Indian Traders—-Their Mode of Life—-Ray and Pendergrass at Raystown—-An Indian Document—-John Fraser at Raystown in 1758—-Barnard Dougherty and Other Scotch- Irishmen come a Few Years Later—-Daring White Men Settle on Indian Lands West of the Alleghenies—-Detailed Account of Their Troubles—-Extracts from Colonial Records —-The Turkey-Foot Settlement—-Indian Treaties—-The Purchase of 1768—-Manner of Establishing Claims—-Price of Wild Lands under the Penns and the Commonwealth—-The Taxables of the Two Counties in 1772—-Colonial Mills—-National Characteristics—-Scotch-Irish—-The Brethren or Dunkards.

UNDOUBTEDLY the first white explorers of the region now embraced by the counties of Bedford and Somerset were Indian traders, French and English. The date of their first appearance here is not known, but it was certainly as early as 1732, when the attention of the Executive Council of Pennsylvania was called to the fact that Frenchmen were known to be among the Indians within the supposed western limits of the territory claimed by the Penns under the royal grant. This announcement caused considerable discussion and some vague action on the part of the council and there is no doubt that the fact, which then became publicly known, had the effect to bring in the English-speaking traders (if, indeed, they were not already here) to gather their share of profits from a lucrative Indian trade.

Tradition says that the French traders, after passing down the valley of the Allegheny, penetrated from the mouth of that stream southeastward into the country drained by the Monongahela and Youghiogheny, and that some of them came many years before the campaigns of Washington and Braddock, intermarried with the Indians (a common occurrence with French traders of that date), settled and formed a village on the waters of George’s creek, in the present, county of Fayette.

Of the English-speaking traders some were Pennsylvanians, who came in by way of the Juniata river and the pack-horse trail leading westward through the present towns of Carlisle, Shippensburg, Chambersburg, McConnellsburg and Bedford, while others were from the provinces of Maryland and Virginia, who passed over the Indian trail leading from Old Town, Maryland, to the Youghiogheny. These traders, both French and English, were daring, adventurous men, ever-ready and willing to brave the perils of the wilderness and risk their lives among the savages for the purpose of gain, but they were in no sense settlers—-only wanderers from point to point, according to the requirements or inducements of their location. And as regards the region embraced in this work, few, if any, of their names have been preserved, other than those of Ray and Garrett Pendergrass.

Early local writers have asserted that the first settlement on the Raystown branch of the Juniata was made by a man named Ray in 1751, who built three cabins on, or near, the site of the town of Bedford; that this branch of the river derived its name from him, and that the locality was known for a decade or so of years as Raystown. The state archives, prove the latter assertion to be correct, but here all knowledge or trace of Ray ends; we know not how long he remained here, or what occupation he pursued. We conjecture, however, that he was here for the purpose of trading with the Indians, that he was a cotemporary of George Croghan at Aughwick; of the old German Indian trader Stephen Franks at Frankstown; of John Hart at "Hart’s Log" or "Sleeping


Place," and that he died or removed from the banks of the stream which still perpetuates his name, before the beginning of the French and Indian war.

On July 6, 1754, the chiefs of the Six Nations granted to the proprietaries of the province a vast body of land, now forming the counties of Bedford, Fulton, Perry, Huntingdon, Blair, Mifflin and Juniata, and parts of Franklin, Somerset, Snyder, Union and Centre. This grant caused widespread dissatisfaction among many of the Indians, and in consequence was not confirmed until October 23, 1758. Prior to the first date, however, and before the beginning of the French and Indian war, the chiefs and deputies of the Six Nations gave leave to one Garrett Pendergrass to occupy and improve three hundred acres of land now largely embraced within the borough limits of Bedford. Doubtless, Pendergrass, too, was a trader, and as compensation for the three hundred acres he distributed among his savage friends sundry kegs of rum, belts of wampum, etc., etc. On September 19, 1772, Capt. (afterward Maj.-Gen.) Arthur St. Clair, as the first prothonotary, register, recorder, etc., of the county of Bedford, recorded the following document, which, besides explaining the above-mentioned transaction between Pendergrass and the Indians, shows also how and when Pendergrass became the first individual owner Of the site of Allegheny City

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that Whereas a certain Garret Pendergrass, sen., of Bedford Settlement, in the Province of Pennsylvania, and County of Cumberland; was settled some number of years past by leave of the Chiefs or Deputy’s of the Six Nations of Indians, on a tract of Land* where Bedford is now situate, while the said Land was yet the property of us and our said Chiefs and Deputies, said Pendergrass being dispossessed of said land In time of the War between the French and English, and before the Said Pendergrass Could saifly return to live on said Land it was Entered upon by people who have from time to time and yet Continues to keep said Pendergrass from the Enjoyment of said Tract of Land. Said Pendergrass at the last Treaty Held at Fort Pitt with the Representatives of the Said Six Nations, informed our said

*Regarding Pendergrass’ claim to the site of the town of Bedford, the records still further inform us that on June 17, 1772, Garret Pendergrass, Sr., in consideration of the sum of £30 sterling, transferred to Garret Pendergrass, Jr., all that Improvement and Tract of Land which is situate on both sides of the Rays Town Branch of the Juniata, including the springs known by the name of the Three Springs. Bounded westward with land formerly claimed by William Fredrigal (see history of Bedford Borough for account of Fredregill) and in Bedford township in the county of Bedford aforesaid, being the same land on which the Town called Bedford now stands, and containing by Estimate, three hundred acres, be the same more or less."

Chiefs or their Representatives or deputy’s that he was deprived of the above Tract of Land as above mentioned. Whereupon, us and our said deputy’s did then at the said Treaty give him, the said Pendergrass, our leave in writing under our hands, to settle on a Tract of Land called the Long Reach, near the mouth of the Yaughyagain (meaning the Youghiogheny), but the said last mentioned Tract being at the time of the said Treaty, or before it, Improved by some other person or persons Contrary to our Expectation, for which Reason, he, the said Pendergrass, has not obtained Possession of the Latter mentioned Tract and can not Quiatly Enjoy neither of the two above mentioned Tracts.

KNOW YE, THEREFORE, That we the under or within bound subscribers who have hereunto caused our names to be set and have put our marks, the first of us assigning being one of the Chiefs, and the other two deputy’s, off the said Six Nations, do give and grant to the said Garret Pendergrass, his heirs and trustees forever, our full leave and liberty of us and for and in behalf of the said Six Nations, to settle on a Tract of Land on the north side of the Aligaina River opposite to Fort Pitt, to joyn the said River on the one side and to extend one Mile and a half from the Landing on the North side of the said Aligaina River opposite to Fort Pitt, in form of a Cemi- Circle from said Landing, hereby granting to him and his heirs, trustees and assigns full liberty to build houses, make improvements, and cultivate the said Tract of Land, or any part thereof, and that the said Pendergrass may the more Quiatly Enjoy the said Land and any benefit that him, his heirs or assigns shall make or can make thereby, we do for ourselves and in behalf of the said Six Nations, discharge all people whatsoever from malesting or disturbing him, the said Pendergrass, his heirs, Trustees or assigns, in the Possession or Quiat Enjoyment of the said land or any part thereof, and we do by these presents firmly engage and promise to answer all objections that any Indian tribe or tribes may have to the making of the above settlement.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have caused our names hereunto to be Subscribed and have hereunto set our marks, in the Month of February, in the year of our Lord God one thousand seven hundred and Seventy.




Chief Anonguit’s mark was a turtle. Capt. Mountare attached to his name the initial letters H.M., while the White Mingo’s sign was a circle within a circle. This queer instrument was acknowledged in the presence of James Elliott, "one of His Majesty’s justices of the peace" for Cumberland county, during the same month and year in which it was written.

We thus ascertain the facts that although Ray and Pendergrass were at, one time occu-


pants of the region now known as the central part of the county of Bedford, neither remained permanently, and that both removed just prior to or during the French and Indian war on the borders, which was inaugurated in Pennsylvania by Washington and his Virginia riflemen in the summer of 1754. Thereafter, it is quite apparent, none of the English-speaking whites attempted to locate in the territory now embraced by the two counties, until its occupation by Gen. Forbes’ army in 1758.

With Forbes, as indicated in a previous chapter, came many wagoners, camp follower’s, artisans, etc. Stockade forts were built at Raystown (soon afterward termed Bedford) and at Juniata Crossings, and around either work of defense remained permanently a small number of people, not soldiers, who thereby became the first permanent residents of Bedford county. It is an impracticable task, at this time, to determine who they were, but among them was John Fraser*, who established an inn and trading post at Fort Bedford. Near the fort at Juniata Crossings settled at an early date the Pipers and others, who, during Indian forays and alarms, sought safety within its wooden walls. Barnard* Dougherty was also one of the very early residents at Bedford, and we believe its first justice of the peace, as witness the following excerpt from the "Minutes of the Provincial Council" under date of May 9, 1767. "It having been several times represented to the Governor that the inhabitants in and about Fort Bedford, and in Sherman’s valley, were in great necessity for justices of the peace to reside among them, and James Elliott, Bernard Dougherty and George Robinson being well recommended as the most proper and best qualified persons in those parts of the country to execute the duty of magistrates, the Governor, with the advice of the board, ordered special commissions to be issued, appointing them justices of the peace and of the county court of common pleas for the county of Cumberland."

Meanwhile, immediately after the conclusion of peace between France and England (which was accomplished at Paris, February 10, 1763) and for the three or four years closely succeeding; the sturdy Scotch- Irish, with a few

*No matter how this name has since been written, the pioneer himself wrote it, and in a very legible manner, too, Fraser.

*He signed his name Barnard, not Bernard.

Germans, began the work of establishing "tomahawk claims" over a wide part of the present county of Bedford. West of the Alleghenies a different state of affairs existed. The Indians still owned all of the territory to the westward of the crest of those mountains and north of the grants of 1749 and 1754—8, and the King of Great Britain, desiring to appear to have the welfare of the Indians much at heart, issued a proclamation in October, 1763, declaring that they must not, and should not, be molested in their hunting-grounds by the encroachments of settlers, and forbidding any governor of a colony or any military commander to issue any patents, warrants of survey or settlement permits for lands to the westward of the headstreams of rivers flowing into the Atlantic—-this, of course, being an interdiction of all settlements west of the Alleghenies. But the effect was baneful; for while the prohibition was disregarded by daring men and the colonial authorities—-particularly of Virginia—-it Caused the savages to be still more jealous of their rights, and to regard incoming settlers with increased distrust and dislike. This condition of affairs was rendered still more alarming by the Indian troubles in the West, termed the "Pontiac War," which occurred in that year, and by which the passions of the savages—-especially those west of the mountains named, were inflamed to such a degree that the few settlers in the trans- Allegheny region again became terrified at the prospect and fled from the country.

Nevertheless the thorough and decisive chastisement administered to the savages by Gen. Boquet on the Muskingum in the fall of 1764, brought them to their senses, somewhat, and made the county once more safe, so that the years 1765 and 1766 not only saw the return of the people who had fled, but a considerable increase of settlements in the same territory by fresh arrivals of immigrants from the frontiers of Maryland and Virginia. A letter dated Winchester, Virginia, April 30, 1765, said: "The frontier inhabitants of this colony and Maryland are removing fast over the Allegheny mountains, in order to settle and live there." The people here referred to, and others for several succeeding years, settled chiefly in the valley of the Redstone, at Turkey- Foot and some other points below on the Youghiogheny, in the valley of Cheat river, and in Gist’s


neighborhood just west of Laurel Hill, or the locality now, termed Mt. Braddock. These settlements all made during the years from 1763 to 1768 inclusive, and, with that at Fort Pitt, embraced, until about the year 1770, nearly all the white inhabitants of the province of Pennsylvania west of the Alleghenies.

In October, 1765, he, having learned that settlements were being made quite rapidly west of the mountains in defiance of his inhibition, the king of England sent the following instructions to Gov. Penn: "Whereas, it hath been represented unto us that several persons from Pennsylvania and the back settlements of Virginia have migrated to the westward of the Allegheny mountains, and there have seated themselves on lands contiguous to the river Ohio, in express disobedience to our royal proclamation of the 7th of October, 1763: It is therefore our will and pleasure, and you are hereby strictly enjoined and required to use, your best endeavors, to suppress such unwarrantable proceedings, and to put a stop to these and all other the like encroachments for the future, by causing all persons belonging to the province under your government, who have there irregularly seated themselves on lands to the westward of the Allegheny mountains, immediately to evacuate those settlements, and that you do enforce, as far as you are able, a more strict obedience to our commands, signified in our said royal proclamation, and provide against any future violence thereof."

Instructions of like purport had been sent to the Governor of Virginia in 1764, and a proclamation had been issued by the Governor, but without having the desired effect. The dissatisfaction among the Indians increased rapidly, and to a degree which awakened the authorities to the necessity for some action to allay it. The chiefs of the Six Nations were invited to a treaty council, which was accordingly held at Fort Pitt in May, 1766, at which no little displeasure was expressed by the Indians at the unwarranted trespasses being made by the whites. In a letter dated at the fort on the 24th of the month mentioned, George Croghan, deputy Indian agent, said: "As soon as the peace was made last year, contrary to our engagements to them (the Indians) a number of our people came over the Great Mountain and settled at Redstone creek and upon the Monongahela, before they had given the country to the king, their father." He also addressed Gen. Gage, commander-in-chief of the English forces in America, saying: "if some effectual measures are not speedily taken to remove those people settled on Redstone creek till a boundary can be properly settled, as proposed, and the governors pursue vigorous measures to deter the frontier inhabitants from murdering Indians which pass to and from war against their enemies, the consequences may be dreadful, and we involved in all the calamities of another general war."

This resulted in the issuance of a proclamation by Gov. Penn, wherein "all His Majesty’s subjects of this or any other province or colony" were prohibited "from making any settlements, or taking any possession of lands, by marking trees or otherwise, beyond the limits of the last Indian purchase, within this province, upon pain of the severest penalties of the law, and of being excluded from the privilege of securing such settlements should the lands where they shall be made be hereafter purchased of the Indians." The white trespassers still maintaining their ground in the Indian territory, Capt. Alexander Mackay, with a detachment of the 42d regiment of foot, was ordered to Redstone creek, where, on June 22, 1766, he issued the following:


In consequence of several Complaints made by the Savages against the People who have presumed to Inhabit some part of the Country west of the Allegania Mountain, which by Treaty belong to them, and had never been purchased, and which is contrary to his Majesty’s Royal Proclamation; his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, out of Compassion to your ignorance, before he proceeds to Extremity, have been pleased to order me with a detachment from the Garrison of Fort Pitt, to come here and collect you together, to inform you of the Lawless and Licentious manner in which you behave, and to order you all to return to your several Provinces without delay, which I am to do in the presence of some Indian Chiefs now along with me. I therefore desire you will all come to this place along with the Bearer, who I have sent on purpose to collect you together.

His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief has ordered, in case you should remain after this notice, to seize and make prize of all Goods and Merchandize brought on this side the Allegania Mountain, or exposed to sale to Indians, at any place except at his Majesty’s Garrison; that Goods thus seized will be a lawful prize, and become the property of the Captors. The Indians will be encouraged in this way


of doing themselves Justice, and if accidence should happen, you lawless people must look upon yourselves as the Cause of whatever may be the consequence hurtful to your Persons and Estates, and if this should not be sufficient to make you return to your several Provinces, his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief will order an armed Force to drive you from the lands you have taken possession of to the Westward of the Allegania Mountain, the property, of the Indians, till such time as his Majesty may be pleased to fix a further Boundary.

Such people as won’t come to this place are to send their names and the Province they belong to, and what they are to do by the Bearer, that his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief may be acquainted with their Intentions.

On July 31 following the issuance of Mackay’s "Notice," Gov. Fauquier, of Virginia, issued a proclamation to the people who had presumed to settle to the westward of the Alleghenies in defiance of his previous warning and prohibition—-which had been regarded by the trespassers merely as a formal compliance with the king’s order, and not intended to be enforced—-requiring such persons to immediately evacuate their settlements, which if they failed to do promptly, they must expect no protection or mercy from the government, but would be left to the revenge and retribution of the exasperated Indians.

At the request of the assembly, Gov. Penn, in October, 1766, addressed the governor of Virginia, saying that, without any authority whatever from Pennsylvania, settlements had been made near the Redstone creek and the Monongahela, and that he had no doubt this had been done also without the consent of the government of Virginia, and in violation of the rights of the Indian nations. He desired Gov. Fauquier to unite with him in removing the settlers from the region west of the mountains, and promised in case of necessity to furnish a military force to effect the object. Gov. Fauquier replied that he had already issued three proclamations to the settlers without effect, but that the commander-in-chief had taken a more effectual method to remove them, by ordering an officer and a detachment of soldiers to summon the settlers in all parts west of the Allegheny mountains to quit their illegal settlements, and in case of a refusal to threaten forcible expulsion and seizure of their movable property.

All these proclamations, with the show of military force, had the effect to terrify a few of the settlers into removal; but by far the greater part remained and were not disturbed by the troops, which after a short stay at Redstone creek returned to Fort Pitt. In the summer of 1767, however, soldiers were again sent out to expel non-complying settlers, many of whom were then actually driven away; but they made all haste to return as soon as the force was withdrawn, and not a few of those who had thus been expelled came back accompanied by new settlers from east of the mountains.

Finally all efforts to expel those who had already located in the forbidden territory failed. The extension of Mason and Dixon’s line to the second crossing of Dunkard’s creek, in 1767, showed that nearly all the settlements made were unquestionably in the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, and in January, 1768, Gov. Penn called the attention of the assembly to this then recently discovered fact, narrated the ineffectual efforts made to that time to remove the settlers, mentioned the anger of the savages, which might not improbably result in a bloody war, and advised the enactment of a law severe enough to effect the desired result, and thus avert the horrors of a savage outbreak.

Accordingly on February 3, 1768, an act entitled "An act to remove the persons now settled, etc., and to prevent others from settling on any lands in this province not purchased of the Indians, 1768," was passed, of which the following is a transcript:


Whereas, many disorderly People, in Violation of His Majesty’s Proclamation, have presumed to settle upon Lands not yet purchased from the Indians, to their Damage and great dissatisfaction, which may be attended with dangerous and fatal Consequences to the Peace and Safety of this Province. Be it therefore enacted by the Honourable John Penn, Esquire, Lieutenant Governor, under the Honourable Thomas Penn & Richard Penn, true and absolute Proprietaries of the Province of Pennsylvania and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware, by and with the advice and Consent of the Representatives of the Freemen of the said Province in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same.

That if any person or persons settled upon any Lands within the Boundaries of this Province not purchased of the Indians by the Proprietaries thereof, shall neglect or Refuse to remove themselves & Families off and from the same Lands within the Space of Thirty days, after he or they shall be required so to do, either by such persons as the Governor of this Province shall appoint for that purpose, or by his Proclamations to be set up in the most Public


places of the Settlements on such unpurchased Lands, or if any person or persons being so removed shall afterwards return to his or their Settlement, or the Settlement of any other person with his or their Family, or without any Family, to remain and Settle on such Lands, or if any person shall after the said Notice, to be given as aforesaid, reside and settle on such Lands, every such person and persons so neglecting or refusing to remove with his or their Family, or returning to settle as aforesaid, or that shall settle on any such Lands after the Requisition or Notice aforesaid, being thereof legally convicted by their own Confession, or the Verdict of a Jury, shall suffer Death without the Benefit of Clergy.

Provided always, nevertheless, That nothing herein contained shall be deemed or construed to extend to any person or persons who now are or hereafter may be settled on the main Roads or Communications leading through this Province to Fort Pitt, under the approbation and permission of the Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty’s Forces in North America, or of the Chief Officer commanding in the Western District to the Ohio for the Time being for the more convenient accommodation of the Soldiery and others, or to such person or persons as are or shall be settled in the Neighborhood of Fort Pitt, under the approbation and permission aforesaid, or to a Settlement made by George Croghan, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs under Sir William Johnson on the Ohio, above the said Fort, any thing herein contained to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.

In the endeavor to enforce this act the Governor, soon after its passage, appointed the Rev. Capt. John Steel, of the Presbyterian Church at Carlisle, John Allison, Christopher Lemes, and Capt. James Potter, of Cumberland county, to visit the region west of the Alleghenies, to promulgate and explain the law, and induce the settlers to comply with its requirements. The commissioners, with the Rev. Capt. Steel at their head, left Carlisle on the 2d of March, and proceeded to Fort Cumberland, from which place they traveled over the route pursued by Braddock’s army. What they did at the various settlements was related in their report to the Governor, as follows:

FORT CUMBERLAND, April 2d, 1768.

May it Please Your Honour:

Having in our Return reached Fort Cumberland, and being here to part, We concluded it necessary to prepare an Extract from our Journal of what appeared to us most important which We Ordered to be transmitted to Your Honour by Mr. Steel.

We arrived at the Settlement on Red Stone on the twenty-third Day of March. The People having heard of our coming, had appointed a Meeting among themselves on the twenty-fourth, to consult what Measures they should take. We took the advantage of this Meeting, Read the Act of Assembly, end Proclamation, explaining the Law, and giving the Reasons of it as well as we could, and used our Endeavors to pursuade them to comply, alledging to them that it was the most probable Method to entitle them to favour with the Honourable Proprietaries when the Land was purchased. After Lamenting their distressed Condition, they told us the People were not fully collected, but as they expected all would attend on Sabbath following, and then they would give us an Answer. They, however, affirmed that the Indians were very peaceable, and seemed sorry that they were to be removed, And said they apprehended the English intended to make War upon the Indians, as they were moving off their People from their Neighborhood.

We laboured to pursuade them that they were imposed on by a few straggling Indians, that Sir William Johnson, who had informed our Government, must be better acquainted with the mind of the Six Nations, and that they were displeased with the White People settling on their unpurchased Lands. On Sabbath, the twenty-seventh day of March, a considerable Number attended (their Names are Subjoined), and most of them told us they were resolved to move off, and would Petition Your Honour for a Preference in obtaining their Improvements where a Purchase was made. While We were conversing we were informed that a number of Indians were come to Indian Peters; We judging it might be subservient to our main design, that the Indians should be present, while We were advising the People to obey the Law, sent for them; They came; and after Sermon delivered a Speech, with a String of Wampum to be transmitted to Your Honour. Their Speech was, "Ye are come, sent by your Great Men, to tell these People to go away from the Land, which Ye say is ours, And We are sent by our Great Men, and are glad We have met here this day. We tell you the White People must Stop, and We stop them till the Treaty, and when George Croghan, and our great Men will talk together, we will tell them what to do." The names of the Indians are subjoined. The Indians were from the Mingo-Town, about Eighty Miles from Red Stone. After this the People were more confirmed that there was no danger of War. They drop’t the design of Petitioning, and said they would wait the issue of the Treaty; Some, however, declared they would move off. We had sent a Messenger to Cheat River, and to Stewart’s Crossings, of Yougheogenny, with Several Proclamations, requesting them to meet us at Guesse’s place (meaning Gist’s place, now Mt. Braddock), as most Central for both Settlements. On the thirtieth of March about thirty or forty Men met us there; We proceeded as at Red Stone, reading the Act of Assembly, and a Proclamation, and endeavored to convince them of the Necessity and Reasonableness of quitting the unpurchased Land, but to no purpose; They had heard what the Indians had said at Red Stone, and reasoned in the same manner, declaring they had no Apprehensions of a


War; that they would attend the Treaty, and take their Measures accordingly. Many severe things were said of Mr. Croghan, and one Lawrence Harrison treated the Law, and our Government, with too much disrespect. On the thirty-first of March We came to the great Crossings of Yougheogenny, and being informed by one Speer, that eight or ten Families lived in a Place called Turkey-Foot, We sent some Proclamations thither by said Speer, as We did to a few Families nigh the Crossings of little Yough, Judging it unnecessary to go amongst them. It is our Opinion that some will move off in Obedience to the Law, that the greatest Part will, wait the Treaty, and if they find that the Indians are indeed dissatisfied, We think the whole will be persuaded to Remove. The Indians coming to Red Stone, and delivering their Speech, greatly obstructed our design.

We are Your Honour’s most obedient, most humble Servants





To the Honourable JOHN PENN, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, and Commander-in-Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania, &c., in Philadelphia.

The Indians’ Names who came to Red Stone, vizt.: Captain Haven, Captain Strikebelt, Captain Hornets, Captain Pouch, Captain Mygog Wigo, Captain Gilly, Captain Nogowach, Captain Slewbells.

The Names of the Inhabitants near Red Stone: John Wiseman, Henry Prisser, William Linn, William Colvin, John Vervalson, Abraham Tygard, Thomas Brown, Richard Rodgers, John Delong, Peter Young, George Martin, Thomas Down, Andrew Gudgeon, Philip Sute, James Crawford, John Peters, Henry Swats, Joseph McClean, Jesse Martin, Adam Hatton, John Verval,* Jr., James Waller, Thomas Douter, Captain Coburn, Michael Hooter, Andrew Linn, Gabriel Conn, John Martin, Hans Cack, Daniel McCay, Josias Crawford, one Provence.

Names of some who met us at Guesses (Gist’s) place: one Blonnfield, James Lyne, Ezekiel Johnson, Thomas Guesse (Gist), Charles Lindsey, James Wallace, Richard Harrison, Philip Sute, Jed Johnson, Henry Burkon, Lawrence Harrison, Ralph Hickenbottom.

Names of the People at Turkey-Foot: Henry Abrahams, Ezekiel Dewitt, James Spencer, Benjamin Jennings, John Cooper, Ezekiel Hickman, John Enslow, Henry Enslow, Benjamin Pursley.

In a letter to the governor, dated Carlisle, April 11, 1768, Rev. Mr. Steel further said:

SIR: there is one thing which, in preparing the extract of our Journal, happened to be overlooked, vizt.: The People at Red Stone alledged that the removing of them from the unpurchased Lands, was a Contrivance of the Gentlemen and Merchants of Philadelphia, that they might take Rights

*Probably intended for Vervalson.


for their improvements when a Purchase was made. In confirmation of this, they said that a Gentleman of the Name of Harris and another called Wallace, with one Friggs, a Pilot, spent a considerable time last August, in viewing the Lands and Creeks thereabouts. We promised to acquaint your Honour with this. I am of Opinion, from the appearance the People made, and the best intelligence We could obtain, that there are but about one hundred and fifty families in the different Settlements of Red Stone, Yougheogeny and Cheat River.

This estimate was intended to include the people at Turkey-Foot, as well as all others west of the mountains other than those of Ligonier and Fort Pitt.

However, the mission of the Rev. Capt. Steel and his associates ended in failure. The few people who had promised to remove disregarded that promise and remained, for all the trespassing settlers were strong in confidence that results favorable to their continued occupation would come from the treaty council, which was appointed to be held at Fort Pitt about a month later. At that council there were present nearly two thousand Indians, including, besides chiefs and head men of the dominant Six Nations, representatives of the Delaware, Shawnees, Muncie and Mohican tribes. On the part of the white men, George Croghan, deputy agent for Indian affairs; John Allen and Joseph Shippen, Jr., Esqs., commissioners for the province of Pennsylvania; Alexander McKee, commissary of Indian affairs; Col. John Reed, commandant of Fort Pitt, and several other military officers were present. Henry Montour (the same who signed Pendergrass’ deed, mentioned in the first part of this chapter) acted as chief interpreter, and among the anxious and interested spectators were many of the Youghiogheny and Monongahela settlers.

The council proceeded in the usual manner with high-sounding speeches, hollow assurances of friendship, the presentation of sundry belts and strings of wampum, and the distribution among the Indians of presents to the amount of £1,500; but as the deliberations progressed, it became more and more apparent that there existed among the savages no deep-seated feeling of displeasure against the bold settlers; that nearly all the indignation at the encroachments of the whites was felt and expressed by the men acting for the authorities of the province; that these were extremely angry


with the Indians, because in a few instances they had sold small tracts to white men, and now showed a decided disinclination to demand the immediate removal of the settlers. Tohonissahgarawa was almost the only chief or Indian of the Six Nations to complain. From his speech we extract the following:

BROTHER: It is not without great Grief that we see our Country settled by you without our Knowledge or Consent; and it is a long time since we first complained to you of this Grievance, which we find has not as yet been redressed, but Settlements are still extending further into our Country. Some of them are made directly on our War Path, leading to our Enemies’ Country, and we do not like it.

BROTHER: You have Laws amongst you to govern your People by, and it will be the Strongest Proof of the Sincerity of your Friendship to let us see that you remove the People from our Lands; as we look upon it, it will be Time enough for you to settle them when you have purchased them and the Country becomes yours.

The commissioners then addressed the Indians, telling them that when Steel and his associates had visited the settlers the latter had promised to remove. "But, brethren," continued they, "we are sorry to tell you that as soon as the men sent by the governor had prevailed on the settlers to consent to a compliance with the law, there came among them eight Indians who live at the Mingo Town down this river, and desired the people not to leave their settlements, but to sit quiet on them till the present treaty at this place should be concluded. The people, on receiving this advice and encouragement, suddenly changed their minds, and determined not to quit their places till they should hear further from the Indians.

"Now, brethren, we cannot help expressing to you our great concern at this behavior of those Indians, as it has absolutely frustrated the steps the governor was taking to do you justice, by the immediate removal of those people from your lands. And we must tell you, brethren, that the conduct of those Indians appears to us very astonishing, and we are much at a loss to account for the reason of it at this time, when the Six Nations are complaining of encroachments being made on their lands.* * * But, brethren, all that we have now to desire of you is that you will immediately send off some of your prudent and wise men with a message to the people settled at Redstone, Youghoghainy and Monongahela, to contradict the advice of the eight Indians from the Mingo Town, and to acquaint them that you very much disapprove of their continuing any longer on their settlements, and that you expect they will quit them without delay.

"If you agree to this, we will send an honest and discreet white man to accompany your messengers; and, brethren, if after receiving such notice from you they shall refuse to remove by the time limited them, you may depend upon it the government will not fail to put time law into immediate execution against them."

At last a reluctant consent to the proposition of the commissioners was gained from the Six Nations’ chiefs. They accordingly appointed the White Mingo and the three deputies sent from the Six Nations’ country, to carry a message to the settlers to that effect, and the commissioners agreed to send Mr. John Fraser* and Capt. William Thompson* with them, with written instructions in behalf of the government of Pennsylvania.

Fraser and Thompson were supplied with a letter of instructions, the Indian messengers with some black wampum, and all preparations were completed for the journey which was to commence on horseback on the following morning, May 10; but with the dawn of that day the red men failed to appear. Having been sent for several times, the Indian messengers at last made their appearance at the fort, but said that after due consideration of the business on which it was proposed to send them, they had decided that they could by no means undertake it, and immediately returned to the commissioners the wampum which had been given them. Upon being interrogated as to their reasons for now declining to perform what they had once consented to do, they answered that three of them were sent by the Six Nations’ council to attend the treaty at the fort, and having received no directions from the council to proceed farther, they chose to return home in order to make report of what they had seen and heard. They further added that the driving of white people away from their settlements was a matter which no Indians could, with any satisfaction, be concerned in, and they thought it most proper for the English themselves to compel their own people to remove from the Indian lands.

*Although Fraser and Thompson were then present at Fort Pitt, their homes were at Bedford. Thompson, it will be remembered, was the one who assisted the Black Boys to capture Fort Bedford in 1769.


After this refusal of the Indians who had been appointed to carry the message from the Six Nations, the commissioners in vain attempted to persuade or procure others to execute the business, though they used great endeavors for that purpose, and they thought it both useless and imprudent to continue to press on the Indians a matter which they found they were generally averse to, and therefore they concluded to set out on their return to Philadelphia without delay. But in a short time afterward Kayashuta* came with Arroas (a principal warrior of the Six Nations) to the commissioners, to whom the former addressed himself in effect as follows:

BRETHREN: I am very sorry to find that you have been disappointed in your expectations of the Indian messengers going to Redstone according to your desire and our agreement; and I am much afraid that you are now going away from us with a discontented mind on this account. Believe me, brethren, this thought fills my heart with the deepest grief, and I could not suffer you to leave us without speaking to you on this subject and endeavoring to make your minds easy. We were all of us much disposed to comply with your request, and expected it could have been done without difficulty, but now I find not only the Indians appointed by us but all our other young men are very unwilling to carry a message from us to the white people ordering them to remove from our lands. They say they would not choose to incur the ill will of those people, for if they should be now removed they will hereafter return to their settlements when the English have purchased the country from us. And we shall be very unhappy if, by our conduct toward them at this time, we shall give them reason to dislike us and treat us in an unkind manner when they again become our neighbors. We therefore hope, brethren, you will not be displeased at us for not performing our Agreement with you, for you may be assured that we have good hearts toward all our brethren the English.

The commissioners returned Kayashuta many thanks for his friendly behavior on this occasion, and assured him that they greatly approved of the conduct of the Indians during the treaty, and were now returning home with very easy and contented minds. They further acquainted him that their reason for urging the chiefs to send a message to the settlers proceeded entirely from the great anxiety they had for contributing everything in their power that might expedite

*Kayashuta, or Guyasutba, was a chief who met Washington on his first appearance in western Pennsylvania in 1753. He was the friend of the English as against the French, but In the revolutionary war took sides against the Americans, and was the leader of the savage party which burned Hannastown, Westmoreland county, In 1732.


the measures taken by the government to do them justice, and to redress every injury they complained of; yet as they found the compliance with their request was disagreeable to the Indians, they could not press the matter on them any farther, though it appeared to be a step very necessary to be taken at this time. They then took leave of the Indians in the most friendly manner, and started on their return to Philadelphia.

Hence, the unexpected termination of the council held at Fort Pitt in May, 1768, ended all efforts on the part of the proprietary government of Pennsylvania to expel the pioneer settlers from the valleys of the Youghiogheny, the Monongahela and the Redstone, and the adventurous trespassers at Turkey-Foot, with others west of the mountains, remained masters of the situation. Indeed, the lands occupied by them were soon after purchased from the Indians by the Penns, and no good reasons could be assigned, thereafter, for driving them away.

Respecting this purchase it appears that the aboriginal title to the lands composing that part of Somerset county lying west of the Allegheny mountains was acquired by the proprietaries of the province by the terms of a treaty held with the Indians at Fort Stanwix (near Rome, New York) in the fall of 1768. In October of that year, by invitation of Sir William Johnson, superintendent of Indian affairs, there were assembled at the fort a great number of chiefs of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes (composing the Six Nations), with other chiefs of the Delaware and Shawnee tribes, and on the 24th of the same month these were convened in council with representatives of the royal authority and of the governments of Pennsylvania, Virginia and New Jersey. The principal white persons present were "The Honorable Sir William Johnson, baronet, his Majesty’s superintendent of Indian affairs; his Excellency William Franklin, Esq., governor of New Jersey; Thomas Walker, Esq., commissioner for the colony of Virginia; Hon. Frederick Smith, chief justice of New Jersey; Richard Peters and James Tilghman, Esqs., of the council of Pennsylvania; George Croghan and Daniel Claus, Esqs., deputy agents of Indian affairs; Guy Johnson, Esq., deputy agent and acting as secretary, with several gentlemen from the dif-


ferent colonies; John Butler, Esq., Mr. Andrew Montour and Philip Phillips, interpreters for the Crown."

Sir William Johnson opened the council by stating that Lieut.-Gov. Penn, of Pennsylvania, had been there and waited a considerable time, but was forced by press of business to return to Philadelphia, leaving Messrs. Peters and Tilghman as his commissioners. He also explained to the chiefs the business on which he had called them together, and then, after some further preliminary talk, the council adjourned for the day. Afterward its sessions were continued from time to time, until the 5th of November, when a treaty, known in history as the "treaty of Fort Stanwix," was concluded, by which the chiefs of the Six Nations ceded to Thomas and Richard Penn, for the sum of £10,000, an immense body of land in Pennsylvania, which may, in a general way, be described as comprehending all of the present territory of the counties of Fayette, Greene, Washington, Westmoreland, Cambria, Montour, Sullivan, Wyoming, Wayne and Susquehanna, nearly all of Somerset, Indiana, Union, Lycoming, Columbia, Northumberland, Luzerne, Lackawanna and Bradford, and parts of Beaver, Allegheny, Armstrong, Clearfield, Centre, Clinton, Snyder and Pike.

The Penns having now acquired the Indian title to this great tract, measures were immediately taken to prepare the newly purchased lands for sale to settlers. On February 23, 1769, they published an advertisement for the general information of the public, to the effect that their land office in Philadelphia would be open on 3d April next following, at ten o’clock A.M., to receive applications from all persons inclined to take up lands in the new purchase, upon the terms of five pounds sterling per one hundred acres, and one penny per acre per annum quit-rent.

It being known that great numbers of people would attend at the land office on the day of opening, ready to give in their locations at the same moment, it was the opinion of the Governor and proprietary agents that the most unexceptionable method of receiving the locations would be to put them all together (after being received from the people) into a box or trunk, and after mixing them well together, to draw them out and number them in the order they should be drawn, thus determining the preference of those respecting vacant lands. Those who had settled plantations, especially those who had located by permission of the commanding officers, to the westward, were declared to have a preference. But those persons who had settled or made what they called improvements since the purchase should not thereby acquire any advantage.

Regarding the titles to land in Pennsylvania, we remark here that the charter dated March 4, 1681, granting the province to William Penn, is the foundation of all land titles in the state. Subsequently, and at various times, as we have shown, the aboriginal titles were extinguished by purchase from the chiefs of the Six Nations. Thereafter the vacant lands continued to be owned by the heirs of William Penn until during the revolutionary war, when an act usually called the "Divesting Act" was passed (November 27, 1779), and the wild or unoccupied lands of the defunct province thereby became the property of the commonwealth. To that point all seems regular enough, and the narrative is one easily apprehended; but there all regularity ceased, for instead of the lands being first surveyed and afterward sold, the very reverse was the fact. Hence, with the early settlers of Bedford and Somerset counties the first step necessary to be done was to establish a tomahawk, location or improvement claim to the tract chosen by them, afterward followed the warrant or patent, and lastly the survey. Indeed, in many instances the patent was not issued, nor the survey made, until a score or more of years after the land had been occupied.

The manner in winch the settler recorded his "tomahawk" claim was to deaden a few trees near a spring, and to cut the initials of his name in the bark of others, as indicative of his intention to hold and occupy the lands adjacent to or surrounded by the blazed and deadened trees. These "claims" constituted no title, and were of no legal value, except so far as they were evidences of actual occupation. They were not sanctioned by any law, but were generally—-though not always--recognized and respected by the settlers; and thus, in the applications which were afterward made at the land office for the various tracts, there were very few collisions between rival claimants for the same lands.

While upon the subject of land and land titles, we add, further, that under the heirs of William Penn, and under the commonwealth, the prices



of land (per hundred acres) in that part of Pennsylvania which comprehends the counties of Bedford and Somerset have been as here shown: From December 27, 1762, to August 5, 1763, £9; from August 5, 1763, to July 6, 1765, £15 l0s; locations and warrants from July 6, 1765, to July 1, 1784,* £5; from July 1, 1784, to April 3, 1792, £10; from April 3, 1792, to March 28, 1814, £2 l0s; from March 28, 1814, to the present time, lands within the purchase of 1768, and the previous purchases, have been sold by the state at the rate of £10 per hundred acres. A pound Pennsylvania currency was only about one-half the value of a pound sterling.

Having already shown who a few of the original settlers of the present counties of Bedford and Somerset were, the circumstances and anomalous conditions under which their settlements were made, we now turn to the assessment rolls of Bedford county townships for the year 1772, the earliest authentic evidence in existence regarding so many of the real pioneers of the two counties, and learn that their names, their landed possessions, acres improved, negro slaves, live stock, mills, etc., at that time, were as follows; yet first explaining that Bedford, Colerain and Cumberland Valley townships then included the whole of Bedford county as now formed and more, for Frankstown, now in Blair county, was organized from part of Bedford township in 1775, while Brother’s Valley embraced all that part of Somerset county lying west of the Alleghenies and northward to the Conemaugh river. That part of the latter county now found east of the Allegheny mountains then, most probably, belonged to Cumberland Valley township, which, when organized as a township in Cumberland county, was known simply as Cumberland township.

Bedford township taxables, etc., 1772.— James Anderson, acres owned 50; acres imp. 5; horses 2; cows 2; Elisha Adams, acres owned 50; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 1; Robert Adams, acres owned 50; acres imp. 2; horses 2; cows 2; Anthony Adams, owned 1 town lot; 1 cow; John Bowser, acres owned 100;

*1n 1751 the yearly quit-rents were ordered discontinued, but interest was demanded from date of first improvement. Further, in regard to the matter of quit-rents, etc., we find that in January, 1775, Gov. John Penn in answering a series of questions propounded by the Earl of Dartmouth, respecting the extent, resources, etc., of the province, replied to the query, "Under what titles do the inhabitants hold their possessions?" as follows: "The lands are held by the inhabitants under patents from the proprietaries, and yearly quit-rents of various denominations, the highest, one penny per acre, a great part only a halfpenny, and many of the old patents under a small acknowledgement in corn or wheat, etc.

acres imp. 8; horses 2; cows 1; Israel Burket, acres owned 100;

acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 2; William Clark, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 3; Caning & Casebeer, owners of one town lot and smith-shop; Lewis Castleman, acres owned 488; acres imp. 50; horses 2; cows 1; Michael Dibert, acres owned 140; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 2; James Dunlap, acres owned 100; acres imp. 25; horses 2; cows 2; James Dalton rented 100 acres; horses 3; cows 1; Samuel Drenning, acres owned 150; acres imp. 10; horses 1; cows 1; Samuel Davidson, acres owned 25; acres imp. 25; horses 2; cows 1; Barnard Dougherty, acres owned 600; acres imp. 20; John Ewalt, acres owned 100; acres imp. 30; horses 2; cows 3; John Emlor (probably intended for Imler), acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; horses 1; cows 1; Thomas Eaton rented 100 acres; horses 2; John Ellinger, acres owned 10; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 1; John Fraser, Esq., town lots owned 4; horses 2; cows 3; Michael Feather, acres owned 100; acres imp. 20; horses 2; cows 3; George Funk, town lots owned 1; cows 1; John Gregg, acres owned 100; acres imp. 12; cows 3; Robert Galbraith, Esq., renter of one house and lot; John Hite, town lots owned 7; cows 2; James Henry, renter of 300 acres; 20 imp.; owned horses 2; cows 2; Michael Huff, acres owned 112; acres imp. 8; horses 1; cows 1; Frederick Helm, acres owned 600; acres imp. 30; horses 2; cows 1; Patrick Harford, acres owned 200; acres imp. 30; Thomas Hays, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; horses 1; cows 4; Thomas Kenton, acres owned 600; acres imp. 40; horses 2; cows; George Keller, town lots owned 2; horses 3; cows 2; George Litenberger, renter of one town house and lot; horses 1; cows 1; John Miller, acres owned 200; acres imp. 20; horses 2; cows 2; Samuel McCashlin, renter of 1 town lot; horses 1; cows 1; James McCashlin, renter of 1 town lot; horses 1; cows 1; indentured servants 1; Cornelius McCauley, renter of 1 town lot; Matthew McAllister, town lots owned 1; cows 1; William McCall, town lots rented 1; Samuel McKenzie, acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; horses 1; cows 1; John Montgomery, acres owned 300 acres imp. 10; Frederick Nawgel, town lots owned 1; indentured servants 2; horses 1; cows; George Nixon, acres owned 500; acres imp. 20; horses 1; cows 1; William Nemyer,


acres owned 200; acres imp. 20; horses 2 cows 3; William Proctor, Esq., acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 2; David Rhinehart, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows; Allen Rose, acres owned 120; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 1; Charles Ruby, town lots owned 1; cows 1; Frederick Rehart, acres owned 50; acres imp. 3; town lots 1; horses 1; cows 3; Conrad Samuel, acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 1; George Sill, acres owned 100; acres imp. 8; horses 1; cows 2; Michael Sill, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows; Valentine Shadacre, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; Peter Stiffler, acres owned 50; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 1; Andrew Steel, owner of 1 sawmill; 1 cow; Adam Saam, owner of 1 town lot; 1 out-lot; 1 horse; 1 cow; Samuel Skinner rented 1 town lot; Jacob Saylor rented 1 house and lot; George Millegan, acres owned 200; acres imp. 10; town lots 2; horses 1; cows 3; George Sweigart, 1 out-lot of 15 acres; 1 horse; cows 2; Joseph Shenewolfe, acres owned 200; acres imp. 15; William Trent, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; George Woods, Esq., acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; acres out-lots imp. 30; town lots 6; servants 3; horses 4; cows 5; George Wisegarver, acres owned 100; acres imp. 20; horses 2; cows 1; Reynard Wolfe, acres owned 50; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2.

Freemen, each of whom were assessed to pay a provincial tax of fifteen shillings and a county tax of six shillings: James Beatty, John Casebeer, Adam Croyle, John Croyle, John Colvin, David Espy, Esq., Robert Galbraith, Esq., John Carlin, John Caning, John Keller, Cornelius McCauley, John McKenzie, Andrew Nagle, Jacob Saylor, John Stey, David Sample, Esq., Nicholas Shoveler, Hugh Simpson, George Wolfe, Jacob Feather, John Dibert, Thomas Kenton, George Kauffman and William Elliott.

Inmates assessed to pay a provincial tax of one shilling and a county tax of threepence each: David Bell, Alexander Cook, Henry Creighton, Elias Davison, Frederick Ega, Joseph Ecord, Jacob Rhine, Adam Samuel, Peter Smith, John Steward, Henry Stagner, William Watson, James Henry, William Riddle, Robert Love, Peter Flynn and George Henry.

Colerain Township Taxables, etc., 1772.-— Henry Ammerman, acres owned 100; acres imp. 20; horses 1; cows 5; Robert Bradshaw, acres owned 100; acres imp. 12; horses 2; cows 2; Joseph Bennett, acres owned 50; acres imp. 5; horses 1; cows 1; Henry Brown, acres owned 100; acres imp. 6; William Buchanan, acres owned 400; acres imp. 11; Lawrence Coons, acres owned 50 ; acres imp. 8; horses 1; cows 2; John Cheek, acres owned 20; acres imp. 3; cows 2; Daniel Collins, acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; John Croyle, acres owned 150; acres imp. 9; horses 1; cows 1; Robert Culbertson, acres owned 100; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 4; Thomas Croyle, acres owned 200; acres imp. 20; cows 1; John Cessna, acres owned 200; acres imp. 30; horses 2; cows 2; negro slaves 1; John Cunningham, acres owned 200; acres imp. 10; Barnard Dougherty, Esq., acres owned 450; acres imp. 55; horses 2; cows 6; servants 1; Caspar Defebaugh, acres owned 150; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 1; William Duffield, acres owned 100; acres imp. 2; John Freehart, acres owned 50; acres imp. 10; horses 1; cows 1; John Friend, Jr., acres owned 180; acres imp. 18; horses 2; cows 1: Joseph Friend, acres owned 180; acres imp. 15; horses 2; cows 2; Hugh Ferguson, acres owned 60; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; William Fredrigal, acres owned 150; acres imp. 15; horses 1; John Fry, acres owned 100; acres imp. 5; Henry Hinish, acres owned 80; acres imp. 10; cows 1; John England, acres owned 50; acres imp. 2; horses 1; Thomas Johnston, acres owned 50; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 3; John Johnston, acres owned 90; acres imp. 12; horses 2; cows 1; William Levan, renter, acres 150; acres imp. 15; horses 1; cows 2; John Little, acres owned 100; Henderson Murphy, renter, acres 50; imp. 20; horses 1; cows 4; Robert Moore, acres owned 1,530; acres imp. 40; horses 2; cows 2; gristmill 1; Abraham Miley, acres owned 106; acres imp. 30; horses 4; cows 3; gristmill 1; sawmill 1; Christopher Miller, acres owned 150; acres imp. 18 horses 2; cows 2; William McCombs, acres owned 200; acres imp. 10; horses 2; cows 3; John Moore, acres owned 100; acres imp. 20; horses 2; cows 2; John Mortimore, acres 200; imp. 20; horses 2; cows 3; James Martin, acres 50; imp. 5; Joseph Morrison, acres 100; imp. 25; horses 2; cows 2; Samuel Moore, acres 170; imp. 20; horses 2; cows 2; Oliver Miller, acres 200; imp. 27; horses 2; cows 4; Robert McFerron, acres 100; imp. 2; James


Newell, acres 100; imp. 12; horses 2; cows 2; John Ormsby, acres 300; James Patterson, acres 100; imp. 15; James Piper: acres 60 imp. 6; horses 1; cows 1; John Piper, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; William Parker, acres 100; imp. 20; horses 2; cows 3; John Perron, acres 176; imp. 16; horses 2; cows 2; William Rose, acres 100; imp. 20; negro slaves 1; horses 2; cows 3; Edward Rose, horses 1; cows 1; Gideon Ritchey, acres 246; imp. 20; horses 2; cows 3; George Romack (Romig?), acres 50; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 1; George Sparks, acres 100; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 1; Ezekiel Spurgeon, acres 50; imp. 4; horses 1; cows 1; James Spurgeon, Jr., acres 50; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 1; John Spurgeon, acres 50; imp. 10; horses 1; cows 1; Samuel Spurgeon, acres 50; imp. 10; horses, 1; cows 1; William Spurgeon, acres 100; imp. 15; horses 2; cows 2; Jacob Starcher, acres 142; imp. 6; William Smith, acres 50; imp. 7; Thomas Urie, acres 184; imp. 20; horses 3; cows 2; Thomas Woods, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; servant 1; Archer Wooley, acres 200; imp. 21; horses 2; cows 2; George Woods, Esq., acres 130; imp. 2; Joseph Worley, acres 50; imp. 3; Anthony Worley, acres 50; imp. 5; Adam Young, acres 180 imp. 18; horses 2; cows 1; Joseph Johnston, Benjamin Jolley, Daniel M. Donnelly, John Morton, Jr., John Hulse, James Spurgeon and Henry Armstrong.

Cumberland Valley Taxables, etc., 1772.— Edward Askins, acres owned 100; acres imp. 10; Jonathan Bishop, acres 100; imp. 3; horses 2; cows 2; Charles Cessna, acres 290; imp. 20; servant 1; horses 2; cows 2; Thomas Coulter, acres 400; imp. 25; negro slaves 1; horses 2; rows 4; James Culbertson, acres 250; imp. 12; John Cessna, acres 250; imp. 12; Robert Culbertson, acres 200; imp. 12; Shadrack Casteel, acres 108; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 2; Robert Campbell, acres 150; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 3; Evan Cessna, acres 200; imp. 12; Jonathan Cunningham, acres 150; imp. 30; horses 1; cows 1; Thomas Davis, acres 100; imp. 40; horses 2; cows 2; Barnard Dougherty,* acres 200; imp. 10; Daniel Durken, acres 200; imp. 10; Nathan Evans, acres 400; imp. 30; Samuel Finley, acres 200; imp. 8; Jacob Fox, acres 150; imp. 25; John Farmer, acres 100; imp. 10;

*Dougherty, it will be observed, owned land in this and the two townships before mentioned.

horses 2; cows 2; Andrew Huston, acres 250 imp. 30; horses 2; cows 2; Thomas Jones, acres 200; imp. 19; horses 2; Joseph Kelly, acres 600; imp. 40; horses 2; cows 3; John Lindsey, acres 100; imp. 10; cows 1; John Montgomery, acres 300; imp. 20; James McClannegan, acres 50; imp. 4; John Ormsby, acres 100; imp. 2; Samuel Perry, acres 400; imp. 7; John Pollock, acres 100; imp. 2; Andrew Rice, Alexander Huston, Thomas Jones, Matthew Kelly, Jacob Wilhelm, Lawrence Lamb, William Davis, Thomas Bishop and Joshua Davis.

Brother’s Valley taxables, etc., 1772.—-Those whose names appear in italics were among the settlers at Turkey-Foot who made so much trouble for the king and Gov. Penn in 1768. Henry Abrahams, acres 100; imp. 12; horses 2; cows 3; Frederick Ambrose, acres 200; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 2; Samuel Adams, acres 200; imp. 5; horses 2; Solomon Adams, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; Richard Brown, acres 300; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 4; negro slave 1; John Bridges, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 2; cows 1; John Baxter, acres 200; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 1; Ludwick Boude, acres 100 imp. 2; horses 1; cows 1; Christopher Benuch, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; Benjamin Riggs, acres 300; imp. 2; horses 2; cows 1; William Cracart, acres 200; imp. 4; James Claypole, acres 200; horses 1; Frederick Cefar, acres 100; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; James Campbell, acres 200; imp. 12; horses 1; cows 1; Abraham Cable or Keble,* Esq., acres 200; imp. 10 ; horses 2; cows 4; John Catta, acres 200; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 1; Michael Cefar, acres 100; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 1; Joseph Death, acres 600; imp. 5; horses 1; cows 10; Oliver Drake, acres 100; imp. 2; horses 1; cows 2; James Dougherty, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 5; cows 2; William Dwyer, acres 150; imp. 10; horses 1; cows 4; John Dilliner, acres 100; imp. 2; cows 1; Henry Enslow, acres 100; imp. 8; horses 3; cows 4; John Enslow, acres 100; imp. 6; horses 1; cows 2; Robert Estep, acres

*He was the first justice of the peace commissioned in the territory now known as Somerset county. See Colonial Records, Vol. X, p.8, for following "The Secretary laid before the Board a Petition from a number of Germans, settled at the Glades, upon Stony Creek and Youghiagany, in the County of Bedford, representing the great inconvenience they are under for want of a Magistrate, there being none nearer to them than thirty miles, and praying the appointment of one residing in or near that Settlement.

"The Board, on considering the said Petition, advised the Governor to commissionate for that purpose, Mr. Abraham Keble, who is recommended as a man of Property and Reputation, and the best qualified of any person in that quarter to execute the duty of a Magistrate." A special commission was accordingly issued to Keble, November 23, 1771.


100; imp. 3; horses 1; Adam Flick, acres 100; imp. 1; horses 1; cows 1; Jacob Fisher, acres 200; imp. 12; horses 2; cows 3; John Ferguson, acres 300; imp. 4; horses; cows 1; Andrew Friend, acres 50; imp. 10; horses 3 cows 2; Augustine Friend, acres 100; imp. 2; horses 2; cows 3; Paul Froman, acres 700; imp. 18; horses 2; cows 5; negro slaves 2; Michael Flick, acres 200; imp. 4; horses 1; Charles Friend, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; John Friggs,* acres 200; imp. 1; horses 2; cows 1; John Fry, acres 100; imp. 1; cows 1; John Glassner, acres 200; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 3; Joseph Greenwalt, acres 100; imp. 7; horses 2; cows 2; William Greathouse, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 3; Thomas Green, acres 100; imp. 6; horses 2; cows 8; Walter Hite, acres 200; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 2; Michael Huff, acres 300; imp. 6; horses 3; cows 3; servants 1; Richard Hoagland, acres 350; imp. 71; horses 2; cows 3; Andrew Hendrix, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 4; cows 6; Benjamin Jennings, acres 200; imp. 36; horses 4; cows 6; William Johnston, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; Solomon Kessinger, acres 100; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 1; Philip Kemble, acres 300; imp. 8; horses 2; cows 4; George Kimball, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 2; cows 2; Valentine Lout, acres 100; imp. 2; horses 1; cows 1; Daniel Lout, acres 100; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; John Markley, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 4; cows 5; James McMullen, acres 45; imp. 9; horses 1; cows 1; William McClee, acres 300; imp. 7; horses 2; cows 1; John Miller, acres 300; imp. 10; horses 1; cows 2; Joseph Ogle, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; Adam Polen, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 1; cows 1; Francis Polen, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 2; cows 1; Benjamin Pursley, acres 100; imp. 12; horses 3; cows 2; John Pursley, acres 60; imp. 7; horses 1; cows 1; Danes Pursley, acres 100; imp. 3; horses 2; cows 3; John Peters, acres 300; imp. 12; horses 2; cows 3; Henry Rhodes, Sr., acres 200; imp. 21; horses 3; cows 4; Jacob Rhodes, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 2; cows 3; Gabriel Rhodes, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 2; Henry Rhodes, Jr., acres 400; imp. 10; horses 1; cows 2; John Rhodes, acres 100; imp. 1; horses 1; cows 1; John Reed, acres 100; imp. 7 horses 2; cows 2; John Rice, acres 400; imp.

*Friggs was mentioned as a "Pilot" (meaning a woodsman or guide) by Rev. Capt. John Steel, in his letter to the governor of date April 11, 1768. See preceding pages of this chapter.


35; negro slaves 1; horses 7; cows 1; Cutlip* Rose, acres 100; imp. 8; horses 1; cows 1; Hugh Robinson, acres 100; imp. 8; horses 1; cows 2; Frederick Sheaf, acres 200; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 2; John Swiser, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 2; cows 3; John Sappinton, acres 200; imp. 6; horses 2; cows 2; Adam Small, acres 300; imp. 8; Bastion Shells, acres 100; imp. 1; horses 1; cows 1; James Spencer, acres 240; imp. 21; horses 2 cows 6; Nathaniel Skinner, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 1; William St. Clair, acres 100; imp. 6; Henry Smith, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 1; Solomon Shute, acres 100; imp. 2; horses 1; cows 1; William Tyshoe, acres 300 imp. 12; horses 1; cows 1; Abraham Vaughan, acres 100; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 2; Thomas Urie, acres 100; imp. 12; Philip Wagaly, acres 200; imp. 10; horses 2; cows 1; Frederick Weimer, acres 200; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 2; John Weimer, acres 100; imp. 2; horses 1; cows 1; Richard Wells, acres 300; imp. 10; horses 3; cows 2; George Wells, acres 50; imp. 4; horses 2; cows 1; Acquilla White, acres 200; imp. 3; horses 1; cows 2; John Winsel, acres 100; imp. 1; horses 2; cows 1; Peter Winard, acres 100; imp. 5; horses 2; cows 3; Thomas John Wailer, acres 100; imp. 1; horses 2; cows 1; Samuel Wallis, acres 300. Then followed the names of those whom we presume were single men, viz.: Matthias Ditch, Thomas Stinton, John Penrod, Felix Morgan, Frederick Aker, James Winler, James Pursley, Nicholas Friend, Robert Pulclut, Ephraim Tassey, Martin Cefar (Siefert?), James Moore, Frederick Vandoux, Edward Grimes, Samuel Worrell, James Wells, Peter Booker, Lodowick (Ludwig?) Greenwalt, Gabriel Abrahams, James Black, Henry Bruner, George Briner, John Bowman, Casper Stoy, Joseph Jennings, Francis Hay, James Hogland, Edward Henderson, William Haskin, Edward Higgins, Matthew Judy, John St. Clair, George Shider, Henry Shidlet, Jacob Wingart, Atwell Worrell, Richard Wells, Thomas Ogle, Daniel Pursley and John Hinkbaugh.

The three hundred and fifty taxables above mentioned, representing a total population of about sixteen hundred, besides being the only taxpayers at the time of which we write, were, as before remarked, the first settlers of Bedford and Somerset counties. Some of them had been located here less than a year, and but very

*Probably intended for Gotlieb or Godfrey.



few for more than five years. Among them were many who had served in the wars against the French and Indians. All were then subjects of King George the Third, and but three or four years later they were active participants in the war for freedom and national independence. For these reasons has so much space been devoted to a mention of their names, location and possessions. By scanning the foregoing paragraphs it will also be observed that then there were but two gristmills* and two sawmills in all the wide region composing the two counties of the present—-the sawmill of Andrew Steel in Bedford township, the gristmill of Robert Moore, and the grist and saw mill of Abraham Miley, Sr., in Colerain township. Another queer fact is that when U. J. Jones wrote of the Colonial, or as he termed them, "Continental Mills" of the Juniata valley, he was not aware that the mills here referred to had ever existed.

Concerning the nationality of those who first settled in the two counties, it may be satisfactory to know that the very early settlers of Bedford were chiefly Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, with a few Germans of the Lutheran and Reformed denominations, the Brethren, or Dunkards, coming later; while the earliest white inhabitants of Somerset were principally Germans of the Brethren sect, with a few Scotch-Irish, and some Jerseymen of English extraction.

The term "Scotch-Irish "is one so frequently used, and so little understood, that it is considered appropriate in this place to explain its derivation. It appears that in the time of James I, of England, the Irish Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell conspired against his government, fled from Ireland, were proclaimed outlaws, and their estates, consisting of about five hundred

*A complete list of all the grist and saw mills in the southwest quarter of Pennsylvania, in 1772, was as follows: Richard Pittman, sawmill, Daniel Royer, gristmill, and Moses Reed, grist and saw mill, in Air township; John Bird, gristmill, and Bartholomew Davis, sawmill, in Dublin township, now part of Huntingdon county; Robt. Moore, gristmill, and Abraham Miley, Sr., grist and saw mill, in Colerain township; Andrew Steel, sawmill, in Bedford township; Capt. Arthur St. Clair, gristmill at Fort Ligonier, Fairfield township, now part of Westmoreland county; Joseph Irwin, gristmill, in Hempfield township, now part of Westmoreland county; John Cavet, gristmill, Conrad Windmiller, grist and saw mill, and William Teagarden, gristmill, in Pitt township, which then included large portions of the present counties of Allegheny, Beaver and Washington; Adam Hatfield, gristmill in Mt. Pleasant township, now part of Westmoreland county; Paul Froman, tub gristmill in "Ross Strayer" township, now part of Westmoreland county: Henry Beeson a Quaker from Virginia, who had a gristmill In Springhill township, or the point now known as Uniontown, Fayette county. The gristmills of Abraham Sills, John Hardin, Jr., George Wilson, Esq., and Jonathan Jones were also located in Springhill township as then bounded. John Weller, sawmill, and Providence Mounts, gristmill, in Tyrone township, which then included portions of the present counties of Fayette and Westmoreland.

thousand acres of land, were seized by the crown. The king divided these lands into small tracts and gave them to persons from his own country (Scotland) because they were Protestants, on the sole condition that they should cross over into Ireland within four years and reside upon them permanently. A second insurrection soon after gave occasion for another large forfeiture, and nearly six counties in the province of Ulster were confiscated, and taken possession of by the officers of the government. King James was a zealous sectarian, and his primary object was to root out the native Irish, who were all Catholics, hostile to his government, and almost constantly plotting against it, and to re-people the country with those whom he knew would be loyal. The distance from Scotland to County Antrim, in Ireland, was but twenty miles. The lands thus offered free of cost were among the best and most productive in the Emerald Isle, though blasted and made barren by the troubles of the times and the indolence of a degraded peasantry. Having the power of the government to, encourage and protect them, the inducements offered to the industrious Scotch could not be resisted. Thousands went over. Many of them, though not lords, were lairds, and all were men of enterprise and energy, and above the average in intelligence. They went to work to restore the land to fruitfulness and to show the superiority of their habits and belief to those of the natives among whom they settled. They soon made the counties of Antrim, Armagh, Caven, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan and Tyrone—-names familiar to Pennsylvanians--to blossom as the rose.

These, the first Protestants introduced into Ireland, at once secured the ascendancy in the counties which they settled, and their descendants have maintained that ascendancy to the present day against the efforts of the government church on the one hand and the Romanists on the other. They did not intermarry with the Irish who surrounded them. The Scotch were Saxon in blood, and Presbyterian in religion, while the Irish were Celtic in blood and Roman Catholic in religion, and these were elements that would not readily coalesce. Hence the races are as distinct in Ireland today, after a lapse of more than two hundred and fifty years, as when the Scotch first crossed over. The term "Scotch-Irish" is purely American. It is not used in Ireland, and here it was given to the


Protestant emigrants from the north of Ireland, simply because they were the descendants of the Scots who had in former times taken up their residence there.

In after times, under Catholic governments, the descendants of the Scots in Ireland were bitterly persecuted, and prior to 1764, large numbers had immigrated and settled in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina. In September, 1736, alone, one thousand families sailed from Belfast because of their inability to renew their leases upon satisfactory terms, and the most of them settled in the eastern and middle counties of Pennsylvania. They hoped, by a change of residence to find an unrestrained field for the exercise of their industry and skill, and for the enjoyment of their religious opinions. They brought with them a hatred of oppression, and a love of freedom in its fullest measure, that served much to give that independent tone to the sentiments of the people of the province which prevailed in their controversies with the home government years before they seriously thought of independence.

They settled the Cumberland valley and brought its fair lands under cultivation. They fought the savages and stood as a wall of fire against their further forays eastward. It is said that between 1771 and 1773 over twenty-five thousand of them, driven from the places of their birth by the rapacity of their landlords, located in that valley and to the westward. This was just before the revolutionary war began, and while the angry controversies that preceded it were taking place between the colonists and the English government. Hence, these immigrants were in just the right frame of mind needed to make them espouse, to a man, the side of the patriots. A tory was unheard of among them. They were found as military leaders in all times of danger, and were among the most prominent law-makers, through and after the long struggle for freedom and human rights. They have furnished presidents, United States senators, congressmen, judges, and many others prominent in all the stations of life. In short, the names of these patriots and wise men, as well as the names of their descendants, are familiar words, not only in Pennsylvania, but throughout the Union.

Regarding the inhabitants termed Brethren, or German Baptists, people who are quite numerous in these counties, especially in Somerset, we learn from a church record and directory prepared by Howard Miller, of Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1882, that the sect originated at Schwardzenau, Germany, in 1708, under the leadership of Alexander Mack. "He," says Mr. Miller, "with John Kipin, George Grevy, Andreas Bloney, Mrs. Mack, Mrs. Kipin and Joanna Nethigeim, his neighbors, met, from time to time, at their dwellings for the purpose of Bible reading and mutual improvement spiritually. They were all of Presbyterian descent except John Kipin and, possibly, Mrs. Kipin, who were Lutherans. It does not appear that they intended a separate organization, but met for the purpose of Bible reading and explanation. It soon occurred to them that they had not hitherto rendered that implicit obedience which the word of God requires, and they determined upon a fuller compliance with the divine commands. They had not, at the time of their change of views, known of the existence of any Baptist organizations, but determined that true baptism consisted in true immersion as the external form. They desired such immersion at the hands of Alexander Mack, who refused on the grounds of his not being himself baptized according to believers’ baptisim. They, accordingly, drew lots as to who should perform the ceremony, but the name of him to whom the lot fell has been concealed, and is not now known.

"They baptized each other in the little river Elder running by the town of Schwardzenau, and the denominational existence of the Brethren began. Presently there were branches organized in the adjoining towns of Merrienborn, where Bro. John Naass was the minister, and at Epstien, under the oversight of Bro. Christian Levy. At that age of the world, the custom was to persecute those who ventured to differ in belief from the recognized forms of worship, and our early Brethren did not escape. Some of them were driven to Holland, and some to Creyfelt.

In 1719, the Schwardzenau church emigrated bodily to America, where the utmost religious freedom has ever been tolerated. There landed about twenty families in the fall of that year at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and dispersed themselves over the eastern part of the state, mainly to Conestoga, Skippack and Oley. Four years later, or in 1722, Brethren Baker, Gomery,


Gantz and Trautes began a systematic tour of evangelism with the most satisfactory results, and what we would now call ‘arms’ of the church were founded in a great many places. Those who remained in Europe, influenced by their American friends, with whom they kept up a correspondence, came to America in 1729. Some who remained, and others who were almost persuaded, were lost, denominationally speaking, and the Brethren were no longer a fact in the old world."

Having shown the origin and the date of settlement of the Brethren in America, it is only necessary to add here, that from the southeastern part of Pennsylvania the members of this sect have gradually migrated southward and westward, until their present membership of about sixty thousand is found scattered in the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, California, Oregon, Arkansas and Texas. They were among what may be termed the original settlers of Somerset county. Brother’s Valley, the first township formed in the region lying between the Alleghenies and Laurel Hill, derived its name from them, and today, in no place in the universe are there so many Brethren in so circumscribed an area as in the county named. It contains eleven congregations, twenty-seven meetinghouses, and about nineteen hundred members while Bedford county has five congregations, sixteen meeting-houses, and about one thousand members.

The foregoing chapter and all those which precede it have been prepared with the full knowledge that an absurd statement, by some termed a tradition, has for years found listeners around many Somerset county firesides. Indeed, we find that the "tradition" has been repeated so often, that a considerable number of well-meaning people have accepted it as veritable truth. In, substance it is as follows: That some two hundred and thirty years ago, or about 1650, a half dozen families concluded to branch off from Roger Williams’ colony in New England and establish an isolated, separate community of their own, and that after many days of weary wandering to the south-westward, finally settled down in the Turkey-Foot region, where they and their descendants remained ever after, or at least within the memory of men now living.

Now, for the sake of an argument, conceding the possibility of a few white men and women surmounting all the dangers and difficulties of such a journey at that time—-the crossing of rivers like the Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware and Susquehanna (besides the many minor streams, which of themselves would prove almost insurmountable at this day without the aid of boats or bridges), the threading of trackless forests, climbing mountain ranges, passing by unheeded broad fertile valleys, and finally locating beyond the Alleghenies, in a rugged, pent-up region, where, surrounded by savages and wild beasts, they were contented to remain far away from friends, kindred and civilized man—-granting, we repeat, that such were facts (though we deem the entire statement wholly improbable), and that a settlement of English-speaking whites was effected at Turkey-Foot, thirty years before Penn’s purchase of Pennsylvania, and the founding of Philadelphia, does it not appear strange to time believers of the "tradition," that such an important event in time world’s history should have been passed unnoticed by Christopher Gist (who visited this region prior to 1752), by Washington in 1753—4, by Capt. Orme (who was with Gen. Braddock in 1755), and by Rev. Capt. John Steel in his elaborate report of 1768?

Again it is claimed that among the men who settled near Turkey-Foot more than two hundred years ago, were "Henry Abrahams, one named Green, and another named Greathouse." Capt. Steel mentions Abrahams in his report (see preceding pages in this chapter), but apparently had not heard of either Green or Greathouse. However, upon the first assessment rolls of Bedford county, made in 1771, for the year 1772, we find time names of Henry Abrahams and several others mentioned by Steel three years earlier, as well as those of William Greathouse and Thomas Green. These rolls likewise inform the reader that at the time of which we write—-1771—-Abrahams had twelve acres of land improved, owned two horses and three cows; Greathouse had ten acres of improved land, two horses and three cows, while Green owned six acres of improved land, two horses and eight head of cattle.

We close this article by propounding a few queries. If these men were more than centen-


arians, if they had been here in occupation of the land for the great period intervening between 1650 and 1771, what had they been doing that in the last- mentioned year each respectively could boast of but twelve, ten and six acres of improved land? How had they drifted so readily from an asserted degree of savageness into the ways of civilization? Where had they been during the terrible French and Indian war—-1754—63—-a period during which (many able writers have asserted) not a single English white settler existed west of the Allegheny mountains, and but very few to the westward of time Susquehanna river, and lastly, if there is any foundation whatever for the believers of time "tradition" to stand upon, why cannot a line of descent be shown from the men of Williams’ colony down to those who claim to be their descendants? In a word, we concede that there was an opportunity for the establishment of an English settlement at Turkey-Foot as early as 1763—4, but not prior to that time.

SOURCE:  History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, pp. 57-74

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