Location, Topography and Resources, Mineral Waters


General Description- Drainage- Surface- Altitudes- Coal Interests- Iron Interests- Furnaces- Ores- Analyses of the Various Kinds- Quality of the Iron Produced- Limestone- Building Materials- Fire-Clay- Timber- Mineral Waters- Agricultural Resources.


THE county of Bedford, containing one thousand and three square miles, or six hundred and forty-one thousand nine hundred and twenty acres, lies upon the southern border of Pennsylvania, and includes territory extending from Ray's Hill and Broad Top mountain on the east, to the Great and Little Allegheny mountains on the west, and from Mason and Dixon's or the Maryland line, northward to Blair and Huntingdon counties. In other words, a region of mountains, hills and dales, rich in minerals, and always picturesque. Its length from north to south is forty miles, its width twenty-five miles.

The central portion of the county is traversed by several mountain ranges: Terrace, Tussey's, Dunning's, Evitt's, Will's and Buffalo. All form part of the great Appalachian chain (trending northeast and southwest), and all contain one or more valuable seams of fossil iron ore, with the exception of Terrace mountain, which has an excellent red hematite ore. It is claimed that the county contains more than two hundred square miles of fossil iron ore, while the valleys known as Morrison's cove, Friend's cove, Milligan's cove and Snake Spring valley, are quite generally underlaid with a very rich brown and red hematite ore. Indeed, a recent writer has asserted that "there is not a county in Pennsylvania that surpasses Bedford, and it is a question if there is one that equals it in iron ore, with respect to either quality or quantity."

The coal of the county is confined almost exclusively to Broad Top township, with perhaps a little in Liberty township, the remainder of the field lying in Huntingdon county. This coal is semi-bituminous. It is celebrated for its steam-producing qualities, and cokes equally as good as that mined in the Connellsville region. Large shipments of it are annually made to Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York, and to various points in New England and the South.

The coves and valley already mentioned, as well as the country surrounding the town of Bedford, in Cumberland valley, Dutch Corner, St. Clair, Will's Creek valley, and in the vicinity of Schellsburg are also famed for their beauty and fertility. In brief, Bedford county cannot easily be excelled in soil, scenery, minerals, mineral waters, the sterling qualities of its people, and its pure, healthful climate.

Its drainage belongs to two systems: the Susquehanna and Potomac. The Raystown branch of the Juniata is the most important water-way, and drains fully four-fifths of this division. It rises in the Allegheny mountains and follows a generally eastward course across the county to the edge of East Providence township, when it turns northward and flows in that direction until it passes into Huntingdon county. Dunning's creek, its chief tributary, drains the whole northwest corner of Bedford county, and enters the river just below the town of Bedford at the west foot of Evitt's mountain. Brush creek, entering from the south, drains much of Monroe, East and West Providence townships. The important streams belonging to the Potomac area are Will's, Evitt's, Flintstone, Town, Fifteen-Mile and Sideling Hill creeks, of which the first and last named are the largest.

Prof. J.J. Stevenson, in his "Report of Progress," Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, says:

As the secondary drainage rudely follows the strike of the rocks and evades the softer beds, the surface of the district (Bedford and Fulton counties) shows alternating valleys and ridges.

The hard Medina sandstone forms Will's, Dunning's, Evitt's, Tussey's, Black Log, Shade, Cove, Tuscarora and Dickey's mountains; the Pocono, Ray's, Sideling and Town hills, Meadow Ground mountain and Scrub Ridge or Licking Creek mountain. All of these are bold mountains. The sandstones of the Catskill, Chemung, Hamilton and Oriskany form distinct ridges, some of which, especially near the Maryland line, rival in light the mountains of Pocono and Medina.

The frequent occurrence of diminishing anticlinals and widening synclinals in close proximity gives origin to "coves" in both counties. These are inclosed by the mountain ridges which lock at one or both ends of the "cove." This complicated topography renders the region especially difficult for the railroad engineer, as a gap through one of the mountains may lead only into a cove from which no exit is possible, while at best the gaps through the several mountains are arranged geographically so as to be of little service.

No water-gap occurs in Will's mountain or in Dunning's mountain within Bedford county, but the Juniata river and Dunning's creek flow across the low area between those mountains; only one water-gap is found in the Medina ridge of Dunning's-Evitt's mountain, and wagon-roads can reach the wind-gaps only by long approaches. Tussey's mountain is cut by the Juniata and Yellow creek; but the Raver's Creek gap is incomplete, as the stream heads in a cove. Ray's Hill is broken by Brush creek and by Sideling Hill creek, the latter near the Maryland line; but good wind-gaps are found in Monroe and East Providence townships of Bedford county.

The minor ridges are more difficult to overcome than the mountains are. Their number is so great and their slopes are so abrupt that the grades of wagon roads are usually tedious and painful.

According to the authority just quoted, the altitudes above the sea-level of various points in Bedford county are as follows:


Marietta, Union township 1,474

Dunning's mountain, King township 2,040

Pleasantville, West St. Clair township 1,205

Top of Allegheny mountain, St. Clair township 2,609

Bench of Allegheny mountain, St. Clair township 1,995

St. Clairsville, East St. Clair township 1,251

Chestnut ridge, Napier township 1,907

New Paris, Napier township 1,195

Millerton, Napier township 1,744

Buena Vista, Juniata township 1,298

Summit of Dry Ridge pike, Juniata township 2,126

West End P. 0., Juniata township 1,831

County line on Dry Ridge pike, Juniata township 2,079

Summit at north end of Snake Spring township 1,744

Rainsburg, Colerain township 1,335

Neal's Gap, on Tussey's mountain, Monroe township 1,915

Round Knob, Broad Top township 1,990

Summit, head of Six-Mile run 1,805

On the Pittsburgh division of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad:

Cook's Mills 774

Hyndman 941

On the Bedford division of the Pennsylvania railroad:

Hyndman 930

Fossilville 1,091

Buffalo Summit 1,356

Mann's Choice 1,136

Napier 1,108

Wolfsburg Summit 1,118

Bedford 1,062

Lutzville 1,045

Cove creek 1,033

Mount Dallas 1,053

On the Huntingdon & Broad Top railroad:

Mount Dallas 1,053

Everett 1,118

Bloody Run summit 1,234

Tatesville 1,096

Brallier's summit 1,108

Piper's run 947

Hopewell 898

Riddlesburg 865

Saxton, new depot 849

On the Six-Mile Run branch of this road:

Riddlesburg 865

Riddlesburg coal mine 962

Coaldale, or Fairplay 1,126

End of third mile 1,194

North point 1,311

End of fourth mile 1,374

End of track 1,416

On the Sandy Run branch of the same road:

Hopewell 898

Railroad track, opposite Chivington mine 1,297


For what follows regarding the coal and iron interests, building materials, mineral springs, and agricultural resources we are again indebted to Prof., Stevenson's report.

The coal area of Bedford county comprises about two-thirds of Broad Top township. Even of this, not all is available. For along the whole length of the Broad Top anticlinal, the Pottsville conglomerate is at the surface, and on each side of the Pottsville space the covering of the coal is so thin as to destroy the value; while around the whole field is a strip of barren area, either without coal or with the cover too thin.

The structure of the region presents obstacles to mining which are very serious. On Sandy run, in the second basin, the energetic folding of the beds along the east side of the Grey's Run anticlinal has crushed the coal to such an extent as to render it worthless economically, while in the Cunard basin, on the same run, a large part of the workable coal on the west side has been rendered worthless by the same agency. A similar difficulty has been encountered in the first basin, and to a moderate extent in other basins on Six-Mile run.

Irregularity of the folds produces further complications interfering with the drainage and compelling a zigzag course in the gangways. Abrupt, though short, rolls are common, perplexing faults occur, such as have been found in the old workings at Mount Equity and in the headings of the Cunard shaft; horse-backs or rolls of the roof are sometimes of great extent, and the coal is more or less crushed and twisted in their neighborhood. The beds themselves show great variations in thickness and serious variations in the quality of their coal.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, which would almost destroy the value of the property in the eyes of one accustomed only to the regular and gently dipping coals of western Pennsylvania, the beds of the Broad Top coal-field have great economical importance, not only because of their proximity to market, but also of the decided excellence of the coal obtained from any of the mines.

The important beds are the Kelly and the Barnet. The Cook has been mined to a slight extent in one of the basins, but for the most part, the variations in thickness and quality of its coal are too great to permit profitable mining.

The Kelly coal-bed is worked in the first and third basins of Six-Mile run, and mines have been operated in this bed in the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and ninth basins. It is mined in the fifth basin on Sandy run, and it has been mined in the second. It has been opened on the waters of Long run in the fifth, sixth and seventh, but no mining was doing at the time the area was examined.

On Six-Mile this bed shows a thickness of four feet in the first basin, and the thickness is maintained with great regularity, except where a roll in the roof reduces it. The coal is much esteemed as fuel for steam purposes, but especially for the manufacture of coke. The quality of the coal is poorer in the other basins along this run, It is fair shipping coal in the Duval or third basin, but thence eastward it is so poor that it cannot be sold; at least such is reported to be the experience of those who have mined it. The crushing in the second basin on Sandy has destroyed the market value of the coal, but in the fifth or Cunard basin, the quality is satisfactory, and extensive milling operations are carried on. The following analyses show the character of the coal at different localities:

1. Mount Equity mine, first bash on Six-Mile.

2. R.B. Wigton's mine, fifth basin on Six-Mile.

3. Cambria mine, fifth basin on Sandy run.

Water 0.435 0.610 0.575

Vol. combust. matter 19.245 20.375 16.515

Fixed carbon 73.865 67.497 76.720

Sulphur 1.039 3.583 1.230

Ash 5.416 7.935 4.960

The analyses are by A.S. McCreath.

The coal from Mount Equity mine yields a very superior coke, which is used by the Kemble Coal and Iron Company in their furnaces at Riddlesburg. No attempt has been made to manufacture coke at any other mine, but a sample of pit-coke was obtained from the Cambria mine on Sandy, which was made from slack alone, and so fails to give a just impression respecting the character of coke such as would be made from "run-of-mine" coal. An analysis of Connellsville coke, also by Mr. McCreath, is given for comparison

1. Coke from Mount Equity works, Six-Mile run.

2. Pit-coke from Cambria mine, Sandy run.

3. Coke from H.C. Frick's works, near Connellsville.

Water 0.095 1.015 0.000

Vol combust. matter 0.575 2.297 0.000

Fixed carbon 89.083 86.782 87.259

Sulphur 0.925 1.928 0.746

Ash 9.322 7.978 11.995

Though these Broad Top cokes are inferior to the Connellsville in respect to sulphur, yet they are superior to it in point of ash. The coke is hard, and bears well the burden of the furnaces at Riddlesburg.



The earliest attempt to manufacture iron within this district was made by Messrs. Lane & Davis, in 1802, when they built Hopewell furnace on the Juniata river, opposite the mouth of Yellow creek. It was supplied with ore from the base of Mauch Chunk, and some ore was obtained from the Lower Helderberg of Warrior ridge. The furnace was run with more or less success until 1830 or 1831, when the stack was rebuilt by Mr. Lesley. It has been in blast almost constantly since that time. The present owners are Messrs. Lowry, Eichelberger & Co., and the ores are obtainied from the Clinton and Lower Helderberg, near Everett, in West Providence township. The statistics of the furnace are:

Hight of stack 31 feet.

Diameter at boshes 8 "

Diameter at tunnel-head 2 "

Pressure of blast 1 1/2 lbs.

Temperature of blast 850

Fuel Charcoal.

The burden is: Charcoal, 400 lbs; ore, 1,000 lbs; limestone, 50 to 60 per cent of the ore.

Six charges yield one ton of metal, and the daily yield is about five tons. The mixture employed is, brown hematite, four-fifths; fossil ore, one-fifth. In former times, when the furnace was run with cold blast, the yield was not far from fifteen tons per week.

Mr. J.W. Swank says that in 1806 Mr. Lane built Lemnos forge on Yellow creek at two miles from Hopewell. With it a slitting-mill was erected. But these works have been abandoned for many years. Bedford forge was built either in 1812 or 1816 on the same creek by Messrs. King & Swope.

Elizabeth furnace was built near Woodberry, in Morrison's cove, in 1827, by Messrs. King, Swope & Co., Dr. Shoenberger being the company. The ore was obtained from the surrounding country and belonged to the Calciferous. After running nearly twenty years, the stack was torn down and removed to Bloomfield, near the line of Blair county, where an important deposit of wash-ore had been discovered. At a somewhat later date the stack was again taken down and was removed into Blair county, where it was rebuilt as Rodman furnace. The weekly product at Bloomfield was not far from fifty tons.

The furnaces of the Kemble Coal and Iron Company are at Riddlesburg on the Juniata river. They were begun in 1868, and filled for the first time on July 1, 1869. With the exception of short intervals, they have been in constant operation. The statistics as given by Mr. Kelly, the superintendent, are:

No. 1. No. 2.

Hight 60 ft. 60 ft.

Diameter at boshes 14 ft. 10 in. 15 ft.

Diameter at tunnel-head 8 ft. 3 in. 8 ft. 6 in.

Number of tuyeres 4 6

Pressure at engines 6 to 7 lbs.

Pressure at stack 3 lbs.

Temperature of blast 880

The blast is heated by four Thayer stoves. The charge is: Coke, 2,400 lbs; ore, 2,500 to 3,200 lbs; limestone, 50 to 75 per cent of the ore.

The ores used are altogether fossil, but these contain no inconsiderable admixture of brown hematite. They are obtained from Dutch Corner and Wolfsburg in Bedford township, Everett and Tatesville in West Providence, and the Cambria mine in Hopewell township. The variations of ore and limestone in the charge are due to the varying proportions of silica in the ore. Two charges give one ton of metal. The quantity of coke per ton varies from 2.6 to 2.8 tons and that of limestone from 1.5 to 1.8 tons. The mixture of ores used in making the irons, of which analyses are given beyond, are: Dutch Corner, one-fourth; Tatesville, one-half; Everett, one-eighth; Wolfsburg, one-eighth.

Analyses of these ores are given beyond.

Only one of the furnaces was in operation at the time of visit, as the other was undergoing repairs. The daily yield of the single furnace was from thirty-six to thirty-eight tons. The fuel is supplied by eighty beehive coke ovens, and the coal is obtained from the Mount Equity coal mine on Six-Mile run.

Since the foregoing was written Mr. Robert Hare Powel (now deceased) has erected a large furnace on the Juniata river, near Saxton. A full account of it will be found in the history of Liberty township.


Iron ore occurs to a greater or less 'extent in all the groups exposed within the district, so that loose lumps are found on farms everywhere, often leading the farmers to entertain false hopes of future wealth.

Coal Measures Ores.

No ore of economic importance was discovered in the coal measures, but, at many localities, a very considerable deposit of clay ironstone is present under the Barnet coal-bed. This bears much resemblance to the "Blue Lump" of Fayette county. No explorations of this ore have been made.

Mauch Chunk Ore.

Brown hematite occurs in the Mauch Chunk within a few feet of the bottom of the group. It was seen in Hopewell township, opposite Hopewell; at Hopewell, and at several places in Ground Hog valley of Broad Top township. This ore has been mined only in Hopewell township, and in Ground Hog valley of Broad Top township, both in Bedford county. The mining at the latter locality was extensive, and some hundreds of tons were shipped to Johnstown to secure a thorough test. But the ore was condemned as too cold short Mr. McCreath's analysis resulted as follows:

Metallic iron 41.450

Sulphur 0.026

Phosphorus 1.257

Silicious matter 16.340

Pocono Ores.

No deposits of economic importance have been found in the Pocono; but iron ore is present at several horizons, and in such quantity that when set free by decomposition of the rock, it seems to indicate the presence of a considerable body. Nodules of brown hematite are scattered in great numbers throughout the topmost sandstone of the group; brown hematite and pyrolusite are present as nodules in the lower beds. The quantity, altogether, must be very great, and the surface indications have led the county map-makers to place patches of iron ore along the west side of Ray's Hill, in Bedford county. But the material is unavailable, as it does not occur in bodies.

Chemung Ores.

Small pots of brown hematite occur at many localities in the lower part of the Chemung series, and these have given rise to false estimates of the value of property at more places than one. Ore was seen in the hills west from Buffalo mountain; at a mile or so southwest from Saxton, and at many places in Monroe and Southampton townships. The ore appears to be of moderately good quantity, but nothing definite can be learned respecting the quantity, except that the scattered fragments do not indicate the existence of an extensive deposit at any 1ocality examined.

Hamilton Ores.

Ore occurs at the lower horizon along Warrior Ridge, south from the Juniata, in Bedford county. Nothing is known, however, respecting the quantity, as the pits were of insignificant size at best, and now they are filled with rubbish. But there must be much in southern Monroe, for an extensive deposit of bog-iron ore was seen north from Cheneysville. Samples of brown hematite were obtained from the Barn-dollar and Baughman place, one mile south from Everett, which have the following composition

Metallic iron 53.050

Sulphur 0.056

Phosphorus 0.087

Silicious matter 7.800

Lower Helderbery Ores.

Brown hematite occurs at many localities in the Lower Helderberg. It was mined at one time at two places on the west side of Warrior ridge, in Hopewell township, of Bedford county, to supply the old furnaces and forges on Yellow creek; and, if one may judge from the extent of the excavations, the mining operations must have been important. Small quantities of the ore have been found along the ridge in West Providence, south from the river, as well as in Monroe township, where the quantity seems to be considerable. The only locality at which mining is now carried on is in West Providence township, on the Juniata river, west from Everett, There the ore occurs in the decomposed shaly limestones belonging at the base of the group, whereas at the other localities it is found in the compact limestones high up in the series. The peculiar occurrence of the ore at Lowry, Eichelberger & Co's mines is described in the chapter on Black valley. The ore is mined to supply Hopewell furnace, and its composition according to McCreath is:

Metallic iron 42.650

Sulphur 0.099

Phosphorus 0.182

Silicious matter 18.730

Iron ore occurs in the upper part of this group near Bedford, and a large pocket was opened during the construction of a reservoir south from the borough; but the ore is evidently sandy and of little value. The same ore is present at many localities along the west foot of Will's mountain, and it has been mined on the property from J. Wolford, in Londonderry township, north from Fossilville. Some ore has been shipped from this farm, and it is said to be very good.

The Clinton Ores.

The Clinton is the most important ore-bearing group of the district. Three ore-beds were recognized:

The Fossil.

The Frankstown.

The Block.

Besides these, some thin, indefinite seams occur in the highest parts of the group, but they have no economic value.

The Fossil Ore-Bed.

This is the important bed which is mined at Powel's Cove mines, in Liberty township; by the Kemble Coal and Iron Company at the Cambria mine in Hopewell township; by the same company and by Lowry, Eichelberger & Co., in West Providence township, north from the Juniata river; it has been well exposed south from that river by Scott & Russell, in West Providence and at many localities in Monroe and Southampton townships by J.B. Williams. It has been prospected, on the west side of Evitt's mountain, by Robert Hare Powel and E.F. Kerr, while the Kemble Company has had extensive mines along the same line, but further north. On the east side of Will's and Dunning's mountains it has been mined extensively by the Kemble Company, and it has been prospected to the Maryland line by E.F. Kerr and others. It has been prospected and mined on the west side of Will's mountain by John Cessna and by the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company. It is the main source of supply for the Kemble Coal and Iron Company's furnaces at Riddlesburg, and from it must come the ore for Mr. Powel's new furnace at Saxton.

This bed has been proved to exist along the west side of Will's mountain, from the Maryland line to beyond the Juniata river, and mining has been done in Londonderry, Harrison and Napier townships. The bed is single in Londonderry, and its thickness varies from six to twenty-three inches, with an average of fifteen to eighteen inches, but in Harrison the bed is double, showing two layers, eighteen and two inches, separated by two feet of sandstone. When thus double, the lower bed is usually known as the Twin seam. The ore is fine-grained, with some specular ore. The following analyses, by Mr. McCreath, show the character of the ore:

1. Fossil ore, Adam Wolford's farm, Londonderry.

2. Fossil ore, Jacob Hardman's farm, Harrison:

Metallic iron 45.225 49.875

Sulphur 0.025 0.013

Phosphorus 0.454 0.422

Insoluble residue 21 .620 13.890

In each case the samples had been exposed for a long time to the weather.

In considering these, as well as the other analyses of iron ore given in this chapter, one should remember that they represent the dried ore; but as the material comes from the mine it will contain no inconsiderable percentage of water, whereby the relative percentage of iron will necessarily be less than that shown by the analysis.

The bed becomes more complex in structure in Napier township, the following being the section:

Ft. In; In.

Ore 0 10

Shale 0 6

Sandstone 2 0

Ore 1 6 to 10

Shale 1 3

Ore 0 10

The ore from the lowest bed is said to be the best.

All of these mines have been idle for several years, little work having been done on any of them since 1873. No other mining operations have been carried on along this side of the Wills-Dunning anticlinal, except in the neighborhood of Dutch Corner, where the features are the same with those observed on tile east side of that anticlinal in Dutch Corner.

Many openings have been made between the Maryland line and the Juniata river along the east side of Wills-Dunning anticlinal, and systematic mining has been carried on by the Kemble Coal and Iron Company northward from the Juniata river. No exposures now remain south from the river. According to the best information attainable, the thickness of the bed does not average more than fourteen to sixteen inches in Cumberland Valley township, although it is said to be twenty-three inches at one locality and three feet at another. In Bedford township near the southern line it is said to be but fourteen inches. Only prospecting pits have been digged south from the Pittsburgh pike, and in these the structure of the bed appears to have been found simple in all cases. But further north, opposite Wolfsburg, the structure is complex as in Napier, the following being given as the section:

Ft. In. Ft. In.

Ore 0 8 to 1, 2

Shale 0 6 to 1 0

Blue Sandstone 2 0 to 2 6

Ore 0 8 to 1 6

Shale 1 6

Ore 0 4

The main source of supply is the upper bed, which averages about ten inches, while the middle bed is very uncertain, sometimes being wholly cut out by variation of the sandstone. The mines in Dutch Corner, the northwestern part of Bedford township, have been operated for a number of years by the Kemble Coal and Iron Company. Two sections taken half a mile apart show these variations:

Ft. In. Ft. In. In.

Ore 2 4 3 0

Shale 4 0 3

Ore 0 9 0 4 to 2

Shale 0 4 1 0

Sandstone 0 11 1 6

Ore 1 2 0 7

Only the upper bed is mined. Near the outcrop, where the ore was stripped, soft ore was found, but after solid cover was reached the ore became hard almost at once. The available ore varies little from two feet.

The following analyses have been made by Mr. A.S. McCreath:

1. County Farm, Bedford township.

2. Kemble Co's Mine, Wolfsburg.

3. Kemble Co's mine, Dutch Corner, hard ore.

Metallic iron 44.400 46.450 25.723

Sulphur 0.017 0.011 0.034

Phosphorus 0.161 0.344 0.251

Insoluble residue 22.270 12.770 9.020

Carbonate of lime 11.607 46.339

Carbonate of magnesia 1.136 2.648

Prospecting pits have been sunk at several places along the west side of Evitt's mountain, to prove the presence of the fossil ore-bed, and mining operations were carried on extensively by the Kemble Company at the Juniata gap. But the mines have been abandoned and the prospecting pits have become full of rubbish, so that no sections can be obtained now. Mr. Franklin Platt's section in the Kemble Company's tunnel is as follows:

Ft. In. Ft. In.

Ore 1 0 to 1 5

Sandstone 1 1 to 2 6

Ore 0 4 to 1 4

Sandstone 2 0 to 2 4

Ore 0 6 to 1 8

The ore obtained here is very good, but the shales cannot be separated easily, and the temptation to mix shale with ore appears too great to be resisted by the diggers. So the mines were abandoned.

The most important area of this fossil bed is Black valley, which lies between Tussey mountain and Warrior ridge. The ore has been proved by J.B. Williams from the Maryland line to West Providence; by Scott & Russell in West Providence south from the Juniata by Lowry, Eichelberger & Co., the Kemble Coal and Iron Company and Robert Hare Powel from the Juniata river to the line of Huntingdon county.

Ordinarily the bed is double in this area, the upper division being known as Fossil and the lower as the Twin. The upper is usually the more important.

No mining has been done south from the Juniata, but the extensive prospecting pits belonging to J.B. Williams and Scott & Russell show the character very well. The exposures in Southampton township give:

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

Ore 3 0 1 6 1 1

Clay 0 4 0 2 0 1

Ore 1 3 0 10 2 3

and at all of these the ore is very good. The lower bed is softer than the upper, the latter usually containing not a little of brown hematite.

The exposures in southern Monroe are not wholly satisfactory and the surface ore is somewhat inferior, showing many small amygdules of quartz, which, however, may disappear at an inconsiderable depth below the surface. Further north in this township numerous pits have been sunk on the farm of John Pennel, Sr., on that of B.B. Steckman, as well as on several other farms. None of these show the structure in detail. The ore changes in some of them from ordinary fossil to brown hematite. The thickness in some pits is almost six feet, but the ore is not compact and the pits probably have not passed beyond the broken outcrop. The ore is of very fair quality at all of these pits, as appears from the analyses.

The Scott & Russell pits begin north from the Monroe line and show some variation in structure. Three measurements give:

Ft. In. Ft In. Ft In. Ft In.

Ore 3 0 1 6 0" 6 to 0 8

Shale 0 6 3 2 0 3

Ore 3 0 1 2 1 5 to 1 8

A fourth measurement shows four divisions of the ore. Some brown hematite always occurs in the upper division, which, however, is often sandy. The following analyses, by Mr. A.S. McCreath, show the variations of the ore south from the Juniata river:

1. Isaac Wilson's farm, Southampton township.

2. William Barkilow's farm, Southampton township.

3. John Pennel's farm, Monroe township (brown hematite).

4. B.B. Steckman's farm, Monroe township.

5 and 6. Scott & Russell openings, West Providence township.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Metallic iron 48.150 54.150 53.850 45.225 17.125 54.950

Sulphur 0.022 0.022 0.025 0.022 0.017 0.019

Phosphorus 0.298 0.232 0.723 0.175 0161 0.318

Insoluble residue 13.810 7.790 3.770 22.610 69.130 9.600

Water 12.534

With the exception of No. 6 these analyses are of specimens which had been exposed to the air for from two to five years. But the sample for No. 6 was a section of the bed taken from a pit newly digged. The sample of No. 5 was probably not a fair one, but the pit contained so much water that the samples had to be taken from such material as lay on the surface.

The extensive mines of the Kemble Coal and Iron Company in West Providence and southern Hopewell extend for upward of three miles along the bed, and the tunnel reaches the ore at three hundred and twenty-five feet below the outcrop. The bed shows the following section:

Ft. In. Ft. In.

Fossil 2 to 6

Interval 0 to 6

Twin 2 to 6

Brown hematite and fossil ores occur together in the upper division, but the former is said to disappear gradually beyond fifty feet from the outcrop. A nest of calcareous ore was found at three hundred and twenty-five feet below the outcrop, which led to the fear that the ore had changed its character, but the variation proved to be merely local and the ore now obtained, though somewhat silicious, is of very fair quality. The bed shows noteworthy variations in thickness, occasionally becoming very thin or almost disappearing, but again thickening to far beyond the average, there being one stretch of more than one thousand feet in which the combined thickness of the two divisions is nearly twelve feet, while the parting has diminished to a mere knife edge.

A long prospecting tunnel was driven to reach the ore, at somewhat more than a mile south from Yellow Creek gap, in Hopewell township. It is supposed to have reached the horizon of this bed, but instead of ore only ocherous clay was found. Exploration was made along the line of this clay, but no ore was obtained and the enterprise was abandoned. This failure has given rise to the belief that the ore is wanting for some distance on the south side of the great gaps, or that when not wanting, it is of decidedly inferior quality. This theory may be true or it may not be true; but one thing is very certain, the present state of knowledge affords no basis of facts for any such theory, so that the proposition is wholly gratuitous. Had the Tatesville tunnel been driven further south so as to reach the ore-line in one of the "wants," a similar generalization might have been made respecting the north side of the great gaps. Failure to discover the ore within a mile and a half south from the Juniata, in West Providence township, seemed to give the necessary basis for the theory; but the failure to discover ore there has proved to be due to circumstances other than the absence of ore; for ore is present in abundance and in good quality where its absence was asserted as proved by actual and thorough investigation.

In the Cambria mine the ore runs from two to five feet, and from two to four feet in the Pewel mines. Mr. Powel has reached the ore in his Cove tunnel at two hundred and forty feet below the outcrop. The following analyses show the variations north from the Juniata river

1. Kemble Co's mine at Tatesville. McCreath.

2. Cambria mine in Hopewell township. McCreath.

3. Stoler farm, Liberty township, brown hematite. Britton.

4. Cove tunnel, Liberty township. F.A. Genth.

1 2 3 4

Metallic iron 38.600 55.425 58.12 41.80

Sulphur 0.018 0.018 0.00 0.00

Phosphorus 0.213 0.229 0.27 Trace

Insoluble residue 30.990 5.740 4.11 35.57

Water 11.20 4.24

Another sample from No. 4 showed 44.36 of metallic iron and 0.023 of phosphorus.

The Frankstown Bed.

This is about three hundred and eighty feet below the "fossil" bed, but it does not appear so persistently as the other. It certainly exists on the west side of Dunning's mountain in East St. Clair township, on the east slope of Will's mountain in Cumberland Valley township, but it was not seen on the west side of Will's mountain, nor does it appear to have been discovered anywhere in the Black valley. It has been prospected in St. Clair township for Robert Hare Powel, where its thickness is from ten to twelve inches; and pits were found at two places in Cumberland Valley township, where, however, its thickness could not be ascertained. Two analyses of this ore have been made by Mr. A.S. McCreath:

1. L. Geisler's farm, East St. Clair township.

2. M.S. Bortz's farm, Cumberland Valley township.

Metallic iron 49.550 43.825

Sulphur 0.017 0.018

Phosphorus 0.137 0.544

Insoluble residue 20.530 17.410

It seems to be altogether probable that this bed does not attain economic importance within Bedford county.

The Block Ore.

This lies at the very bottom of the Clinton at approximately two hundred and eighty feet below the Frankstown bed. Proofs of its existence were found on the west side of Dunning's mountain in East St. Clair township; on the east side of Will's and Dunning mountains in Bedford and Cumberland Valley townships; on the west side of Evitt's mountain in Bedford township, and on the east side of Tussey mountain in West Providence township. It contains some fossil ore in East St. Clair, but elsewhere only lumps of brown hematite were seen at its horizon. This bed has not been opened at any locality within the district, except in West Providence on the Scott & Russell tract, where the thickness is said to be two feet. The quantity of ore appears to be considerable at the head of the Juniata gap through Evitt's mountain.

Ores of the Calciferous.

These occur in Colerain, Snake Spring, South Woodberry, Woodberry and Bloomfield townships.

Within Bedford county these ores do not occur in place, but are found in loose sand, mingled with fragments of chert and sandstone, the latter coming from the Lower Medina and the Hudson. Fragments of white Medina are common, but those from the other groups predominate. The detrital deposits appear to follow definite lines, forking again and again like water-courses, so as to suggest the possibility of their marking the old drainage lines of the area. These sandy deposits form ridges, known in Morrison's cove as "barrens." A single ridge only is found in the narrow Friend's cove, where it is known as Middle ridge.

No development of these ores has been made to any extent within Colerain township, and the only one of any importance in Snake Spring is that made by the Kemble Company on John G. Hartley's property, between the Chambersburg pike and the Juniata river. The quantity of ore is considerable, but the greater part of it is in small fragments. The existence of ore at many places along this Middle ridge is undoubted, as may be seen by reference to the chapter describing the area between Evitt's and Tussey mountains; but no conclusions respecting its quantity would be judicious unless based on actual development far beyond that which has been made.

The most marked line of ore-bearing sands is in South Woodberry and Bloomfield townships. It has been broken badly by erosion, which renders direct tracing not always easy. A sandy ridge can be followed from Beaver creek northward to the line between South Woodberry and Bloomfield, not following the strike of the rocks, but bearing almost north and south. Its width is not far from one mile, and its eastern edge passes at somewhat more than a mile and a half west from New Enterprise. There it is narrow, owing to erosion by Beaver creek, but it widens northward so as to come very near the road leading through Lafayetteville. As this ridge approaches the northern edge of South Woodberry township it is joined by a similar but narrower ridge, which begins at about a mile west-northwest from New Enterprise, and continues to its junction with the other at the township line, where the width of the combined ridges is nearly a mile and a half. Thence northward for some distance it becomes narrower, owing to erosion by Yellow creek, but beyond that stream it widens again and is readily traced to Blair county.

The existence of ore along this ridge has been fully proved by prospecting kits and extensive mining operations made by Dr. Shoenberger, the Cambria Iron Company and others at comparatively short intervals. In South Woodberry the ore has been opened on the Ripley and Ebersole properties; in Bloomfield, on the Bender, Stuckey and Longenecker properties south from Yellow creek; while north from that stream it has been prospected on the Bailey and Long farms, and mined at Baker's Summit and on the Bloomfield property.

Another strip begins in Woodberry near the southern edge of the township, between the forks of Yellow creek, and goes northward for certainly four miles. The ore is shown on the Hoffman, Fox, Hoover and other farms, and many years ago mining was done on some of them. The width of this strip was not determined. It is less important than the other.

As these ores are loose they must be separated from the clay and sand either by screening or washing. Where fragments of chert are not abundant the ore can be cleaned without difficulty by washing. The process is a simple one. The machinery consists essentially of a trough, eighteen inches wide and less than a foot deep in this revolves a wooden shaft fitted with iron flanges, so arranged as to push the material forward, while they agitate it. Water flows through the trough, and the finer particles are removed. A more primitive method is to use a hollow wooden cylinder, four or five feet in diameter, fitted with a rim of six inches at each end, while small spaces are left between the slats covering the frame. The sand and ore are thrown into the revolving cylinder, the finer particles are washed out through the spaces, while the coarser lumps remain in the box.

The mode in which these ores occur has been described in detail by Mr. Franklin Platt in Report T of the survey. For further description, the reader is referred to that report. Analyses for this report were made as follows by Mr. A.S. McCreath:

1. John G. Hartley's ore, Snake Spring township.

2. Jacob Ripley's ore, South Woodberry township.

1. 2.

Metallic iron 57.400 52.750

Sulphur 0.025 0.026

Phosphorus 0.119 0.096

Insoluble residue 4.040 9.910

Unfortunately, these analyses do not represent the shipping ore. They were made from samples obtained by taking chips from piles of ore thrown out from pits and therefore freed as far as possible from foreign matter. Despite the utmost precaution, more or less silicious matter is retained after the washing, so that the ore as shipped shows material variations in quality. Analyses made by Mr. A.S. McCreath, for the Pennsylvania Steel Company, are reproduced here to show the general character of the ore as shipped:

Metallic Iron. Phosphorus.

July, 1873 32.25 0.053

March, 1874 39.06 0.041

April, 1874 33.50 0.039

April, 1874 35.00 0.059

May, 1874 36.60 0.053

Quality of the iron Produced.

At present (this was written before the completion of Powel's furnace at Saxton) only the furnaces at Hopewell and Riddlesburg are in blast. That at Hopewell uses charcoal and a mixture of Lower Helderberg and fossil ores. The iron is mostly mill, very little foundry being made. The following analyses are by Mr. McCreath, No. 1 being that of the mill and No. 2 that of the foundry:

1. 2.

Silicon 1.960 1.708

Sulphur Trace 0.026

Phosphorus 0.507 0.429

The Riddleburg furnaces use coke as fuel and have no ores aside from those of the Clinton. For some time they have been producing only foundry iron. But formerly mill iron of excellent quality was made. Five tons of it were tested by Messrs. Marshall, Phillips & Co., of Philadelphia and manufactured by them into bar and sheet iron. Their report was as follows:

The bar iron, when bent hot or cold, showed no indications whatever of a fracture in the fiber; in fact, the best judges could have been deceived as to the hot and cold ends of the bar.

The hematites of the Lower Silurian are no longer reduced within this district, and the whole product of the Bloomfield mines is shipped elsewhere. The Rodman furnaces on the Bloomfield estate used these ores exclusively, with Connellsville coke as the fuel and Trenton limestone as the flux. The metal was used by the Pennsylvania Steel Works, where Mr. McCreath made the following analyses, which are reproduced from Mr. Platt's Report T:

1. 2. 3.

Silicon 4.004 3.184 2.713

Sulphur 0.035 0.082 0.123

Phosphorus 0.195 0.195 0.192

Manganese 0.144 0.864

No. 1 was made in 1872, No. 2 in March, 1874, and No. 3 in May, 1874. This metal was used with other brands in the manufacture of Bessemer steel.

The charcoal irons made at the old Bloomfield furnace from these ores were so superior "that after a long and complete series of tests, the Bloomfield pig metal was chosen by Capt. Rodman for use in making the heavy ordnance for the United States government, and he strongly urged that the government should purchase the whole Bloomfield ore deposit and thus procure a permanent supply of this valuable ore."


Limestone of an excellent quality abounds in many parts of the county. The lime produced from it is strong, but is almost wholly used for agricultural purposes.


Timber is so plentiful that few houses are constructed of stone. The Lower Silurian lime-stones are used somewhat in the localities where they occur, and they answer admirably, being durable and of good color. Excellent sandstone can be obtained from the Pocono, Portage and Medina, but the Medina is very hard to dress. The Portage flags break out nicely and are easily trimmed, but they, like the Lower Medina, though very durable, have a somber tint, 'which is not altogether agreeable. The Oriskany is used occasionally, but care must be used in selecting the stone, as many parts of the group do not resist the weather.

Clay for the manufacture of ordinary brick can be obtained from the subsoil everywhere.

No good plastic fire-clay was seen in the Broad Top region, there being a considerable amount of oxide of iron in all the beds. Nor does the hard clay appear to be present there, no fragments of it having been seen at any locality, though its horizon in the Pottsville is exposed at many localities.

The Savage Mountain fire-clay reaches the southwest corner of Bedford county in Londonderry township. No exposures of it were found within the district, but an extensive mine has been opened on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad in Somerset county just beyond the line of Bedford county. There the clay is mined for the Savage Fire-Brick Company, which has works at Hyndman, in Bedford county, and at Keystone junction in Somerset. county. The thickness of the deposit varies from nothing to twenty-one feet, a room with the latter thickness having been reached since the examination was made. Much of the clay makes only bricks of the second grade, but fully one-half of the ordinary run and the whole of the mass in the present workings makes bricks of the first quality.

The capacity of the works at Hyndman is 4,000,000 of bricks per annum, and their product has been continually sold ahead. The Savage Mountain bricks are believed to be equal to any made in the country, and they are widely used in the construction of coke-ovens and in lining furnace-stacks. It is possible that the high reputation is due quite as much to care in selecting the clay as to the general character of the clay itself.


Much of the district is uncleared, but over a great part of the area the choicer trees have been culled, so that the original forest has practically disappeared. Oaks, chestnut, pine and spruce are shown on the mountain ridges, on the lower hills and in swales are found maples and poplars, while still lower are walnut, hickory and ash, with here and there some gum, cucumber and butternut.

Oaks grow luxuriantly on Medina, Oriskany and Portage; pines and spruces grow with equal luxuriance on Catskill and Mauch Chunk; while both oaks and pines thrive well on the Pocono soils. Eastern Bedford and western Fulton still contain much excellent pine timber, many trees of nearly two feet in diameter having been seen. But the many sawmills are fast utilizing the larger trees, so that within a very few years prime lumber will be an insignificant item in the list of products. Oaks are rapidly disappearing to supply ties to the railroads and bark to the tanneries, while, in much of the district, forest fires effectually destroy the young trees.

Chestnut, maple and poplar are still in sufficient quantity to be important. Chestnut abound on the limestone ridges. The other woods previously mentioned are found only in small quantities. The supply of black-walnut timber has become insufficient everywhere in our country, and farmers would do well to plant walnut-trees. There are extended strips of rich bottomland, which are too stony for cultivation, but which would answer admirably for walnut, hickory and ash.

Chestnut oak is abundant in the region lying west from Wills-Dunning mountain, and it is present in the Catskill swales along the foot of the Allegheny mountain. A great quantity remains on both sides of Evitt's and Tussey mountains, and much remains untouched along Ray's hill.

The abundance of this timber led to the establishment of tanneries at many places in both

Bedford and Fulton, and extensive tanneries are now in operation at Pleasantville, Mann's Choice, Rainsburg, Everett and Fairview, in Bedford county; at Franklin Mills, Well's Tannery postoffice, Saluvia and McConnell's cove, in Fulton. The amount of bark consumed is enormous; the larger tanneries of Bedford county use about 17,000 cords per annum, and those of Fulton county about 4,500 cords. Besides these, there are many small tanneries in both counties, while a very large one in Maryland, on Flintstone creek, draws such of its supply from Bean's cove and Black valley.


About one mile and a half south of the borough of Bedford are celebrated springs of this name. The little valley in which they are found is not far from eleven hundred feet above tide. It appears that the tract of two hundred and four acres upon which the springs proper are situated was purchased by Dr. John Anderson from Frederick Nawgel, in 1808. The other tracts adjoining this (in all some fifteen hundred acres) were taken up on warrants by Thomas Anderson, the father of Dr. John Anderson, and the great-grandfather of the present Anderson heirs, in 1788. These lands have never been out of the possession of the Anderson family from their first ownership, with the exception of the sale to the Bedford Mineral Springs Company, in 1857. This company made many improvements about the grounds, and built the cottage and bathing-houses. However, after two or three seasons the springs again came into the possession of the Andersons, through Espy L. Anderson, Esq., who held a large amount of the company stock. According to Gordon, the medicinal value of these springs was discovered in 1804 by a mechanic of Bedford, who, while fishing in Schober's creek near the large spring, drank freely of the water flowing from the bank. This proved purgative and sudorific. He had suffered for many years from rheumatic pains and from severe ulcers on the legs. The comfort resulting from the first use of the water led him to drink it and bathe in it daily. A cure resulted within a few weeks. Others learning of this incident came to the springs for relief, and the summer of 1805 brought many who were suffering from chronic diseases. Since that time the Bedford Springs have been a summer resort for great numbers, both of the sick and the well.

The important spring of the series, medicinally considered, is the Magnesia Spring. The water of this spring is diuretic and cathartic. It is believed to be useful in chronic liver derangements, dyspepsia, diseases of the kidneys and in cases of general debility following the cure of acute diseases. The water admits of transportation and much is shipped to distant points.

The Sulphur Spring is nearly two hundred yards from the main spring. It exhales a strong odor of hydro-sulphuric acid. This spring certainly should be little inferior to the main spring in cathartic properties. The Magnesia Iron Spring is in the immediate vicinity of the last. In the vicinity of these springs are several limestone springs, one of which is of great volume and is familiarly known as the Large Limestone Spring. Unlike the other springs, it contains a comparatively small amount of saline ingredients.

But at the hotel is a spring of the purest soft water, containing, according to Dr. Genth's analysis, little more than one grain of mineral matter to the gallon of 231 cubic inches. All of these springs, except the sweet or soft water springs, issue from the Lower Helderberg limestone, which forms the cliff-like walls enclosing the narrow valley. A chalybeate spring issues at three-fourths of a mile southwest from the hotel. It evidently comes from the Marcellus shale. The analyses show that there is no material difference between the water of the Magnesia Spring and that of the Magnesia Iron Spring, although there is supposed to be some healing virtue in the latter which is not possessed by the former; and that in like manner the Magnesia Spring has some excellence which the Magnesia Iron has not.

The Chalybeate Spring

is located north from the Juniata river, about a mile northeast from the borough of Bedford. This spring issues from near the junction of the Oriskany sandstone with the Marcellus shale. The water differs from that of the Bedford Chalybeate in an increased proportion of carbonate of calcium and carbonate of manganese, while sulphate of magnesium is absent, and iron is in less proportion. This water contains less of iron than that of the Reed & Lyon White Sulphur Spring.

The Reed & Lyon White Sulphur Spring.

This is in Harrison township, within Milligan's cove, and is opposite the gap in Buffalo mountain, through which the road leads to Sulphur Spring station, on the Bedford railroad. The spring issues from Utica shale. The presence of sulphuretted hydrogen is very perceptible. Though small, this spring is in high repute, and two small hotels are well filled during the summer season.

A.M. May's Springs.

These are also in Milligan's cove, half a mile south from the Reed & Lyon Spring, are reputed to be of medicinal value, and the house is well filled with visitors during the summer. The springs issue from Utica shale, and are comparatively small. The westerly spring is a white sulphur, but it seems to contain less of sulphuretted hydrogen than is found in the Reed & Lyon spring. The water is utilized for bathing. The other spring is separated from it by about seven feet, and it is supposed to be a chalybeate spring.

Wolford's White Sulphur Spring

issues from the Lower Helderberg limestone. The volume is very small and the sulphuretted hydrogen only perceptible. In a general way it resembles the sulphur spring on A.M. May's property.


The soils of this district are of local origin, and are due, for the most part, to decomposition of the rocks on which they lie.

The distribution of limestone soils are confined to the outcrops and areas of the Lower Helderberg, Trenton and Calciferous limestone groups. They are found in Morrison's and Friend's coves. A petty area also exists on Chestnut ridge. These soils invited the earliest settlers, so that they have been long under cultivation. Little woodland remains in any of the coves, except along the borders, where sandstone debris covers the surface and renders farming difficult, In Morrison's cove, the "barrens" or ridges, covered by loose clay and sand, have still much timber.

There seems to be but little difference, in point of fertility, between soils derived from the Lower Helderberg, and those derived from the Trenton or Calciferous. On all, the farming has been exhaustive for nearly one hundred years, and the crops are now much less than they should be. In Morrison's cove, the yield, in an ordinary year, is, per acre: Wheat, twenty bushels; corn, one hundred bushels of ears; oats, thirty-five bushels.

At all localities the crops are much smaller than they were fifty years ago. The land is limed heavily, but a large proportion of the farmers fail to appreciate properly the necessity of other amendments, so that the soil is forced.

Calcareous soils of mixed origin occur along the foot of Will's and Dunning's mountains; in the Bedford basin, and along the east foot of Tussey mountain, in Bedford county. The soils at these localities are composed of materials derived from Medina, Clinton, Lower Helderberg and Oriskany. The mixture of sands renders these less heavy and pasty than the more distinctively lime soils of the coves; but their fertility is less durable, more care being required to keep the farms in good condition.

The wheat yield per acre in Black valley varies from twelve to eighteen bushels; corn, from thirty-five to sixty bushels of ears; oats, from twenty to twenty-five bushels; in Bean's cove, the wheat crop is from eight to fifteen bushels, and that of oats from twenty to forty bushels; very little corn is raised.

These mixed soils produce much good timber. Black-walnut is plentiful on the flats and in the lower part of swales extending into the ridges; maples are large near the streams, while much oak, hickory and linn are found somewhat higher up.

The shale or slate soils rest on Mauch Chunk, Devonian, Utica and Hudson outcrops. They show much variation in quality.

Soils derived from Catskill rocks are fairly good, as those rocks disintegrate readily and form a fine though somewhat sandy soil. The Chemung beds above the upper conglomerate are equally good. Where lime can be obtained without difficulty these "red-slate" soils are easily rendered productive, lime being apparently the chief amendment needed; but elsewhere the crops are poor. Wheat yields from ten to twenty bushels, corn from fifty to seventy-five bushels of ears, and oats from twenty to twenty-five bushels, on unlimed and limed soils respectively. These soils carry rock-oak, poplar, white-oak, walnut and abundance of pine.

The lower Devonian rocks do not give good soils. The shales are fissile and the sandstones tough, so that disintegration is ordinarily slow. On some farms that have been cultivated for nearly one hundred years, the soil is so thin that clover will not take good hold. Lime is of no little service, but its effects are far from being so marked as on Catskill soils. Bone-dust acts admirably for two or three seasons.

Soils of this character prevail east from Warrior ridge in West Providence, Monroe and Southampton townships, where wheat yields from seven to ten bushels, corn thirty to fifty bushels of ears, and oats ten to twenty bushels. On new land, wheat yields twenty bushels for two or three years, and in a few instances thirty bushels have been obtained. Better crops are obtained west from Will's mountain in Londonderry and Harrison townships, of Bedford county, where the Lower Helderberg limestone is within easy reach. Though unprofitable when sown in grain, these soils yield large crops of excellent potatoes and are well adapted to fruit-raising. White and red oak, maple, chestnut and beech thrive on them.

The Hudson and Utica shales, like the Hamilton, disintegrate slowly, and give a soil which is thin and far from productive. That of Milligan's cove in Bedford county yields only ten bushels of wheat and twenty bushels of oats.

The greater part of the sandstone area is practically worthless for agricultural purposes. The Medina resists the weather, and the slopes of its ridges are covered with angular fragments which makes plowing impossible. On some ridges, the Oriskany and Pocono have yielded to the weather so as to break down into fine sand, which is rich in vegetable matter derived from decaying leaves. Some very fair farms were seen on the Bedford pike and the Old State road, east from Ray's hill, where only Pocono sandstone underlies the surface. These are said to yield much better crops than can be obtained from Chemung or Hamilton shales, when no lime is used. New ground yields nearly thirty bushels of wheat per acre.


Though streams flowing across the Devonian beds are liable to become very low during prolonged drought, yet, as was proved during the excessively dry season of 1881, there is at most localities an ample supply of water for domestic use and for cattle. Springs occur abundantly, and many of them, especially those in limestone regions or their vicinity, are of great size. Those at Spring Hope, Spring Meadow, Bedford Springs and McConnell's cove have volume to run large mills. The numerous forks of Dunning's, Bobb's and George's creeks afford excellent mill-sites at the mouths of their gaps through the Chemung conglomerate ridge.

SOURCE:  Page(s) 182-195, History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties

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