffering ones relieved, widows and orphans cherished and protected, have "risen up to call the order blessed" through its instrumentality.


Since the year 1800 Bedford has boasted of various military companies known as the "Bedford Light Infantry," "Bedford Blues," " Bedford Fencibles," "Bedford Troop of Horse," "Bedford Artillery," and the "Independent Greys."

Its present military organization, the "Bedford Rifles," or Co. I, 5th regt. Penn. N.G., was organized July 16, 1875, with three commissioned officers and sixty men. The first officers were Samuel F. Statler, captain; Humphrey D. Tate, first lieutenant, and Samuel Alloways, second lieutenant.

Respecting subsequent changes among the commissioned officers, it appears that Lieut. Alloways resigned in 1876, when Sergt. Mathew P. Spidel was elected to fill vacancy. In 1877 1st Lieut. Humphrey D. Tate was commissioned quartermaster of the 5th regt., when 2d Lieut. Spidel was promoted to first lieutenant and Sergt. Peter B. Miller to second lieutenant. On July 9, 1878, Capt. Statler resigned, when Spidel became captain, Miller first lieutenant, and Sergt. John L. Gubenator second lieutenant. Capt. Spidel resigned February 1, 1879, and Capt. Statler was soon after re-elected to fill the vacancy. Miller resigned as first lieutenant June 4, 1879, when 1st Sergt. James F. Mickel was elected to fill vacancy. On March 23, 1883, Capt. Statler was promoted to major, when Mickel became captain, Gubenator first lieutenant and Com.-Sergt. Daniel C. Burns second lieutenant. The company still maintains its full strength of sixty-three officers and men.

During the railroad riots in the summer of 1877 this company marched to Altoona and performed most timely and efficient service. Its members cleared the railroad tracks of the strikers and rioters at the point of the bayonet, and when the regular locomotive engineers refused to perform their work, Capt. Statler (acting as engineer) ran engine No. 497, attached to a troop train, from Altoona to Pittsburgh. He served in the volunteer force during the war of the rebellion and in Co. K, 3d U. S. Inf., from March 21, 1867, to March 21, 1870.


First Presbyterian Church.-By reason of the loss or lack of records the early history of this organization is involved in mystery. It is evident, however, that it was the mother church of a very wide section of country, and within its folds were gathered a majority of the sterling Scotch-Irish residing hereabouts during the colonial and revolutionary periods.

Of its pastors Rev. David Baird (a member of Congress for this district the major portion of the time from 1795 to 1815) preached here at intervals of from four to six weeks in 1786-9. Rev. John Steel, of Carlisle, famous as a captain of Cumberland county troops during the French and Indian and revolutionary wars, then visited this region occasionally during the last decade of the past century. Following him came Rev. Alexander Boyd, who officiated as pastor from 1808 to 1817; Jeremiah Chamberlain, D.D., from 1819 to 1822 ; Daniel McKinley, 1827-31 Baynard (10*) R. Hall,D.D., 1833-8; Elbridge Bradbury, 1839-41 ; Alexander Heberton, 1842-4; William M. Hall, 1844-7 ; W.L. McCalla, 1848-9; T.K. Davis, 1850-5; Robert F. Sample, D.D., 1856-66; A.V.C. Schenck, D.D., 1866-8 ; R.F. Wilson, 1868-77; J.R. Henderson, 1878-81, and H.D. Cone, 1882-3.

The first church edifice was built about the year 1800; the present one in 1829-30. The members at this time are eighty in number.

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church.-The earliest records of this church have been lost, hence it is impossible at this time to even approximate the date of organization, or to mention the names of any of the original members. It is shown, however, that Rev. Mr. Steck became pastor in 1785 ; Rev. Mr. Cramer, in 1812 ; M. Osterloh, in 1818 ; William Yeager, in 1819; William L. Gibson, in 1838; R. Weiser, D.D., 1840 ; P.M. Rightmyer, 1846; Jesse Winecoff, 1847; F. Benedict, 1849; Samuel Yingling, 1859; A. Essick, 1864;J. Q. McAtee, 1867; J.B. Keller, 1871 ; G.M. Rhodes, 1874; and Charles M. Stock, the present pastor, in 1880.

For many years the Lutheran and German Reformed congregations jointly owned and occupied the same houses of worship. (See history of the Reformed Church of Bedford.) On July 1, 1848, however, the corner-stone of the "New Lutheran Church" was laid. The building was completed two years later, when the Lutherans sold their interest in the edifice which had sheltered them for a quarter of a century, to the Reformed congregation for the sum of three hundred dollars. The present church was constructed in 1870 at a cost of eighteen thousand dollars. It is the largest and most beautiful structure of its kind in the county. Its congregation at this writing numbers two hundred and fifty.

The following historical sketch of the "Reformed Church of Bedford and vicinity" is condensed from an address delivered by the pastor, Rev. Ellis N. Kremer, June 3, preparatory to the ceremonies attending the laying of the corner-stone of a new church edifice June 6, 1883:


By the Hon. John Penn, Esquire;

Lieut. Governor and Commander in Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware.

To all People to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

WHEREAS, it hath been represented to me, by the Humble Petition of Jost Schonewolf of the Town of Bedford in the County of Cumberland in the Province of Pennsylvania, Yeoman, that the protestant reformed Congregation and the protestant evangelic Lutheran Congregation in and near Bedford aforesaid has taken up a Lot of Ground in the said Town, inclosed the same, were desirous thereon to erect a House of worship or church for the joint use of the two said Congregations and that there was no House of worship or Church within seventy miles of the said Town of Bedford, & That the said two Congregations were poor and not able, out of their own Means to carry their Pious Intentions into Execution without the Help or Assistance of good People who have the Promotion of Religion at Heart, And it appears to me, that the said Jost Schoenwolff (11*) bath been deputed by thirty-eight of the principal Members of the said two several Congregations to collect the charitable Donations of the good People as were willing to contribute their Mite towards the said Undertaking, And the said two Congregations having humbly prayed me to grant them a Brief to collect Money for the good Purposes aforesaid, And I favoring their Request. These are therefore to permit and license the said Jost Schoenwollf within the Space of three Years from the Date hereof next ensuing to make collection of the good People within my own Government who are willing to contribute toward the building of a Church or House of worship for the said two several Congregations at and near Bedford aforesaid any Sum or Sums of Money not exceeding in the whole six hundred Pounds lawful Money of Pennsya.

Given under my hand and Seal at Arms at the City of Philadelphia the twenty-first Day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixtynine, and in the ninth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God, of Great Brittain France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith and so forth.


By his Honour's Command,

JOSEPH SHIPPEN, Jr., Secretary.

The above is a copy of a permit given by John Penn, whose signature and seal it bears, which permit is engrossed on parchment and is in a good state of preservation, though the hand that penned it has long since crumbled to dust. In the copy we have preserved the punctuation marks, capital letters and orthography of the original. From it we learn the earliest official information respecting the Reformed and Lutheran congregations. All that is here told us is that the congregations were in existence, that they were poor, that they worshiped together, and that they had the laudable purpose of erecting for themselves a suitable place of worship. The result of this purpose was the erecting of a log church; the subsequent erection of the quaint brick building with its spire in the middle of the roof; the separation of the two congregations in 1850, and the erection of a brick church by the Lutherans, which was displaced by their present handsome structure, an ornament to the town as well as showing the piety and zeal of its members, and the present undertaking of the Reformed congregation to build a church, the corner-stone of which was laid on the 6th of June, 1883. The material of the original log church was used in the house on Penn Street owned by Mrs. George Shuck, and that of the brick church was partly used in the parsonage belonging to the congregation. Part of it will be used in the church now building.

We have not been able to learn when the Reformed church was organized. From the document quoted at the head of this sketch, we learn that it must have been previous to 1769. In the years 1764-8, Rev. John Conrad Bucher, a native of Switzerland, and then living at Carlisle, who also traveled as far west as Fort Pitt visiting the scattered German families, baptizing their children, catechizing and confirming the young, and preaching in such buildings as were most convenient, included Bedford among his regular appointments. Previous to his ministry, Mr. Bucher was an officer in the English army. He was later commissioned by John Penn as captain in a Pennsylvania regiment of foot, and may have had his attention called to the spiritual needs of his countrymen when engaged in military service in this section of the state.

From 1770 to 1803, we have no record except for a brief interval in 1790 and 1794. During this period the German churches were ministered to by traveling missionaries whose labors extended over a large extent of territory. Pious parents received them in their homes, gathered their friends and neighbors together for worship and instruction and enjoyment of the sacraments. Wolves in sheep's clothing would sometimes slip in, enjoying the confidence and hospitality of the people, until the slow moving information as to their irresponsible ministry would overtake them, and drive them to more distant parts. They were expressively called by the Germans, Herum Laufer. Their type is perpetuated in the clerical tramps whom we yet meet, and who awaken at once our pity and contempt. Among such was one named Spangenburg, who ministered for a short time in Bedford in 1790, and was subsequently executed for a murder committed in Berlin, Somerset county.

After their sad experience with Spangenberg, the church at Bedford received a true pastor in the person of Rev. Henry Giesy, a native of Germany, who labored here from 1794 to 1797. His labors were extended to Somerset county, and were continued there for a period of thirty-eight years.

He died at the advanced age of eighty-eight years eleven months and eleven days, and was buried in Berlin, where his grave was pointed out in 1857, and probably can be yet seen.

In 1803, John Dietrich Aurandt, a pious and efficient preacher, ministered to the Germans living in what is now Huntingdon, Blair, Bedford and Somerset counties, and in Cumberland, Maryland. He was a man of vigorous constitution, of great devotion to the cause of religion, possessed of good mental powers, a more than ordinary knowledge of the scriptures, but of defective education. In connection with his hard and at times perilous labors, he pursued theological studies under the direction of an ordained minister, and was subsequently ordained by the synod to administer the sacraments to his large charge.

Mr. Aurandt, like Mr. Bucher, had previous to his ministry seen military service, having enlisted in 1778 in the Pennsylvania regulars, under the command of Gen. Anthony Wayne, and served till 1781, when he was honorably discharged. The privations and perils of that service were doubtless a school of preparation for the fatigues and dangers he was subsequently to endure, when in the service of Prince Emmanuel he carried the precious gospel by unfrequented mountain passes and through wide forests to this and other communities. He died in Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, April 24, 1831, aged seventy years five months and sixteen days, and was laid to rest in a country churchyard within a few miles of his home.

In 1812, through the efforts of Elder John Schell, of Schellsburg, and by the recommendation of Rev. Dr. Helfenstein, Mr. John Henry Gerhart, a licentiate, came to the service of this charge. His license was renewed in 1813 and 1814, and the following year lie was ordained by the synod which met in Easton. His labors began in 1812, and continued till 1830, when he "removed to his early home in Montgomery county." he had preached at Bedford, Schellsburg, Bobb's Creek, Greenfield, Morrison's Cove, Yellow Creek, Friend's Cove, Cumberland Valley, Berlin and other places. He died November 11, 1836. While engaged in hitching a horse to a wagon, the animal took fright and ran, crushing him against a post, death resulting from his injuries within an hour.

The old log church, built in part by the charitable offerings of such good and loyal subjects of King George the Third as had the promotion of religion at heart, was standing when Mr. Gerhart came to Bedford, but looked as if it had never been used for service. The roof was good, but there was no floor, and its bare timbers served as a homely gymnasium for such venturesome boys as were uninfluenced by superstitious fears. Legend says it was a retreat for the celebrated highwayman, David Lewis, whose name is romantically and feloniously linked with that of the county.

Mr. Gerhart preached in the court-house till in 1823, when the brick church was built by the Reformed and Lutheran congregations.

This building stood till the spring of 1881- almost sixty years. The corner-stone was laid June 11, 1823, and the house dedicated to the service of God September 19, 1824.

Mr. Gerhart's successor was Rev. Solomon K. Denius, who accepted a call in 1831, and remained till 1834, subsequently residing in Berlin. He preached, while pastor here, at Bedford, Schellsburg, Berlin, Friend's Cove, and in what is now the St. Clairsville charge.

He was succeeded by Rev. Geo. Leidy, who labored here till 1839, when he took charge of the Friend's Cove field, where he remained till 1843.

In 1839, April 1, Rev. Jacob Ziegler took charge and continued pastor of this field for over ten years. His labors extended over the Schellsburg, St. Clairsville, Greenfield, Dunning's Creek, part of Everett, lower end of Friend's Cove, and Bedford charges.

When Mr. Ziegler left this field for Gettysburg, his members presented him with three hundred dollars in gold, partly because they felt that his temporal support had never been adequate, and partly as a mark of their esteem.

He was succeeded in April, 1850, by Rev, Henry Heckerman, who labored here till October, 1871-a period of twenty-one and a half years. Part of this time, owing to impaired health, he had the assistance of Rev. C.U. Heilman, and at one time he felt his infirmities to be such as to impel him to resign the field. He handed in his resignation January 30, 1865, his consistories refusing to act upon it in the hope that his health might be improved. This hope was realized, and in a few years a new congregation, that of St. Paul's, was added to the charge.

In 1859, when Mr. Heckerman took the charge, it consisted of the three congregations of Bedford, Schellsburg and Dry Ridge.

The same year the Lutheran interest in the church property was purchased for the sum of three hundred dollars, the Lutherans reserving the use of the bell for a stipulated time, and one-half interest in that part of the churchyard used for burying purposes.

Of course we must not be understood, in speaking of the purchase of the church, that it was due alone to Reformed activity. The same zeal shown in the growth of one church animated the Lutheran brethren in the progress of that denomination, so that when the church was bought it was as much an evidence of healthy growth among the Lutherans as among the Reformed.

When Mr. Heckerman resigned his charge it consisted of Bedford, Pleasant Hill and St. Paul's, Bald Hill having been recently stricken off.

For four and a half years after his retirement from active duties Mr. Heckerman was spared and lived among the people who were bound to him by a grateful appreciation of his faithful and self-sacrificing services. He fell asleep April 5,1876.

The present pastor took charge in 1871. Ten years later the charge was again divided and now consists of the single congregation at Bedford.

The old church was torn down in 1881, since which time the congregation has been worshiping in the Presbyterian church and in the court-house. The building now under process of erection is due in a large measure to the Christian liberality of George Riddle Oster, who bequeathed for that purpose four thousand dollars. It is to be a brick structure, 38X60 feet, with a Sunday-school room, 30X35 feet, on the northwest side.

The Bedford circuit of the Methodist Episcopal church was formed in 1809, and it is altogether probable that the first organization was effected here at about that time. The society is not in possession of any early records, hence we can only deal with recollections and some facts obtained from an early pastor, Rev. D. Hartman, concerning pastors stationed on this circuit from 1809 to 1837.

When Mr. Daniel J. Shuck came to Bedford from Cumberland, Maryland, in 1825, the few Methodists met for worship in the old colonial court-house, though a church edifice (a small one-story brick structure) was then being built. It was completed in 1826. Among those who were members at that time were: Henrietta Fishburn, an old lady; Daniel Lybarger and his daughters, Rosanna, Margaret (Cruseburg) and Hester; William Creichbaum and wife; Elizabeth Daugherty, a daughter of Mrs. Fishburn; Juliana Piper; Daniel Shuck and his wife Susan; Henry Hoblitzel and Jacob K. Miller. The preacher in charge was Dennis B. Dorsey, assisted by John A. Gere, a single man. William Lysinger, Jesse Keely and Albert Grubb joined soon after. Daniel J. Shuck and his wife became members in the fall of 1830.

About 1839 an addition was attached to the rear of the original church structure, making a long, narrow building, which was occupied until removed to give place to the present house. The latter was built during Rev. Mr. Gibson's pastorate, at a cost of about ten thousand dollars.

During the years from 1809 to 1836 the following named pastors officiated on the Bedford circuit: John Gill Watt, 1809 ; Jesse Pinnell, 1810 ; Jacob Snyder, 1811 ; John Watson,1812; William Butler, 1813; John Bull, 1814; Robert Hanna, 1815; James Reily, 1816; James Sewell, 1817-18; William Barnes, 1819; James Moore and B. De Forrest, 1820 Bennett Dowler and B. De Forrest, 1821 ; Jacob Larkin, 1822; John Tannahill and William Hank, 1823; John Tannahill and Jesse Chesney, 1824; Dennis B. Dorsey and John A. Gere, 1825; Isaac Collins and William O. Lunsden, 1826; Isaac Collins and Jacob Doub, 1827; N.B. Mills and J. Forrest, 1828; T.N.W. Monroe and J. McEnally, 1829; Thomas Larkin and J.V. Rigdon, 1830; H. Best and John Houseweart, 1831 ; Thomas Larkin and J. McEnally, 1832; John Rhodes and Z. Jordan, 1833; N.P. Cunningham, 1834; B. Hartman, 1835-6.


Although the earliest services of the Christian religion in what is now Bedford were those of the Episcopal church, being held by the chaplains of the British troops occupying the fort (Raystown) in and prior to 1755, there was no organized parish here until 1861, when the courts granted a charter constituting the parish of St. James to Hon. Alexander King, Espy L. Anderson, Dr. Charles U. Hickok, Dr. George W. Anderson, William Watson Anderson and John Watson, vestrymen.

A parcel of ground on East Penn street, lots Nos. 130 and 131 on the borough plan, was devised to "The Church" by Gov. John Penn, of the Province of Pennsylvania, when the town of Bedford was laid out by his surveyor-general, John Lukens, Esq., in June, 1766, on his private estate - Penn's Manor.

The lots were never occupied by the church save as a burial-place, the earliest English settlers and the officers at the fort using it for that purpose. Judges Dougherty and Scott, and Col. Terrence Campbell, of His Majesty's Highlanders, with their families, being among those interred there.

At a later day the property fell into private possession, and finally, when the common school law of Pennsylvania went into operation, a brick schoolhouse was erected thereon, by permission of the quasi occupant. This building, on the erection of the present public schoolhouse, was used as a private dwelling.

By due, process of law, the vestry of St. James church being, as the courts decided," the successors of the Church of England," obtained possession of the property, and finding the lots unsuitable for church building purposes, and being duly authorized by an enactment of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, passed in 1866, they removed the dead to the new cemetery, sold the lots, and purchased the present church site, on the corner of Richard and John streets, and at once proceeded to build the beautiful Gothic stone building now standing there.

The corner-stone of this church was laid in September, 1866, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Lee, of the diocese of Delaware, the bishop of Pennsylvania, Rt. Rev. Wm. Bacon Stevens, D.D., LL.D., being, at the time; in Europe. The Masonic fraternity were present on the occasion and assisted in the ceremonies. Rev. Alfred J. Barrow, the rector of the parish, and Dr. Hickok, of the vestry, being members of the craft.

The church building was in due time finished, and being free from debt, as the canons of the Episcopal church require, was consecrated on the 2d day of October, 1879, by Rt. Rev. M.A. De Wolfe Howe, D.D., LL.D., bishop of the diocese of Central Pennsylvania, in which see the parish of Bedford now belongs.

The rectors of the parish from its organization to the present have been as follows, in the succession named: Rev. Alfred J. Barrow, Rev. J.B. Pedelupé, Rev. Wm. Jarrett, Rev. Robert F. Murray, Rev. Wm. Preston, D.D., Rev. Richard J. Osborne, M.D., Rev. J. McBride Sterrett, Rev. Win. Chauncey Langdon, D.D., who is the present rector.

Rev. Dr. Preston died while rector, and Rev. Wm. Jarrett is also dead.

The present vestry are: Geo. Smith, Hon. Jno. M. Reynolds, church wardens; Wm. Hartley, Solomon S. Metzger, John S. Bowers, Thomas A. Roberts, Dr. C.N. Hickok (clerk).


Hon. Job Mann, a son of Jacob (who was the oldest son of Capt. Andrew Mann, of revolutionary fame), was born in the Tonoloway Settlement," or a region now embraced by Bethel township, Fulton county, Pennsylvania, March 31, 1795. When sixteen years of age he became a clerk in the house of Messrs. Brent & Blackwell, extensive dealers in general merchandise, in the town of Hancock, Maryland. After remaining there two years, or until 1818, he removed to Bedford, Pennsylvania, and as a student entered the academy (then just opened) in charge of Rev. James Wilson. The building, which was then and for many years after occupied as an institution of learning, is still standing on the northwest corner of Penn and Thomas streets. The academy was opened under the most favorable auspices, and Mr. Mann has been heard to remark that among those who were fellow students with him were young Ringgold (afterward known as Gen. Ringgold), the Van Lears, Jenifers, Campbells and others from Maryland; Robert J. Walker, of Bedford, Pennsylvania (afterward secretary of the United States treasury department), and Charles Ogle, of Somerset, Pennsylvania. In 1816 Mr. Mann was appointed county commissioners' clerk, and soon after deputy United States revenue collector, to collect a tax for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the war of 1812-15. In October, 1823, he was elected prothonotary of Bedford county, an office which he held continuously until October, 1835. He then resigned to take his seat as a member of the twenty-fourth congress (1835-7), he having been elected in October, 1834, to represent the counties of Bedford, Cambria and Somerset in the United States house of representatives. On April 20, 1839, he was admitted to the Bedford county bar. He was elected a member of the state house of representatives in 1812, 1843 and 1844, and declined to be a candidate for a fourth term. In October, 1846, he was again elected to congress from the nineteenth district (then composed of Bedford, Cambria and Westmoreland counties). He was reelected from the same district In 1848, and served through the thirty-first congress. Then, though strongly urged, be declined another nomination. He died October 8, 1873.


Hon. David Mann was born February 26,1782, in what was known as the "Tonoloway settlement," in Bethel township, Fulton county, then a part of Bedford. His father, Capt. Andrew Mann, was a native of Germany where he was born in 1739, In 1750 he came to this country, landing in Philadelphia in August of that year. He was a pioneer of the above region; the date of his coming hither is not known, but it was some time previous to the revolutionary war. During the war he raised a company of men, and among the number was the proprietor of Hancock, Maryland. The company was attached to a regiment of regulars and di4 good service during the war. At its close Capt. Mann returned to his home, where he died at an advanced age. David Mann inherited from his father a decided taste for military affairs, and was first known in public life as a major in the Pennsylvania militia. At the age of twenty-two he was elected one of the commissioners of Bedford county, which position he filled acceptably until 1807, In 1809 he was appointed, b Gov. Simon Snyder, prothonotary, clerk of courts, register an recorder, and came to Bedford to reside. In 1812 he was reappointed, and again in 1815. At the expiration of his term of office he was elected senator of the district composed of Bedford, Somerset and Cambria counties. In 1824 he was appointed by Gov. Schultz auditor-general, and so well did he discharge the duties of the office that in 1828 he was reappointed. In 1832 he returned to Bedford and engaged in mercantile pursuits, taking but little active interest in politics, but exercising a controlling influence by his judgment and foresight. He was a man of large capacity, sound judgment and strong perception, which, coupled with the strictest integrity, made him a public servant of more than ordinary value. He died in Bedford, April 13, 1859. in the seventy-eighth year of his age. He was married to Miss Elizabeth Farquhar, of Frederick county, Maryland, December 20, 1810. Seven children were the result of this union: James M., Benjamin F., Elmira M., Sarah E., William F., Bernard and David F.

These cottages are pleasantly located in the eastern portion of the borough, about five squares from the railroad station, and on one of the principal and most prominent drives of the town. They are situated about one and one-half miles from the celebrated Bedford Springs, the medicinal qualities of which have a national reputation. The guests of the cottages are supplied with these waters daily, and are kept in constant carriage communication with the Springs, depots and all points of interest. The grounds adjoining the cottages are spacious and beautifully laid out and ornamented with shrubbery. In the rear is a commodious bowling alley, croquet town, etc., with magnificent mountain scenery in the distance. The house possesses an enviable reputation. Hot and cold baths and all modern conveniences are supplied for the comfort of its guests. Accommodations are ample for one hundred guests, and its patronage is from the best classes, who find it a pleasant and desirable home during the summer months.


John Lutz was born in Snake Spring township, Bedford county, near Lutzville station, January 6, 1835. He was the eldest son of Michael Lutz and Rosanria Lutz (née Stuckey), both of whose families were among the early settlers of the county, his maternal and paternal grandfathers having come to Bedford county from Virginia between 1790 and 1800. In his boyhood he learned the trade of a woolen manufacturer, his paternal grandfather having built one of the first woolen factories in this section of the state, about the year 1808.

Desiring a more advanced education than was obtainable at the public schools, the subject of this sketch, by working at his trade in the summer, and teaching in the winter, earned the means of first attending the Bedford Academy, and afterward of completing his education at Pennsylvania College, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Too close application to study had so impaired his heath that from 1858 to 1865 he was most of the time obliged to desist from all attempts at either physical or intellectual labor. During this period, however, he read law with the late Hon. Alexander King, afterward president judge of the sixteenth judicial district, and in 1864 was admitted to the bar. In May, 1862, he removed to Bedford, where he has since resided.

In April, 1865, in company with J. R. Durburrow, Esq., and at the urgent request of a number of prominent republicans, he purchased the Bedford Inquirer, which he edited with marked success for ten years. He did not, however, dissolve his connection with that paper until January, 1881, when he sold his remaining interest in it, reserving, however, by written agreement, the right to establish another paper. On April 14, 1881, he, in connection with W. C. Smith, Esq., established the Bedford Republican, which rapidly grew to favor and influence as one of the leading republican journals of this part of the state. January 1, 1884, the two papers, the Bedford Republican and the Bedford Inquirer were consolidated and are now published as the Republican and Inquirer, under the management of Lutz, Smith and Jordan. While the attention of Mr. Lutz has been chiefly devoted to journalism, he. has never wholly given up the practice of the law. He has always been an ardent advocate of and an active participant in all public enterprises having for their object the promotion of the welfare and prosperity of the community in which be resides.

On May 19, 1870, he was married to Emily C. Filler, of Bedford, who died March 3, 1873, leaving one child, William F. Lutz. On January 3, 1888, Mr. Lutz married again, leading to the altar Miss Hattie E. Way, of Union Springs, New York.


Mount Dallas farm, embracing the fertile bottomlands skirting both the north and south banks of the Juniata immediately west of the gap of Tussey'a mountain, cut by its crystal waters in Snake Spring township, is full of historical interest. The soil, underlaid with dolomite or magnesian limestone, is wonderfully rich in all that nature supplies for plant growth. The variety and remarkable picturesqueness of the scenery from every point in this locality can hardly be surpassed. The first settlers found Queen Alliquippa and her tribe peacefully located in their town at the foot of Tussey's mountain on the south side of the river. Alliquippa's town on the south and the laud lying nearest the gap on the north side of the river was purchased from Thomas Urie, one of the first sheriffs of Bedford county, by Robert Morris, of Philadelphia, the financier of the revolutionary war, in the year 1779. On the western part of the farm on a rocky bluff, immediately opposite Alliquippa's village, near the beautiful springs which unceasingly flow from the rocks into the " Blue Juniata, stood the cabin of that strong-minded frontiers-woman, Elizabeth Tussey, from whom the mountain was named, as well as the crystal brook which drains Snake Spring valley, known as Tussey's run. Her "improvement" included one hundred acres. On the south aide of the Juniata some of the large stone piles marking the burial spots of Alliquippa's tribe, may yet be seen along the base of the mountain. In 1790 William Hartley bought from Robert Morris his part of the farm, and subsequently from the grantees of Elisabeth Tussey her "improvement." William Hartley the grandfather of William Hartley, of Bedford, though a native of England, came to America with his wife, Susan, from France in 1788. in the Hyder Ali, the ship which conveyed the final treaty of peace between England and the colonies. Having formed the acquaintance of the commissioners representing the colonies at the Treaty of Paris, they persuaded him to visit America, and soon after the arrival of the Hyder Au, William Hartley, whose portrait is herein presented, was born in Philadelphia. In 1785 William Hartley bought the lands below the narrows east of Bedford, and erected thereon mills and a tannery, but in 1790 took up his residence at Mount Dallas, Here he lived until his death in 1798, and was buried on the farm, in 1794, during the whisky insurrection, Washington quartered his army on this farm and himself remained over night in the old mansion, whiling away the gloomy October evening in games of backgammon with Mrs. Hartley on a board made from beautifully inlaid wood and bone, which she had brought with her on the Hyder Ali. This unique checker and backgammon board is still in possession of her grandson, William Hartley, of Bedford.

William Hartley at his death left a daughter in England, Louisa (afterward Mrs. Harrison), a son, William, and a daughter. Eliza, afterward married to Dr. William Watson, the first, of Bedford, Pennsylvania. His widow afterward married Capt. William Graham, of Bedford, by whom she became the mother of John Graham, of Stark county, Ohio, and a daughter, Susan, married to Dr. Van Lear, of Maryland. After the death of Capt. Graham she married Gen. Simpson, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, whom she also survived, and died in 1846 at the home of her daughter, Eliza Watson, in her eighty-sixth year. Capt. Graham was buried on the farm.

William Hartley, after passing a few years at the Embryo College, at Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, and subsequently In merchandising at Johnstown Pennsylvania, early in the century returned to his old home at Mount Dallas, and there spent the whole of his life, which terminated on December 9, 1837. In the old family burial-ground selected by his father, his ashes repose beside those of Catherine. the mother of his seven children, a generous, faithful woman, blessed by the poor and respected for her many sterling qualities of mind and heart. He was progressive as a farmer; took great interest in the construction and maintenance of the then great highway, the Bedford and Chambersburg turnpike. He was largely interested In the freighting of those days by means of the Conestoga wagons stage lines, etc. He was remarkably successful in business and owned many excellent farms, which he willed to his children. His three daughters, Sarah, Matilda and Margaretta, whom he educated at the beat seminaries within reach, all died young. They nevertheless by their culture, quick, bright intellects and christian characters, made deep impressions fur good within the circles of their acquaintance, which will never be effaced. Sarah, the eldest, was married to Dr. Troup, of Ohio, March 5, 1885, at Mount Dallas and died in Circleville, Ohio, in 1845, in her thirty-first year. Matilda was educated at Steubenville Seminary, Ohio; married Thomas King of Bedford county, in 1840, and died, 1849, in her thirty-first year. Margaretta, whom her father took to Steubenville Seminary just before his death, was graduated with high honors in 1840 in her fifteenth year, and in 1848 became the wife of Dr. E.C. Clarke, of Ohio. She died in her thirty-third year, leaving six children. The girls were all consistent, active members of the Old School Presbyterian church and died the death of the righteous, honored and respected by all. Of William Hartley's four sons, who with their three sisters were all born on the old Mount Dallas farm, but two survive, namely: John G. and William, now and for many years residents of Bedford, Pennsylvania.

Edwin Hartley, the eldest son, was killed by falling under the wheels of a Conestoga wagon, when a little boy, on his way to school. Harrison Hartley, the youngest of the family, died In 1885, and with his brother lies in the old farm graveyard.

In taking leave of this old historic spot, with its wonderful caverns but recently discovered, us beautiful crystal springs, its blue rocks and meadows, the bold mountain scenery where the shaggy head of Tussey's higbest peak may be seen in the clouds and the copsy foot at the same time laved in the silvery waters of the Juniata winding her pebbly way between the ancient abodes of Alliquippa, the dusky queen of a remnant of the once powerful Six Nations, and the strong-hearted Betsy Tussey, the frontier widow, whose name still clings to the mountain, and whose race is master of the world, we present these brief pen sketches, together with the likeness of William Hartley, who In his day was a prominent figure in the material interests of Bedford county. The Hartley family and the Mount Dallas farm must for all time be associated no matter who may own the surface: the dust of its magnesian rocks and the ashes of these the first settlers are mingled.


William T. Dougherty was born in Bedford borough, August 1, 1811, and died December 8, 1868. His boyhood days were replete with hardships, but he early evidenced the possession of those traits of character that were prominent factors in his future success. He was educated at the Bedford Academy, and began life as a clerk, and for many years was engaged in merchandising. In 1843 he received the appointment of associate judge, and was commissioned by Gov. David R. Porter for a period of five years. On the expiration of his term he was again commissioned by Gov. Francis R. Shunk, and so well did he discharge the duties of the office that in 1851 he was elected to the same position, his majority exceeding that of any man upon the ticket. In 1853 he was elected to the representative branch of the legislature and was re-elected to the same position. As a legislator he distinguished himself for his practical common-sense and integrity; he was emphatically a business member, and it is said that be secured the adoption of more important measures than any of those who filled the public eye with rhetorical displays. As a legislator, as in other positions of public trust, he discharged his duties with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his constituency, and upon the expiration of his term as representative he was re-elected. In 1857 he was appointed revenue commissioner, and after the close of his term began the study of the law. He seems to have read rather for the reason suggested by Blackstone, "That a competent knowledge of the laws of the land in which he lives is the proper accomplishment of every gentleman and scholar." He was admitted to practice in the several courts of the county, but was never actively engaged in the practice of this profession. He was emphatically a progressive man, and to him, more than any other person, the people are indebted for the construction of the Broad Top Mountain railroad, and the consequent development of one of the most valuable coalfields in the state, which prior thereto was but little known and appreciated. In August, 1839, he was married to Miss Elmira, daughter of the Hon. David Mann. Two children were born to them- William T. and Frank Finley.


John Anderson was a native of Bedford, and was born in 1770. He was the second son of Thomas Anderson, who emigrated from Ireland, and with his wife (Mary Lyon) settled in Bedford about 1766. He studied medicine with one of the most eminent practitioners of Carlisle, and commenced the practice in his native town about 1796. He married Miss Mary, daughter of Capt. David Espy, and granddaughter of George Woods, who was one of the first justices of" Our Lord the King," George III. After the erection of Bedford county, in 1771, her father succeeded Gen. Arthur St. Clair as the second prothonotary of Bedford county. Dr. Anderson was not only a successful physician, but a man who conquered success in everything he undertook; he was emphatically a man of affairs, and was possessed of all the essential qualities of a man "predestined to success in business." How long he continued in the practice of his profession is not known, but he became very largely engaged in various enterprises in middle life. For many years he was the president of the Allegheny Bank of Pennsylvania, at Bedford. He was also president of the Chambersburg and Bedford Turnpike Road Company, beside being extensively engaged in land speculations. He owned at one time, besides the Springs property, a large quantity of land in Bedford county. He was also known in official life and occupied several positions of trust, notably among the number that of prothonotary. Dr. Anderson was a typical "old school gentleman," possessed of marked social qualities and a fine presence. He was widely known and everywhere highly esteemed. He was the father of four children: George Woods, Espy Lyon, Elizabeth and Mary. He died in Bedford in 1839.


* Ormsby afterward became a resident of Pittsburgh, where he made himself conspicuous by defaming the name and military reputation of Col. Boquet. The colonel, probably, having thwarted him in some of his trading schemes.

** Meaning the old military road, or the present street known as Pitt.

This old paper likewise indicates the fact that at least one year before the survey of "Bedford Manor" by Col. John Armstrong, and six years before the plotting of the town by Surveyor Gen. Lukens, the military authorities, folly empowered, had laid out lots and streets "in the Town of Bedford."

*** Nicholas Scull was the ancestor of Edward Scull, Esq., the well known revenue collector of this district, and for many years the publisher of the Somerset Herald. See the history of the Bench and Bar of Somerset county, in this work.

(4*) Residents in 1761, or very soon thereafter.

(5*) Hugh Barclay's addition was laid out by Thomas Vickroy, October 20, 21, 1803, and since that time the limits have been still farther extended by the Watson and Haehnlen additions on the south, the Shuck, Gephart and Defibaugh additions on the west, and Mann's extension on the north.

(6*) During the same year McCashlin sold to the commissioners lot No. 6 for the purpose of erecting a court-house and prison thereon. On January 20, 1773, while going from Bedford to Fort Littleton, he was waylaid by two men on Ray's hill and robbed of twenty-two pounds fifteen shillings, a silver watch valued at six pounds, and his mittens. Although the robbers were disguised by having their faces blacked, he suspected who they were.

(7*) Col. Hugh Barclay was here at an earlier date, but was not a resident within the town limits as then drawn. He was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, of Scotch parents. During the revolutionary war he served in the Pennsylvania line as quartermaster, and frequently met in friendly intercourse Washington, Knox and other distinguished officers.

(8*) The old stone structure, yet standing near the springs.

(9*) On the 25th day of December, 1829, according to the Inquirer of that date, the guests at Humphrey Dillon's hotel were served with strawberries and cream. The berries having been grown on vines "cultivated in the same manner as houseplants." Mr. Dillon occupied the building now known as the "Washington House," and, added the editor, "he is attentive to everything which he thinks will be gratifying and comfortable to his guests."

(10*) On the 25th day of December, 1829, according to the Inquirer of that date, the guests at Humphrey Dillon's hotel were served with strawberries and cream. The berries having been grown on vines "cultivated in the same manner as houseplants." Mr. Dillon occupied the building now known as the "Washington House," and, added the editor, "he is attentive to everything which he thinks will be gratifying and comfortable to his guests."

(11*) (In other documents we have found this man's name written Joseph Sheniwa1t and Joseph Schonewolf.- Ed)

SOURCE:  Page(s) 242-251, History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties

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