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The Organization-The Court House-Pillory and Whipping Post-Mutterings of the Revolution-The Convention-The Constitution-The Declaration of Independence-Bedford County Soldiers in the War-Indian Massacres-The Earliest Churches-The Early Roads-The Forts-The Tories-The First Steel Works-The Whiskey Insurrection-President Washington in Bedford-The Old Log School House-Bedford Mineral Springs.


Bedford county was originally a part of Cumberland county and was taken from it by an Act of Assembly, passed March 9, 1771. It included all the territory lying west of the remainder of said county and west of the Berks county line as fixed in 1752. (See Appendix, notes 1 and 5.)


Bedford and Fulton counties are enfolded and traversed by the mountains and hills of the great Appalachian system, with the Allegheny on the west and the Tuscarora on the east, and they embosom many beautiful valleys and little canoe-shaped coves which are peculiar to the zig-zagmountains of central Pennsylvania.


From the crests of these elevations the scenery is grand beyond description and the views are wide and extensive. The lover of nature can overlook the contiguous counties and gaze far down into Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia. Travelers over the United States and Europe say that these counties have the finest scenery in the world.


Geologically these counties have the same formations which extend from the Lower or Trenton limestone up to and including the coal measures. The counties are separated by Ray's Hill.


The early settlement of the territory has already been fully described. It is sufficient, therefore, to say that the Scotch-Irish were the first settlers and that they organized the county. Arthur St. Clair, Bernard Daugherty, James Coulter, William Proctor and George Woods were appointed trustees to purchase a piece of land, in some convenient place in the said town of Bedford, in




trust, and for the use of the inhabitants of said county, and thereon erect a Court House and prison.


The following persons were commissioned by the Governor on the 11th of March, 1771, as Justices of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace, etc., to wit: John Fraser, Bernard Daugherty, Arthur St. Clair, William Crawford, James Milligan, Thomas Gist, Dorsey Pentecost, Alexander McKee, William Proctor, Jr., Robert Hanna, William Lochery, John Wilson, Robert Cluggage, William McConnell and George Woods. Arthur St. Clair was commissioned as Prothonotary, etc., and William Proctor, Jr., was commissioned as Sheriff.


The first Court of Quarter Sessions of the county was held at Bedford in the tavern of Henry Wertz on April 16, before William Proctor, Robert Cluggage, Robert Hanna, George Wilson, William Lochery and William McConnell, Esqs.,

Justices of our Lord the King, to hear and determine divers felonies, etc.


The following persons composed the Grand Jury: James Anderson, foreman; Mc-Charles Cessna, Frederick Nawgle, James McCaslin, Thomas Hay, Thomas Kenton, Allen Rose, George Milligan, John Moore, Robert Culbertson, George

Funk,  John Huff, Rinard Wolf, Valentine Shadacre, Samuel Drenning, Edward Rose, Samuel Skinner, William Parker, Christopher Miller, Thomas Croyal (Croyle?), Adam Sam, Jacob Fisher, and David Rinard.


The following attorneys were then admitted and sworn: Andrew Ross, Robert

Galbreath, Philip Pendleton, David Sample, James Wilson, David Grier, David

Espy, George Brent, James Borwick and Robert Magaw.




The Court proceeded to establish townships. The Court of Quarter Sessions of Cumberland county had established townships of Ayr, Dublin, Bedford, Cumberland and Colerain out of a portion of the territory subsequently included within Bedford county, prior to the formation thereof. The Court affirmed the following new ones: Armstrong, Barree, Brothers' Valley, Hempfield, Fairfield, Hempfleld, Mt. Pleasant, Pitt, Ross Straver, Spring Hill, Tyrone and Tullyleague.  (Note 6, Appendix.)


The first Commissioners were Robert Hanna, Dorsey Pentecost and John Stephenson. The Assessors were James Pollock,




Samuel Miller, Solomon Sheppard, Joseph Beale, James Cavet, and

Richard Wells, Jr.


Under the Act of 1710, the Court is required to recommend to

the Governor suitable persons for license, to keep inns or public

houses. In pursuance of this Act the Court recommended the following

persons, to wit: Margaret Fraser, Jean Woods, Frederick

Nawgle, George Funk, John Campbell, James Anderson, Andrew

Bonjonr, Thomas Campbell, John Miller, and Samuel Paxton. At

this time all public officials were required to take the oats of allegiance

to George III, King of England, and to renounce all allegiance

to James the Pretender, son of James II.




According to the best and most reliable information obtainable,

this building was erected in the years 1773-1774, on the

northwest corner of the public square, close to the lines of Penn

and Juliana streets and immediately in front of lots Nos. 25 and

26, on which the Lutheran church and parsonage now stand.

The court house and prison were included in one building,

which was erected with a frontage of 65 feet on Juliana street and

39 feet on Penn street. It was two stories in height, with a high

peaked roof, capped with a tall steeple. The first floor was

mainly used for prison purposes (the largest room being used for

the confinement of unfortunate debtors, as imprisonment for debt

was not abolished until 1842), but a part of it was used by the

jailor for family purposes. The second floor, embracing its entire

extent, was used as a court room. The ceiling was very high,

and was supported by several large circular wooden columns. The

third floor, under the high peaked roof, was divided into several rooms for the use of the grand and petit juries.


A wide, uncovered stairway led from the pavement to an imposing portico, from which a large door opened into the court room. A second wide stairway led from the court room to the jury rooms above. The building was a high, massive, substantial, and imposing limestone structure.


On the north side of the building there was also erected a one-story stone building (16x21 feet), which was used both as an entrance to the jail and for family purposes. About the year 1795 a one-story brick building (39 by 21 feet), with an arched or fireproof ceiling, was erected immediately north of the above mentioned old court house and prison, on the line of Juliana street,




and divided into three offices for the accommodation of the county officials. This entire row of buildings then covered the whole frontage of 120 feet on Juliana street.


A high and thick stone wall enclosed the entire space between the building and the western line of the public square (81x65 feet)-and this enclosure was used as a jail yard for the prisoners.




In the fall of 1825 the public authorities deemed it advisable

to erect a new courthouse. The Havlin plan was adopted, and

on the 13th of February, 1826, the Commissioners, Richard Silvers,

Abraham Folch and John Bowser, awarded the contract to

Solomon Filler, to "build the said court house with brick on the

southwest corner of the public square, for the sum of $7,500,"

with Joseph S. Morrison and John Keefe, as sureties.

After the completion of the court house in 1829, in accordance

with the above mentioned contract, and its occupancy by the

several courts and county officials, the Commissioners leased the

two upper floors of the old building for school purposes.




On the 15th of February, 1836, the County Commissioners,

Robert Gibson, John Sipes and George James, adopted a plan for

a new jail. On the 11th of March, of the same year, they awarded

the contract to Abraham Kerns for the sum of $7,940, to erect the

same of brick, on lots Nos. 23 and 24, fronting the public square.

On the 10th of February, 1838, the Commissioners sold the

stone in the old jailyard wall to Abraham Kerns for $40.


In the year 1838 the new jail was completed and accepted

by the Commissioners for public use. Proceedings were then commenced

in the court to have the old buildings condemned as a

public nuisance. Judge Black held, in effect, that they were not.

Thereupon the record was removed to the Supreme Court and

that court declared, on June 16, 1846, that they were a nuisance,.

and they were then removed. (See article on file in Bedford

Gazette March 1, 1901.)


On February 26, 1773, Westmoreland county was taken from

Bedford county and the territory so taken includes the present

counties of Westmoreland, Fayette, Greene, Washington, and

parts of Allegheny, Armstrong and Indiana.






These were placed in the public square near the court house.

The old English laws, for the punishment of crimes, etc., were a

relic of a barbarous age, were extremely cruel, and were in force

in all the English colonies. These laws imposed public whipping,

or standing in the pillory exposed to public gaze; mutilating of

the body of some offenders by cutting off the ears, burning the

cheeks, and slitting the nose. However, by the third section of the

Act of Assembly of Pennsylvania, 1767, the punishment for horse-

stealing was so far changed and ameliorated that the offender was

to stand in the pillory for one hour and be publicly whipped with

29 lashes. And yet, in 1782, our court records show that two

horse thieves received the following sentences, that "they be

taken, tomorrow morning, to the public whipping post between

the hours of 8 and 10 o'clock, shall receive 29 lashes, to be well

laid on, on their bare backs, and immediately afterwards be

placed in the pillory for one hour and have their ears cut off and

nailed to the pillory, etc."


What induced the court to depart from the penalty provided

by the Act of 1767, which only imposed whipping and standing

in the pillory, and inflicting, in addition thereto, this unusual,

obsolete, cruel, and unwarranted punishment by cutting off the

ears of the defendants, is unknown. But the fact is surprising

that the court should revive a relic of barbarism which had been

abandoned by our laws; the only extenuation is that the Judges

were only laymen. However, it is gratifying to state that by the

Act of 1790 all cruel and unusual punishments for crimes were

changed to terms of imprisonment. William Bradford, Attorney

General in 1794, says: "The severity of our criminal laws is an

exotic plant and not the native growth of Pennsylvania. It has

been endured but I believe has never been a favorite." As soon

as the Revolution was effected it was made an Article of the Constitution

that the penal laws, as heretofore used, should be reformed;

and this was done by the Acts of 1786 and 1790.


At this time the Province of Pennsylvania was, as were ail

the colonies, in subjection to the British Government, and every

person on taking any official position was required to take the

oath of allegiance to George III. (It may be proper to explain

that James II was driven from his throne and fled to France in

1688. He had a son James, commonly known as "The Pretender,"




who took the title of James III of England, etc. After the death

of William and Mary, Anne, daughter of James II, succeeded to

the throne. At her death in 1714 the succession of the Stuart

line ceased and George I, of the Brunswick line, succeeded as King

of England. "The Pretender" still claimed the succession, hence

the clause in the oath of allegiance in reference to him.) Said

oath was accordingly taken by Bernard Daugherty and all other

officials, as follows: "I, Bernard Daugherty, promise and swear

that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to his Majesty,

George III, so help me God, etc."




The careful reader of the history of the American colonies

will observe that, from the landing of the first colonists at Jamestown

in 1606' up to the final appeal to arms in 1775, there was in

every colony or province an unceasing struggle between the representatives

of the people and the representatives of prerogative

interests. The general character of the conflict was the same in

all the colonies. The British Government had expended vast

sums of money in her long and mighty wars with France and other

nations and when peace was restored the Government was involved

in a heavy indebtedness.


In order to recoup their vast expenditures and to liquidate

this indebtedness it was necessary to raise the revenue by additional

taxation. The ministry were afraid to increase the taxes

at home and they, therefore, very unwisely and unjustly determined

to raise the required revenue from the American colonies.

This attempt to tax and oppress the colonies without representation

led to patriotic and determined resistance, to the enforcement

of the stamp and tea tax laws. The battle at Bunker Hill

on June 17, 1775, electrified the people.




At a conference of the committees for the several counties,

which met in Philadelphia in July 1776, it was determined to hold

a convention to adopt a constitution. The convention met in

Philadelphia and on September 28, 1776, adopted a constitution

for the state.


The constitution was adopted by the people and went into

immediate effect. Among other things the convention appointed

Justices of the Peace, who were required, before assuming their

functions, each to take an oath of renunciation of the authority




of George III, and of allegiance to the State of Pennsylvania, and

thereafter the Province should be known as the "State of Pennsylvania."




The oppression of the colonies by Great Britain culminated

in the Declaration of Independence by the thirteen colonies on the

4th day of July, 1776. This was followed by the American Revolution,

in which the colonies won their independence and Great Britain was compelled to acknowledge it. The Articles of Confederation of the United States of America were signed on the 1st of July, 1778.


In May 1776 the Continental Congress declared that it was

"irreconcilable to reason and good conscience that the American

people should take oaths for the support of government under the

Crown of Great Britain and that it was necessary that every kind

of authority under the Crown should be suppressed."

The Legislature established a test oath of renunciation of allegiance

to George III and allegiance to the Commonwealth of



The last oath of allegiance to George III was taken by the

Justices at January Sessions, 1776. The rebellion of the colonies

necessarily caused considerable confusion in the business of the

courts and the county. No court was held after January 1776

until 14th October 1777, except a petty session at the public

house of Henry Wertz in Bedford on September 27, 1777. Before

this, or at this date, the Justices, Attorneys and other officials of

the county had subscribed to the oath required by the constitution.

The transition from the oath of allegiance to King George

III to the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

was quick and stupendous in its results. The patriotism

which led the early patriots to renounce their allegiance to King

George III and to pledge it to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,

all within a few days, must have been pure, courageous

and invincible in its character.


In response to a call by Congress for troops from Pennsylvania,

three gallant companies of riflemen in Bedford county offered their services, outside the state, to wit: Capt. Robert Cluggage's company in Col. William Thompson's rifle battalion; Capt. Richard Brown's company in Col.

Samuel Miles' Pa. rifle regiment; Capt. Andrew Mann's company




in Col. Eneas Mackey's 8th regiment. In addition thereto, several

companies of Rangers for the defense of the frontiers and several

companies of Home Guards for local defense were organized in the

county. If space permitted the names of the soldiers would be

given. (Note 7, Appendix).


Captain Cluggage, with his company, marched from Reading,

the place of rendezvous for the regiment, to Boston, where he

joined General Washington's forces on August 8, 1775. They

were engaged in the numerous skirmishes before Boston and the

battles on Long Island in July 1776, in which many members were

killed or captured.


Captain Mann, with his company, marched from western

Pennsylvania, in midwinter, over the mountains and joined General

Washington's forces in New Jersey, where they marched and

countermarched with the army through northern New Jersey,

southern New York and eastern Pennsylvania. It was in the disastrous

battle of Brandywine and in the action at Germantown. In

March, 1778, the regiment, including this company, were ordered

to march to Pittsburg. Here they served under Colonel Broadhead

in the defense of the western frontier, during which they had

many skirmishes with the Indians. On their return to Pittsburg,

their term of service having expired, they were honorably discharged.



Captain Brown's company, with the regiment, marched to

Philadelphia and thence to New York. This company and Captain

Cluggage's company were engaged in the battle of Long Island

in August 1776. Lieut. Col. James Piper and Captain Brown were

taken prisoners and carried to Canada, where Colonel Piper died

and Captain Brown was exchanged after a long captivity. The

three regiments to which these companies belonged did valiant

service during the term of their service and many of the men reenlisted

after their discharge; a few of them served until the last

battle was fought in the south and the war was closed.




Captains: Samuel Davidson, Thomas Paxton, Jacob Hendershot,

Thomas Buck, Gideon Black, James Wells, Richard Dunlap,

James Martin, Thomas Blair, John Hamilton, James Gilson,

Abraham Covalt, James Warford, John Shaver, Henry Black, William

Johnson, John Little, Daniel Carpenter, James Anderson,

William Engard, Oliver Drake, Samuel Paxton, Henry Rhoads,




Thomas Smith, William Tissue, John Galloway, Samuel Thompson,

Solomon Adams, Bedford township. The active companies

were Samuel Davidson's, Thomas Paxton's, Jacob Hendershot's,

Capt. Boyd's Rangers and Samuel Paxton's Rangers.


In 1782 the Bedford company of rangers and the county

militia occupied stations at Frankstown, head of Dunning's creek,

Fort Piper, Bedford, and along the Juniata in small parties. Several

companies were sent from Cumberland, Lancaster and York

counties for the defense of Bedford county, as it then formed the

frontier of these counties.


Many of the citizens took a very active and prominent part

in securing our independence. They were, Colonels George

Woods, David Espy, John Piper, James Piper, Hugh Barclay,

Robert Galbraith, William Parker, George Ashman, and Thomas

Smith; Majors John Cessna, Edward Combs, and Charles Cessna;

Captains Robert Cluggage, Richard Brown, Andrew Mann, James

Francis Moore, Samuel and Thomas Paxton, and Captain Boyd;

Bernard Daugherty, James Martin, William Proctor, James Wells,

John Mellott, Robert Scott and Arthur St. Clair.




During the French-Indian War the Indians were instigated

by the French to carry on a war of savage butchery against the

English settlers, and the infamy of the policy hangs like a dark

cloud of shame over the reputation of France, which only the

"Great White Throne" can recompense. In like manner, during

the Revolution the English instigated the Indians to carry on the

same savage butchery against the colonists, their own kin and

kith, and therefore it involved greater infamy. The only extenuation

that can be offered is that the people of England had

no part in the matter but it was done by their rulers. The colonies

in the Revolution were not only fighting for their own rights and liberties but also for the people of England.


I will group the Indian massacres in Bedford county during

this period. In the year 1777 or '78 a family named Tull resided

on a hill about three miles east of Schellsburg (which is now

called by that name) on the old pack-horse road, near the present

turnpike. The family consisted of the parents, nine daughters

and one son. The Indians at this time were becoming very

troublesome and oftentimes the settlers were compelled to seek

refuge in the fort at Bedford, but this family, regardless of fear,




remained on their improvement. Many of the settlers were notified

that the Indians were committing depredations in the Dunning's Creek settlement.


James Williams, who lived near the present town of Schellsburg,

the progenitor of the families of that name now living in

that section, on getting this intelligence fled to Fort Bedford and

on passing the Tull house notified Mr. Tull of the danger and

advised him to leave with his family at once, but he did not

believe the report and remained. A few days thereafter Mr. Williams,

on his way back to his place saw the roof of Tull's house

on fire, and on looking for the family he found Tull lying in the

garden, scalped, and apparently dying, and near by lay an Indian

paint bag. Being satisfied that the Indians had set the house on

fire and killed Tull, he returned to Bedford.


On reporting the massacre, an armed force was organized

and, accompanied by Mr. Williams, the next morning they went

to the Tull place where they found the whole family, murdered

and scalped, except one of the small children, who it was thought

had been burned in the house. The mother and an infant were

found near the house. The children were scattered about at

some distance. It is very likely that in trying to escape they

were killed and scalped when overtaken. Their dead and mutilated

bodies were buried near the spot of the massacre.


The place where the cabin stood is about 100 feet southwest

of the junction of the turnpike and township road, in the corner

of a field.


In May 1778 the council informed Congress that "30 persons

have been lately killed in Bedford county." In the same

month Thomas McKean writes that "the savages have killed and

scalped 11 persons near Bedford." This evidently refers to the

Tull family and shows that the massacre took place in the spring

of 1778. In 1779 a large number of Dunkards were killed in

Morrison's Cove--30 in one day. They refused to make any

resistance, only saying "God's will be done." In 1780 the Indians

were spread over the entire county.




In that year the savages made an hostile incursion into

Woodcock Valley on July 16 and surrounded Captain Philips and

his company of ten scouts in the house of Fred Heater, cruelly

murdered and scalped all except Philips and his son. He lived




at Williamsburg and crossed over Tussey's mountain with ten

men who had joined his company. This company consisted of the

Captain and his son Elijah, aged 14 years, Philip Shelly, Hugh

Shelly, P. Sanders, T. Sanders, Richard Shirley, M. Davis,

Thomas Gatnell, Daniel Kelly and two others, names unknown.


This brave but unfortunate little company of rangers, on

reaching the valley, found that the settlers had nearly all deserted

their homes. The same evening they came to the house of Frederick

Heater, and found it was deserted. He had prepared his

house as a fort, with loop holes, but not being able to secure a

sufficient number of men to garrison it, he fled before the Indians.

Here they spent Saturday night. The next morning, Sunday,

July 16, the Indians who had tracked Captain Philips' men

through the muddy roads to the house, surrounded it on all sides.

There was considerable firing between the rangers in the house

and the Indians, who were some seventy yards distant. Several of

the Indians were killed, among them their chief; this made them

wild and demoniac with fury. They then fastened twigs and

leaves to their arrows, and after setting them on fire shot them

with their bows to the roof of the house. In this way the roof

was soon in a blaze.


Captain Philips soon discovered the critical situation in

which they were placed. To remain in the house was to be

burned up; to go out wag to meet instant death. He therefore

proposed to surrender on condition that their lives should be

spared. This was agreed to by the treacherous Indians. After

the surrender they were compelled to give up their arms and permit

themselves to be tied. They were then marched about one-

half mile from the house, where the ten rangers were tied to trees

and basely riddled with bullets and arrows, and afterward scalped.

The lives of Captain Philips and his son were spared because

officers, when prisoners, command a high bounty. They were

taken to Montreal and afterward exchanged.


Jacob Rhoades, Esq., in a letter informs me that the exact

location of the massacre is near the foot of Tussey's mountain, in

Woodcock valley, about three or four miles northwest of Saxton.

Mr. Rhoades, in 1896, fixed a locust post in the place.


In 1781 the Indians murdered four persons and took one

captive near Col. John Piper's house. The same year Captain

Boyd, with eight members of his company of rangers, and twenty




five volunteers under Captain Moore of the militia, had an engagement

with a party of Indians near Frankstown (now in Blair county); eight men-were killed and scalped and two, made their escape to Bedford. Among the killed were Richard Delapt and Benjamin Fraser, of Bedford.


Christian King, wife and child were taken by the Indians

near the "Three Springs," in Union township. They made their

escape after two or three years. Michael Bowers was killed on

his way to Frankstown.




George Peck settled in Ray's Cove about 1770. He opened

a considerable farm and erected a house, barn, etc. As the settlers

increased in the neighborhood he built a tub mill on a little

run nearby and from that fact it is called Tub-Mill run. He had a

wife and three children and a man named Stem or Sten.


On August 8, 1782, a band of Indians came from the direction

of Fort Lyttleton and crouching and creeping through the

thick underbrush suddenly rent the air with a savage war-whoop.

They then killed and scalped the whole family and burned all

the buildings.


In November 1777 Thomas Smith and George Woods wrote

to President Wharton: "The present situation in the county is

so deplorable that we should be inexcusable if we delayed a

moment in acquainting you with it. An Indian war is now raging

around us in its utmost fury." After enumerating a number of

massacres they proceed, "A day hardly passes without hearing

of some new murder, and if the people continue only a week

longer to fly as they have done for a week past Cumberland

county will be a frontier.


"From Morrison's Cove, Cryle's and Friend's Cove, Dunning's

creek and one-half the Glades (now in Somerset county)

they are fled or fleeing, and for all the defense that can be made

here the Indians may do almost what they please. We keep out

ranging parties in which we go out in turns."




It is a lamentable fact that nearly all the early immigrants

to the United States were driven from their native lands by the

iron hand of tyranny and persecution. In seeking this free country

in order to secure civil and religious liberty they brought their




religion with them, hence our Courts have held that Christianity

is part and parcel of our common law and that Pennsylvania is a

Christian state. Hence nearly all the early settlers of Bedford

county were either already members of some church in their native

homes or were religiously inclined.


The first settlers were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, German

Reformed, Lutherans and Friends. Afterwards the Mennonites,

Dunkards and other sects came in. For many years before permanent

congregations were organized traveling missionaries visited

the inhabitants and administered the bread of life to them,

according to their several faiths. I can only mention the very

early congregations.


As the Presbyterian people came in 1758 with General

Forbes' army they naturally had the first services. Rev. John

Steel of the Donegal Presbytery visited the Bedford Presbyterians

in 1763 and other ministers afterward, until a regular congregation

was organized a few years thereafter. In 1782 a call was

extended to Rev. Samuel Waugh. During the years from 1774 to

1808 the services were held in the Provincial Court House and

sometimes in private houses. In 1808 a brick church edifice was



(The same facts may be said of the Presbyterian congregation in the Great Cove, now McConnellsburg). The congregation was regularly organized in 1791, the elders being William Gaff, William Alexander, James White and Alexander Alexander. The chief edifice was built a few years thereafter. The members of the German Reformed and Lutheran congregations appear to have united their early churches, not only in Bedfordcounty but throughout the state. As early as 1764 Rev. John Conrad Bucher visited the Reformed church members.


It is very probable that the congregation was duly organized before 1769. Rev. Henry Giesy served the congregation from 1793 to 1797. What has been said alone in regard to the Reformed church may be said of the Lutheran. In 1785 Rev. Henry Steck became pastor of the Lutheran congregation. About 1770 these two congregations built a log church edifice in Bedford, which was the first in the county, and it was standing in 1814. These same denominations built a church edifice in Friend's Cove in 1798, which stood until 1830. They also erected a log church near




Schellsburg in 1806, which is now standing and is in good condition.

It is the oldest building in the county.


The Friends came into the county as early as 1794 and the

following year built a church on Dunning's creek.


THE ROADS--1773-1792


In 1755 the Provincial road was made from Carlisle to the

top of the Allegheny mountain for the transportation of supplies

for General Braddock's army. In 1773 a road was opened from

the town of Bedford to the Youghiogheny river, the 31-mile tree??

from Fort Pitt, through Schellsburg.


In 1792 a state road was built from Miller's spring in Cumberland

county to Fort Pitt, through Bedford and Schellsburg.


This road was used until the turnpike was built in 1815. These

roads to the west drew a great many people from Maryland and

Virginia, many of whom settled in this county, but the larger portion

of them traveled these roads to Ohio and Kentucky.




In 1771 Fort Bedford was in a state of dilapidation and decay.

But still we are told that after 1771, even up to 1782, the

whites were in the habit of running to the fort when alarmed by

the Indians. The explanation is that George Woods, Esq., the

grandfather of the late E. S. Anderson, had a fort made around

his own house--picket fort--and this was generally called Fort

Bedford, and it was into this fort the whites generally ran after



It is quite probable that Fort Lyttleton was in the same state

or worse, therefore it became necessary for the inhabitants of the

county, during the Revolution when the Indians were making

predatory incursions, to build local forts for their own protection.

Several of these forts were built in different parts of the

county. The most notable of these was Fort Piper.




At a very early day, probably during the French-Indian war,

a log fort had been built on Piper's Run. In 1771 Col. John

Piper built a two-story stone house with massive walls near the

same site. During the Revolution it was frequently occupied by

the troops who were stationed there for the protection of then

frontier, and in times of danger the neighbors fled to it for

safety. Some miscreant burned the building in 1896.




Traditions say that local and temporary forts were built at

Martins, Cryles, Dunning's Creek, Morrison's Cove and Cumberland





In 1775-6 a stockade fort was built of heavy logs near the large

spring in the Great Cove, now McConnellsburg. It was torn down

in 1790.




This was a stockade fort built of heavy logs in 1778, near the bridge at the entrance into Brush Creek Valley. A considerable cave was opened into the hill. The neighbors gathered here for safety when the Indians were around. The remains of the fort were visible in 1847. Probably there were other forts in the





It is said that every household has a skeleton. This sad saying was true of the Confederated Colonies, for when they were struggling in great agony for their liberty and independence a considerable portion of their own household was plotting in 1778 for the success of the British army.


These Tories were generally residents of that part of Bedfordcounty which now lies within the counties of Huntingdon and Blair. I have never read any statement that any Tories resided within the limits of the present county of Bedford. But

our records show that some Tories were tried in our courts in 1778.




In 1779 Bedford county was shorn of the greater part of its

original territory and on September 20, 1787, Huntingdon county

was taken from Bedford county.




William McDermitt was the pioneer in the manufacture of

steel in Pennsylvania. He was a Scotchman and came to Bedford

in 1783, having learned the art of steel-making in his native

land. He selected a tract about two miles from Bedford and

named it Caledonia. Here he built a log house, made a large dam,

erected a building for the manufactory. He then began to make

steel very successfully. It was hauled in wagons to the adjoining




counties and they brought back articles of merchandise. This

continued for some nine years and then through endorsements for

friends he became insolvent financially. Then he moved to Bedford

and for a few years kept tavern in "The King's House."

President Washington was his guest in 1794 while in Bedford

with the troops who were on their way to western Pennsylvania

to suppress the Whiskey Insurrection.


Later he moved to Huntingdon county where he engaged in

making charcoal iron, and after a few years he died there. David R. Porter, afterwards Governor of Pennsylvania, who was engaged

in the same business, married his daughter.




Soon after the reduction of Fort Du Quesne in 1758, the

Scotch-Irish settled in the counties of Allegheny, Fayette, Washington

and Westmoreland in Pennsylvania and Wood county, Va.

They had fought bravely all through the Revolutionary War; they

opened farms and raised bountiful crops of grain, but they had no

market for it and, consequently, they had no money. Under

these circumstances they distilled their surplus grain into whiskey

and took it down the Mississippi river to New Orleans, then in

the possession of Spain. The freight to Philadelphia was so high

that no goods could be sent there or received from there. Then

Congress imposed an excess tax on stills and whiskey, which these

people believed was unfair, unjust and unequal.


Many of the inhabitants of these counties, and perhaps a

few others, met at different points and urged a forcible resistance

to the enforcement of the law, and in a few instances there were

riots and blood-shedding. On account of these turbulent proceedings,

President Washington issued a proclamation commanding

"all persons being insurgents to disperse, etc." At the same

time directing the raising of troops "to be held in readiness to

march at a moment's warning." The total troops, 12,900, were

called from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia.

The quota of Pennsylvania was 5,200. The Pennsylvania and New

Jersey troops assembled at Bedford; the President and his cabinet

officers reached here on October 19, 1794, and remained three

days. While here President Washington made his headquarters

in the Old Stone House on Pitt street, opposite the Bedford House.

Gen. Henry Lee of Virginia, Commander-in-Chief, Henry Knox,

Secretary of War, Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury,




and Richard Peters, Judge of the U. S. District Court were also

here. Both President Washington and General Lee issued a number

of orders, etc., at Bedford. The left wing (Maryland and

Virginia troops), marched from Fort Cumberland and the right

wing (Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops), from Bedford towards

Pittsburg. However, before the troops reached there the

people in insurrection dispersed, and the President issued a proclamation

of pardon to all parties except those charged with offences.

In August 1795 general pardons were granted. Thus

happily terminated this first insurrection, which threatened the

very stability of the Federal Government.


The quota of Pennsylvania troops in Division III, Maj. Gen.

Jerome, 1st brigade, Brig. Gen. Chambers, was: Franklin county

421, Cumberland county 456, Bedford county 331, total 1,208.

The Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops returned via Ligonier,

Bedford, Fort Lyttleton, Strasburg, Shippensburg and Carlisle.


In 1795 Somerset county was formed out of the western part

of Bedford county.


In 1795 the old log school-house, supposed to be the first in

the county, was built in Bedford.




The land on which these springs flow was taken up by Josiah

Shoenfelt on Shover's run in 1767. He conveyed the same to

Frederick Naugle in 1772. I am of the opinion from the records

that the stone mill was built by Frederick Naugle about 1797, for

in 1798 the tract of land was sold by Sheriff Bonnett to Robert

Spencer, presumably for the debt in erecting the mill. A few

months thereafter Spencer sold the same to Dr. John Anderson.

In 1796 Nicholas Shauffler discovered the mineral springs.

Dr. Anderson then made some improvements. He erected a bathhouse

and one or more boarding houses. In 1816 he sold the two

mineral springs on the east bank of Shover's run and the sulphur

spring in the mill dam, together with the bath-house, the walks

and certain adjacent land to the managers of the Bedford Mineral

Spring Company, reserving the boarding house and all lands not

granted. The managers were Dr. John Anderson, Jonathan

Walker, William Watson, Josiah M. Espy and Samuel Riddle.

This company made considerable improvements, and the several

subsequent companies made still -greater and more costly ones.

Mr. Samuel Bancroft has so greatly and extensively Improved




the buildings and grounds that today there is no more superb,

comfortable and delightful watering place in the United States.

They have been patronized by Presidents of the United States,

Governors of many states, United States Senators and Congressmen

innumerable, cabinet officers, generals of the army, admirals

and commodores of the navy. In fact the public men of many

states, in all callings, with the most beautiful and accomplished

ladies of the country have met here time and time again; and

today as never before do they pay their annual visits.





 1850 TO 1858


Iron and Coal-Bedford Gazette-Bedford Academy-War With

Great Britain-Allegheny Bank-Turnpikes-Taverns

Road Wagons-Stage Coaches-Way Bill-Cattle Drovers-

Bedford Union Sunday School--Old Militia System-Classical

and' Military Academy-Education-The Old School System-

The New School System-Imprisonment for Debt-Property

Relations of Husband and Wife-Execution of Rice-Support

and Employment of the Poor-Presidential Visits:

George Washington, William Henry Harrison, James K.

Polk, James Buchanan-The Mexican War-Fulton County-




The first furnace and forge in Bedford county was built by

William Lane of Lancaster in 1800. In the early days charcoal

was used exclusively in the manufacture of iron, but after 1840 it

was gradually supplanted by coke or anthracite coal, so that today

there is not a single charcoal furnace in the state.

In 1850 $212,000 were invested in the industry in this

county, 427 hands were employed and the iron produced amounted

to $561,339.




Bloomfield furnace, Middle Woodbury, John W. Duncan..

Lemnos furnace, Hopewell, John King & Company.

Lemnos forge, Hopewell, John King & Company.

Bedford forge, Hopewell, John King & Company.

Bedford foundry, Bedford, Michael Bannon.

Keggy's foundry, Woodbury, Snowden & Blake.

West Providence foundry, Bloody Run, George Baughman.


The first coal mined in the country was by Samuel Riddle

soon after 1800. The early settlers on the Broad Top mountain

knew coal was hidden in its bowels but they scarcely disturbed it.

He laid out the town of Riddlesburg about the same time and

advertised in the Bedford Gazette in 1807 that the coal was for

sale. (Note 8, Appendix).




It is not known certainly when arks were first used on the

Juniata for floating the products of the county to market, but it

is very probable that they were first used by Samuel Riddle and

William Lane to send their coal and iron down the river. In

course of time the farmers began to use the same method of

transportation. After the completion of the Pennsylvania canal

in 1831 a great deal of iron, coal, grain; etc., was shipped from

this county to it. The arks were small boats, covered securely,

and in high stages of the water they were floated down the Juniata

by competent boatmen.




The Bedford Gazette was founded on September 21, 1805, by

Charles McDowell, who was born in Belfast, Ireland, September

26, 1780 and came to the United States in 1793. He settled at

Lancaster, where he remained until 1803 and published a literary

paper entitled "The Hive." He then determined to go westward

and, with a small, portable printing press, a modest supply of

type and a number of copies of "The Hive" on a wagon, he reached

Bedford at the time that a bitter gubernatorial contest was raging

between Governor Thomas McKean and Simon Snyder. The

McKean party engaged him to print political documents for the

campaign. He yielded to their solicitation and stopped on his

journey. After his temporary employment was ended he concluded

to establish a newspaper in Bedford, as at that time there

was none in the county.


Now The Gazette is more than a century old, yet its senility

is as virile as it was in its youthful days, for this fact was clearly

shown by the large and magnificent centennial edition of The

Gazette in September last.




It was in operation July 4, 1809, and in 1810 the Legislature

granted a charter and made an appropriation of $2,000 for the

building and purchasing apparatus. The building was erected on

lot 49 on West Penn street. The teachers, so far ascertainable,

were Rev. Dr. James R. Wilson, from 1808 to 1815; Judge Alexander Thompson, 1815-16; Rev. J. Chamberlain, 1812-22, and

Rev. Alexander Kinmont. Prof. Samuel Brown had charge of the

English department from 1821 to 1827; in the latter year he

purchased the building and continued the school for many years.


The academy, considering the early period, was an excellent




one and nearly all the young men of the county received their

rudimentary education within its classic walls. Among these were:


J. E. Barclay, Francis B. Barclay, Samuel M. Barclay, Alex. L.

Russell, Alexander King, E. L. Anderson, George W. Anderson,

William H. Watson, William Yeager, James Henry, William Van

Lear, Robert S. Walker, D. W. Scott, William Moore, John Morrison,

and John S. Schell. Many of these young men arose to

eminence in the profession of the law, in medicine or in business.

Robert S. Walker became a United States Senator from Mississippi

and Secretary of the Treasury.




After repeated violations of our rights and property by the

British Government, on July 12, 1812, Congress declared war

against it and voted to raise 25,000 enlisted men, 5,000 volunteers

and 100,000 militia. The quota of Pennsylvania was 14,000



Bedford county furnished three companies, commanded, respectively,

by Captains Nicholas Beckwith, Solomon Sparks and

Hugh Gibson. These three companies belonged to the 12th Division

of the Pennsylvania Militia. The Division officers were

Alexander Ogle of Somerset, Maj. Gen.; Jacob Saylor and John

Noble, of Bedford county, Brig. Gens.; George Graham of Somerset county and Andrew Mann of Bedford county, Brigade, inspectors.

Captain Beckwith's company served under Col. William

Piper of Bedford, Second Brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen.

Tannehill. All three companies marched to Black Rock, etc.

They served until they were honorably discharged.




The True American was founded by Thomas R. Gettys in

1813, and in 1817 it was merged into "The Democratic Inquirer,"

and is now "The Bedford Inquirer."




This bank was incorporated by an Act of Assembly passed

April 21, 1814, with a capital stock of 2,000 shares of the par

value of $50 each, or $100,000, with authority to issue bank notes

above $5. It appears that the counties of the state were divided

into 27 bank districts, and that Bedford, Somerset and Cambria

counties constituted one district, with one bank "The Allegheny

Bank of Pennsylvania," which was to be located at Bedford.




The Legislature was remarkably chary both in regard to the

length of the charter and the amount of its capital. The charter

was only for 11 years and that necessitated a renewal in 1822,

and the debt of the bank was limited to double the capital stock.

This caution and conservatism compares favorably with the perpetual

franchise and huge capitalization now granted to gigantic



Owing to some unforeseen cause, the bank was forced to close

its doors, September 21, 1832, and make an assignment of all its

assets to William Hartley of Mt. Dallas, a gentleman of large

means and of fine business capacity. He came forward promptly

and creditably, purchased the assets of the bank, and assumed and

paid all its liabilities, so that not a depositor or the holders of

the bank notes lost one dollar.




The provincial and township roads were amply sufficient for

the wants of the early settlers but, as the county became more

thickly settled and developed, the necessity for better roads was

made apparent. In consequence of this necessity the Legislature

began to take an active interest in the construction of turnpikes.

On April 9, 1792, the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike

Road Company was incorporated. On March 6, 1804, the Lancaster,

Elizabeth and Middletown Turnpike Road Company was

incorporated, and in 1807 there were three turnpikes in operation

between Philadelphia and Harrisburg. On February 24, 1806,

the Harrisburg and Pittsburg Turnpike Road Company was incorporated,

but nothing was done under this act. However, under

the act of March 8, 1815, which divided the road into five different

sections, to wit: The Harrisburg, Carlisle and Chambersburg;

the Chambersburg and Bedford; the Bedford and Stoyestown; the

Stoyestown and Greensburg, and the Greensburg and Pittsburg

Turnpike companies; these several roads were soon built. The

inhabitants who dwelt along the lines of these several roads were

greatly interested in their construction and they contributed very

largely to the work. The state also subscribed liberally to the

stock of the companies. On the completion of 'these roads an immense

and lucrative commerce immediately sprung into existence

between Philadelphia and Baltimore in the east, and Pittsburg and

Wheeling in the west. A considerable local trade also arose

among the people living along the roads.




The Bedford and Somerset Turnpike Road Company was incorporated

on March 16, 1816. It made a connection with the

Bedford and Stoyestown road four miles west of Bedford which

has since been called the "Forks." The road was generally called

the "Glade Road" by reason of passing through the glade lands of

Somerset county. These roads soon became the great arteries of

commerce between the above named cities and the country

through which they passed. The passenger and freight business

increased so rapidly that several stage coach lines for the conveyance

of travellers and hundreds of wagons for the transportation

of freight became necessary. And these were forthcoming in

the Troy and Concord coaches and in the Conestoga wagons.


The National Road act was enacted by Congress, March 29,

1806. On August 1, 1818, the first stage coach line left Cumberland

carrying the United States mail to Wheeling, over the

incorporated road. In December 1820 the road was completed

from Cumberland to Wheeling, and in 1844, when

the Baltimore and Ohio railroad was completed as far west

as Cumberland, the business of the turnpike was greatly increased

but at the time of the completion of the railroad to Wheeling in

December 1852 the business of the turnpike suddenly and rapidly





The great increase in both the passenger and freight business

created a demand for a great many taverns, and consequently they

sprung up in great numbers on the roads, scarcely a mile apart

and two or three in each village. But it can be said of these

tavern keepers that they kept their houses in first-class order.

The beds were clean and good and their tables were excellent, in

fact many of the taverns became famous for their excellency in

every way. The landlords drove a large business and generally

became well off. They were the bankers of the period for the

country people and afforded them a good and, in fact, the only

market they had for the sale of their farm products. When the

turnpikes were made the tavern keepers, or landlords, were the

principal subscribers to the stock of the companies and, consequently

to a great extent, they controlled the location of the

roads-and hence the steep grades and the crookedness of the

roads. Many of the tavern keepers had erected their buildings

on the line of the old state road and when the turnpikes were




located their influence caused them to pass near their respective





The wagons which were used in hauling freight were built

large, strong and heavy, with very broad-tired wheels with a

capacity to carry 100,000 pounds of freight. They were covered

with white canvass in order to protect the merchandise. These

wagons as early as 1760 were called "Conestoga wagons" for the

reason that they were built on Conestoga creek in Lancaster

county, and the large and powerful horses which hauled them

were first obtained there. They were extensively used outside of

the state in the south and West, and making regular trips they

soon superseded pack horses. In after years they were also displaced

by canal boats and railroad cars. The first load of merchandise

taken over the Allegheny mountain was hauled in 1789

from Hagerstown, Md., to Brownsville, Pa., a distance of 140

miles, by John Hayden at three dollars per 100 pounds. The round

trip took one month.


On the western plains these wagons were known as "prairie

schooners." A trough long enough to feed six horses was hung

on the rear end of the wagon. When feeding time arrived the

trough was fastened to the tongue of the wagon, the horses were

unhitched and tied to the trough and fed. The harness used on

the horses were very large and heavy. The back bands were

fifteen inches and hip straps ten inches in width. Heavy housings

covered the horses shoulders down to the end of the harness. The

traces were iron chains with short, thick links. The drivers carried

narrow mattresses with blankets and a pillow which, when

not in use, were rolled up and securely strapped and placed in

the trough at the rear end of the wagon. At night in the winter

time these beds were opened and spread on the floor before a

large wood fire in the offices and bar-rooms where the wagoners



It is said that Casper Statler's old tavern on the state road on

the top of the Allegheny mountain had a very large chimney with

a fire place twelve feet in width and immense logs of that length

were hauled into the room by a horse (coming in a large door on

one side of the house and going out at the door on the other side)

and rolled on the fire. As many as thirty or forty persons would

frequently sleep on the floor before this huge fire place.




I have frequently seen as many as ten of these teams in line

driving up into the wagon yard in front of the tavern and ranging

them in order. The great number of these teams with the general

increase of travel gave a great impetus to the tavern business.

The teams very rarely made more than twelve miles a day. The

drivers had a very hard time driving during the old-fashioned

winter weather when the snow fell over a foot in depth and drifted

from four to six feet high along the road. I have seen as many

as ten of these wagoners each with a shovel shoveling a passageway

through the snow drifts between the Willows and the Narrows

and they were oftentimes not able to go more than two

miles in a day.


As a general rule the wagoners owned the wagons and teams

which they drove, many of them having considerable means. Only

occasionally they hired teamsters. As a class they were honest,

industrious and frugal. Many of them were farmers and after the

railroads destroyed their business, with true American spirit they

engaged in other pursuits. Many of these wagoners took great

pride in their teams and when one of them had a specially fine

large and strong team of horses he had a string of bells mounted

on the collar and harness of each horse in order to draw attention

to it. But it was a custom when a bell team was unable to

pull the load up a mountain and another team came along without

bells that was able to do it the bells were forthwith handed

over to the successful team. In this way George Smouse with a

Bedford county team of four horses pulled the load of a bell team

of six horses which had stalled on the mountainside and the bells

were given to his team. Some of these old wagoners were very

jovial and imaginative and often told very big stories. An old

Bedford county wagoner often told, so often that he believed it,

that when he was loading his wagon with merchandise in Baltimore

he carried a three-bushel bag of shot from the store to his

wagon and that while doing so he sank knee deep into the pavement.


 These teamsters hauled freight from Philadelphia and Baltimore

to Pittsburg and Wheeling and oftentimes into Ohio, Virginia

and Kentucky. Going east they loaded up with flour, bacon,

cheese, lumber and iron or with whatever freight that was offered.

Going west they loaded up with all kinds of-merchandise and other

freight that was offered. Sometimes they went to Georgetown to




load with salt fish. In 1825 the freight was from three to five

cents for 100 pounds. But later it got down to one to two cents

per 100 pounds.


Many of the owners of teams when no freight was offered

purchased a load consisting of groceries, fish, oysters in the shell,

etc., which they retailed on the road. In fact many of them built

up quite a local trade all along the route with the residents.


Philip Weisel of Bedford had a team engaged in hauling Bedford

mineral water to Baltimore up to 1849, and when he could not

get a load back he purchased a load. David Gardner and William

Cossler drove his team. Samuel Barnhart with-a load of 100,000

pounds of freight on his wagon broke through the bridge at the

Narrows many years ago. A Baltimorean thus refers to the old-

time Pennsylvania wagoners: "Many of our older citizens vividly

recall the days when Pennsylvania avenue was almost blocked

with its long line of Conestoga wagons with their sturdy Pennsylvania

horses and their blue-frocked teamsters moving slowly

down to the Hand House, the Golden Horse, the White Swan or

some other of the many inns along Paca, Howard and Eutaw



Every person who has ever driven a horse knows what a

hitching strap or rum strap is but he may not know the origin

of the rum strap. As the old taverns were very close and thirsty

travellers frequently stopped to imbibe a drink of whiskey or

rum he invariably hitched his horse with a leather strap to a convenient

post, standing before the door for that purpose. Passersby

knew that the traveller was in the tavern taking a drink of

rum so the name of rum strap was very appropriately given to the

hitching strap.




The stage coaches were made large and strong with three inside

seats so as to carry comfortably nine passengers inside and

two outside with the driver. They were hauled by four large and L

strong horses. The first coaches put on the road were made at

Troy, N. Y., and at Concord, N. H., but after a few years Daniel

Shuck erected a large coach factory on Thomas street in Bedford

and thereafter he made nearly all the coaches for the stage companies.

The coach body was suspended on two arched leathers

springs, supported by iron frames both before and behind. Each

coach had two boots made of iron frames and covered with leather




one in front for carrying the United States mails and one in the

rear for baggage. Oftentimes baggage was carried in the front

boot and also on top of the coach, and frequently passengers

were also carried on top.


I remember that in the year 1841 I rode all night from

Schellsburg to Pittsburg, a distance of 91 miles, on top of the

coach as there was no room inside. The fare was $5 and the

time occupied was 20 hours. In 1838 I rode in a coach from Bedford

to Chambersburg, 55 miles, and there I took the Cumberland

Valley railroad train for Philadelphia. In the same year I rode in

a coach from Baltimore to Bedford. We left Baltimore after

breakfast and took supper at McClellan's hotel at Gettysburg

where we met a committee of the Legislature who were investigating

the building of the Gettysburg railroad over South mountain,

then known as "Thad. Stevens' tape worm." The committee,

I think, reported that the road commenced nowhere and ended

in the woods. We reached Bedford the next afternoon. The time

occupied was about 28 hours.


In 1789 a mail route was established between Philadelphia

and Pittsburg, providing a delivery once in two weeks. On August

1, 1804, the first through line of coaches from Philadelphia to

Pittsburg was established, and the time occupied in making the

journey was about seven days-the course was through Lancaster,

Harrisburg, Carlisle, Shippensburg, Bedford, Somerset and



When the turnpikes between Philadelphia and Pittsburg were

completed a coach drawn by four horses covered the distance, 303

miles, in 60 hours. In 1828 a daily stage line was established

between these two cities by James Reeside and Samuel R.

Slaymaker. The fare for some time before and after 1830 was

from $18 to $22.


The pioneer stage proprietor on these roads between Philadelphia

and Pittsburg for carrying the United States mails and

passengers was James Reeside He was the second son of

Edward Reeside and Janet Alexander, his wife, and was

born near Parsley, in Scotland. When an infant he was taken

to Baltimore county, Md., in 1789. Previous to the war of 1812

he was engaged in hauling merchandise from Baltimore and Philadelphia

to Pittsburg and on through to Columbus, O.






An old record shows that a stage coach line was in operation

between Philadelphia, Baltimore and Pittsburg, and the stage

office was in the Exchange Hotel, on northwest corner of Pitt and

Richard streets, kept by Henry Leader,as early as 1826. On December

31, 1830, James Reeside and Samuel R. Slaymaker established

the Good Intent fast mail line, daily between Philadelphia and

Pittsburg to run through in three days, fare $12. John Piper

was agent for the company at Bedford, In 1831 these parties also

established a line of coaches between Philadelphia and Pittsburg

through Bedford and Somerset on the same time and at the same

fare. Presumably the Somerset line connected with the above

first mentioned line at Bedford. These parties sold these two

lines of coaches about 1833-34 to Jacob Peters, ZebaDurkee of

Philadelphia, and Thomas Lindsay, William Lewis, William Win-

dell, George Vance and Samuel R. Slaymaker.


Some six months before the completion of the Cumberland

Valley railroad to Chambersburg, Col. D. O. Gehr and Company

established the "People's Stage Line" between Philadelphia and

Pittsburg-fare $12. In a few years this line was withdrawn and

D. O. Gehr entered into the Good Intent line until the mail was

given to the Cumberland Valley Railroad Company to Pittsburg,

called the "Opposition Swift Sure line"--fare $12.


In 1835 or 36 William Colder of Harrisburg, D. O. Gehr of

Chambersburg and Captain Linhart of Philadelphia established

a line of coaches from Baltimore to Pittsburg-fare $8, time 48

hours. The fare has only been reduced one dollar in fifty years.


The competition was so great at one time between these

stage lines that it was said the Good Intent line carried passengers

free and that the Opposition line paid passengers for riding-

this of course was a mere story but it illustrated the effect of the

competition in a great reduction in the fare. The distance over

the road was divided as nearly as possible with ten-mile drives.

Each team was required to pass over this distance and back each

day, making the daily trip about twenty miles. The teams averaged

from four to five miles an hour. The drivers were provided

with bugles or tin horns and it was customary to blow these on-

their entrance into Bedford. Oftentimes I have seen the opposition

teams coming into town abreast on a full run, meantime the




sound of the bugles or horns intensifying the excitement and

attracting and ever-ubiquitous urchins.




The method of collecting the stage fare and parcel charges

was in this way: The stage companies used large way bills with

printed headings and every landlord or agent was required on the

receipt of passengers, fares or parcel charges to enter the same on

the way-bill with the name of the person, the amount received,

the place of starting, and the place of destination with the date,

and to sign his name thereto. The way-bill was then placed in

a large leather wallet and given to the driver whose duty it was

to hand it to the landlord at the next stopping place. Like entries

were made whenever and wherever any passengers engaged seats

in the coach and then the way-bill was handed to the next driver

and so on to the end of the route. These entries on the way-bills

fixed the liabilities of the landlord or agents for the respective

sums received by them, and the drivers were held responsible for

the safe delivery of the way-bills. The stage proprietors held

regular settlements at fixed periods when all moneys were paid

over and all bills were paid off.


The opening of the main line of state improvements in 1834

diverted the travel from the stage lines during the summer seasons

but they were not wholly suspended between Philadelphia

and Pittsburg until the opening of the Pennsylvania railroad in





Prior to the construction of railroads, all horses, cattle, sheep

and hogs, taken to the eastern markets, were driven on foot from

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Virginia (now West Virginia)

over the National road, and the turnpikes leading from Wheeling

and Pittsburg to Philadelphia and Baltimore. Many of those

coming through Somerset county crossed over from the Somerset

and Washington turnpike to the Bedford and Stoyestown turnpike,

through Shanksville, Schellsburg and Bedford. The horse drover

would generally have about thirty horses; sometimes these were

tied to a long cable, one on each side, but mostly six horses were

abreast, tied to each other, with a rider on one of them. The cattle,

 sheep and hogs were driven in droves, the cattle numbering

about 100, the sheep between 300 and 400, and the hogs about

 200. 1 have often seen two droves of horses, six of cattle, three



of sheep and two of hogs passing through Bedford in a single day.

The horses were driven from 20 to 25 miles a day and the other

animals about ten miles a day. At night the horses were put

securely in stables, the cattle and sheep in pasture fields and the

hogs in enclosed lots. When pasture was scarce hay was hauled

out into the fields and the hogs were given corn. The cattle were

generally very large, many of them weighing 2,000 pounds, and

having very large and wide horns with brass knobs on the ends

to prevent injury when the cattle push each other. In hot and

dry weather the dust arising from the passage of these droves was

stifling and blinding. Oftentimes travellers, on meeting a drove,

 if possible would leave the road or go to one side of it.


The passage of these droves brought a considerable quantity

of money to the farmers and tavern keepers. They also brought

with them many noxious weeds, as the white ox-eyed daisy which

now infests many farms. When possible the cattle were taken

along the streams, especially along the Juniata. At the juncture

of Ray's and Sideling Hills they were driven over the "Three

Mountain road" through Strasburg to Shippensburg. Now the

railroads transport all live-stock, under the regulations of the

National Government as to rest, feed and water.


When the occupations of the stage and wagon drivers were

 taken away by the railroads they all engaged in some other active

 business and their descendants today rank among our most

 active, intelligent and upright citizens.




This was the first Sunday school in Bedford county. It was

founded on or about November 27, 1817, by Rev. Jeremiah Chamberlain,

who was commissioned by the General Assembly and

Board of Domestic Missions of the Presbyterian church, to travel

as a missionary in the west and south. He entered upon his mission

in the autumn of 1817. Stopping at Bedford, he organized

this Sunday school. (I am of the opinion that while on this

journey he also helped to establish union Sunday schools in Mc-

Connellsburg and Somerset the same year). The officers of the

school were: Samuel Riddle, president; Rev. Henry Gerhart,

vice president; Dr. John Anderson, Jacob Bonnett and Charles

McDowell, directors; Dr. John H. Hopkins, treasurer; Alexander

Thomas, secretary; Mrs. Scott, Mrs. Garter and Mrs. Riddle,

directresses of the female department. The school was composed




of all denominations then in Bedford, which were the Presbyterian,

Reformed, Lutheran and Catholic. All the prominent people

in the town, men and women, took part in it. Judge Tod,

afterward a Judge of the Supreme Court, and Judge Thomson,

both Judges of the Court of Common Pleas and members of Congress,

were officers. The school continued in operation as a union

school until 1832, when the German Reformed, Lutheran and

Methodist congregations organized separate schools.




Under the old militia law of 1822 all able-bodied men in

the commonwealth between the ages of 18 and 45 were enrolled,

and required to do military duty two days in every year. After

their enrollment they were divided into companies, battalions,

regiments, brigades and divisions. The officers were elected at

fixed periods. Under the above mentioned act Bedford, Somerset

and Cambria counties constituted the twelfth division and Bedford

county the first brigade.


The law fixed two days for the militia to assemble and parade.

The first muster day was in May when all the enrolled militia

were required to attend at designated places, under a fine of one

dollar. The next, and great parade day was in June when the

several brigades met at their appointed places.


The Bedford county brigade assembled on the commons, then

bounded by John, Bedford and East streets and the alley south of

Pitt street which, with lots and streets, contained about eight

acres. This was review day, when the companies, battalions and

regiments were commanded by regimental officers who were

decked in gaudy uniforms with chapeaus and feathers, and

mounted on splendidly caparisoned horses. On this day all the

enrolled militia were inspected by a brigade inspector. I remember

seeing Acting Brigade Inspectors Samuel Davidson and Daniel

Washabaugh making their inspections many times. On both parade

days the enrolled militia came generally armed with canes, broom

sticks, corn stalks, bean poles, etc., with a few old flint-lock

muskets, oftentimes having a rooster or a coon tied to the tops of

the poles.


On the first day the militia were formed into company lines as well as the officers knew how, the roll was called and the gallant militia were dismissed for that day. The last mentioned day was kept as a general holiday by the public. Men, women and




children assembled in great crowds in the parade ground. The

shop keepers in Bedford erected a number of tents or booths on

the ground along Bedford street and the lot on which the Presbyterian

manse now stands, where they sold cakes, pies, sandwiches,

fruit, nuts with other eatables with small beer and cider.


When the brigade was duly formed in line, they marched with

drum and fife over the parade ground. The arms of the militia

were then carefully inspected by the brigade inspector in gay

uniform riding on horse back. Then there was a recess. In the

afternoon the drum was beaten, the companies were formed, the

rolls were called, after which the entire brigade marched through

the streets of Bedford and were then dismissed. On both parade

days, on dismissal the militia made a rush for the eatables.


In some places burlesque parades were made in which the

militia and their officers were represented in grossly ridiculous

characters. Finally the whole system became so farcical that the

people demanded its repeal. Consequently it was repealed by the

act of April 8, 1842.




But under the original act provision was made for the formation

and regulation of volunteer companies, properly uniformed

and equipped with guns, etc. So far as these uniformed volunteer

companies and their officers, majors, colonels, generals and

brigade inspectors were concerned they were all right and it must

have been a matter of mortification to them to parade at the same

places and on the same days with the motley crowd of ununiformed



The following military companies were in existence in 1832,

to wit: The Bedford Blues, captain, T. B. McElwee; the Bedford

Fencibles, captain, William Fletcher; the Schellsburg Guards, Captain

Rock, and the Lafayette Guards, of McConnellsburg. These

four companies together with the Washington Guards, Captain

Walker, of Fannettsburg, Franklincounty, were in attendance at

the encampment in Bedford on the 17th and 19th of October,

1832. The camp was under the command of General Dunn, of

Franklin county, and Col. James Burns and Maj. Samuel M. Barclay,

of Bedford county. When the President issued his proclamation

against the nullification proceedings of South Carolina the

Bedford Blues, Captain McElwee, offered their services in January




1833 to the President. The Friend's Cove Guards, captain, George

Speaker, paraded in Rainsburg on February 22, 1833.


On September 27, 1833, a meeting was held in Bedford to

organize the Washington Artillery in place of the Bedford Fendibles

whose term was about to expire. On April 17, 1849, an act

was passed to revise the militia system and provide for the training

of such only as shall be uniformed and properly armed with

guns. This act repealed all former laws and supplements on the

subject of the militia. Subsequent legislation provided for the

establishing of the present National Guards. During the existence

of the old militia system military titles were as abundant as

Vallombrosa leaves.




In 1833 Rev. Baynard R. Hall of Indiana established the

above named academy in Bedford. Within one year it was in a

flourishing condition, having upwards of one hundred boys and

girls, a number of whom were from different parts of Pennsylvania,

New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia and Ohio and a few from

New Orleans and Canada.


The boys were required to wear a uniform and parade at 6

 a. m., and carried wooden muskets of the regulation size and

color, with bored barrels, ramrod, imitation iron locks, bands

etc. They were made to resemble the army muskets in every

particular. Among the students was Rev. Dr. John T. Duffield,

Professor of Mathematics in Princeton College.




It is the pride of Pennsylvania that the people have always

manifested great interest in the education of the children, and

especially poor children, free of charge. The state constitution

adopted in 1790, only seven years after the acknowledgment of

our independence as a nation, contained this clause: "The Legislature

shall, as conveniently may be, provide by law for the establishment

of schools throughout the state, in such manner that the

poor may be taught gratis." Owing to the sparseness of the

population, and their inability to bear heavy taxation, and the

necessity of the state government to aid in the building of state

roads, the construction of turnpikes and granting aid to county

academies, charitable and benevolent institutions, it was found

impossible to carry out the above mandatory clause of the constitution

for many years.




But during the inability of the state to aid in this great work,

the people, according to their means, built school houses and

employed teachers to instruct their children. These school houses

were generally built of logs, very small, without regard to ventilation

or comfort of the children, and with no pretense of architectural

style. But they were the best that the means of the people

permitted. As the houses of the settlers were very widely

scattered, the school houses, from necessity, were often remote

from the houses and the children were compelled to walk great

distances in the winter season, through snow, slush and mud.


Outside of the towns the school masters, as they were called,

were mostly itinerants. They traveled through the country districts

until they succeeded in securing a school. The tuition was

fixed at a certain sum for each scholar per month, and was paid

by the parents. Some of these teachers were very fine scholars,

and for that reason they were given the preference in the towns.

While others were indifferent scholars and some of them intemperate-

those of course had great difficulty in obtaining schools.

Only the rudiments of reading, writing and arithmetic were

taught-but occasionally a duly qualified teacher taught some of

the higher branches.


But in the last analysis of the case the people did the best in

all things that they were able to do and no more could reasonably

be expected of them. In writing this article the following

incident arose in my mind: Many years ago I drove thirty-five

miles, in March through Walker county, Alabama, and in that

entire distance I saw only three houses that had glass windows.

All the other houses were small log houses, without glass and

instead thereof, pieces of burlap for windows. Presently I came

to a log church with log seats, with places for doors and windows

sawed out but having neither door nor window sash. I remarked

to the gentleman who was with me, "your people do not take

proper care of the house of God." He sorrowfully replied, "Our

people are very poor and they take the same care of the church

that they are able to take of their houses and no more ought to

be expected of them." My prayer was that God would help them

not only to repair the church, but also their homes. Now, this

was about the condition of our early settlers in regard to their

school houses.


To return to the subject. My recollection of a country school




in the years gone by is this: The school master sat upon a high

stool on an elevated platform, in appearance the very embodiment

of all knowledge and all wisdom, overlooking the whole

school. He usually held a long rod in one hand as an intimidation

to unruly boys and very frequently he used it on their backs

with considerable animation.


He was absolutely without any discriminating faculty, or

perhaps he thought all boys deserved to be whipped, for when

several in a class were noisy he usually punished the whole class.

And when he punished the wrong boy, who protested his innocence,

the teacher with a suave smile would reply, "it is all right

for after while you will deserve a whipping." From my observation

and experience I am of the opinion that those old-fashioned

teachers did not like boys and took great pleasure in practicing

athletics on their innocent backs. But boys will learn things, if

not their lessons, so when a castigation was expected their slates

were very adroitly slipped up their backs to make them armor

proof-and I never knew a slate to be broken in one of these



In recitation a class would march up before the master of

the birch and often times show how much they didn't know. Bad

boys were sometimes kept in school after it was dismissed and

at other times were made to stand on one leg for a given time, or

perhaps wear a fool's cap; but after all, when the smarting of the

birch ceased, the boys loved their old teacher.


The girls-well, I quite forgot them-I guess the teacher's

tender heart would not permit him to punish them. I will now

bid good-by to the old fossilized school system.




In 1834 the Legislature enacted a law providing for an entire

new school system, leaving it optional with the respective school

districts in the commonwealth to adopt it if they saw proper.

Nearly all the townships in Bedford county adopted the system

within a few years. However, there were a few townships

that refused to do so. But by the act of April 11, 1848, the common

school system was taken and declared to be adopted in

every township in the commonwealth.


Only one township in the county remained refractory after

the adoption above mentioned and it only yielded to the court in





At this date the whole system Is in fine working order throughout the county under the wise, capable and efficient management of County Superintendent J. Anson Wright.


The constitution of 1873 required the Legislature to appropriate

at least $1,000,000 each year for the support of the schools.




Up to July 12, 1842, a debtor was liable to be arrested and

imprisoned for any debt which he owed, and the only way he

could get out of jail was to pay the debt if he had the means, if

not, he could only be discharged under the insolvent laws of the

state, after three months of imprisonment, by surrendering all

the property he owned to his creditors. But while he was in

prison his creditors were liable to pay the charges of his confinement.

However, by the act above mentioned, imprisonment for

debt was wholly abolished except in a few specific cases not

founded on contract. Thus the advancement of civilization and

Christianity with the stroke of a pen, wiped out forever this relic

of barbarism.




Under the old marital laws the very moment a woman married

all her property, real and personal, became vested in her

husband-she could own nothing in her own right. But at the

same time in case the wife was indebted at the time of her marriage

her husband became liable for all her debts. Now, however,

under the benign influences of the same causes which operated

in favor of debtors, as mentioned above, married women have

been granted relief. They can now own and dispose of their own

property at will, and it is no longer the property of her husband;

and on the other hand the husband is no longer liable for his

wife's debts contracted before marriage.




On August 25, 1841, James Rice murdered James McBurney

on Ray's Hill, now in Fulton county, and September 2, 1842, he

was executed in the jail yard in Bedford.


Bedford county was organized in 1771 and, up to the year

1907, this Is the only execution, in accordance with the laws of

the commonwealth, in the county. But perhaps it should not have

been the only one., Between an improper sympathy and the leniency

of the court, sometimes murderers escape the punishment

due their crimes.







Pope has well said, "Man's inhumanity to man makes countless

millions mourn." But thank God, while this may be true to

a limited extent, it is no longer general for through the tender

and benign influence of the Christian religion the condition of

the whole civilized world has been greatly ameliorated. Hospitals,

sanitariums, almshouses and homes have been provided for the

poor, the sick, the blind, and the helpless.


Neither education nor civilization, alone or conjoined, could

have touched the sorrow and suffering world with such love and

tenderness as Christian hands. Therefore, I take great pride, as

well as unspeakable pleasure, in the fact that the good Christian

people of my native county, at a very early date, provided a home

for our poor and unfortunate people, where they were tenderly

cared for.


This house was provided in 1842. Previous to that time, under

the act of June 13, 1836, the overseers of the several boroughs

and townships were authorized to contract for house or lodging,

and employing the poor, with such persons as they might-deem

proper, etc. Under this law the poor were generally placed in

charge of the lowest bidder, without proper regard for the comfort

and welfare of the poor and, in many instances, the lives of these

poor, unfortunate people were miserable and wretched. Thanks

to a merciful God that the system has been abolished forever.

And so long as slimy and corrupt politicians are prevented from

touching the new home with their fingers, the poor will be well

cared for.


The directors and steward should never be chosen or selected

for political servility but solely because they are good, honest,

capable, and Christian men. The qualification for a competent

steward should be experience, as well as the cardinal virtues. The

term "Poor House" is not sanctioned by law and it is repulsive

to every tender heart, and it is especially harsh-sounding to the

poor inmates. Let the Legislature change the name to "The

Bedford County Home." The tickets for voters should be made

to conform to the law.



Five Presidents of the United States have been in Bedford at




different times and I have met all except George Washington and

it was not my fault that I failed to see him for he came too soon

for me. Washington came to Bedford during the French-Indian

war in 1758 as senior colonel of the Virginia regiments, Colonel

Byrd commanding the other. He remained here probably two

weeks when he marched with General Forbes' army to Du Quesne.

His second visit was on October 19, 1794. He came via Cumberland,

Md., where he had reviewed the Virginia and Maryland

troops there assembled. He was accompanied by four dragoons

and Henry Knox, Secretary of War, Alexander Hamilton, Secretary

of the Treasury, and Richard Peters, Judge of the United States

District Court. Governor Mifflin also came with him. On his arrival

he was saluted with fifteen guns. Here he reviewed the

Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops. All these troops numbering

13,000 were under the command of Gen. Henry Lee, of Virginia,

father of Robert E. Lee, on their way to suppress the

Whiskey Insurrection in western Pennsylvania and Virginia.

Washington remained here two days, having his headquarters In

the Espy building opposite the Bedford House. He returned to

Philadelphia, stopping over night with William Hartley at Mt.

Dallas. He proceeded from thence through Bloody Run by the

old Sprout tavern, the Three Mountain state road, through Fort

Lyttleton, Burnt Cabins, Fannettsburg, Shippensburg and Carlisle.


There were three memorable presidential campaigns-1840,

1844 and 1848-which I remember very distinctly. In the first

and last of these campaigns I had the pleasure and honor of

shaking hands with Gen. William H. Harrison and Gen. Zachary

Taylor, who were the Whig presidential candidates for the years

1840 and 1848 respectively.




In the campaign of 1840 Gen. William H. Harrison, of Virginia,

the Whig candidate for the presidency, passed through Bedford

on his way to Pittsburg. He was cordially received by the

citizens of Bedford generally. This campaign was the most wonderful

and exciting that I ever witnessed. It was attended with

all kinds of spectacular exhibitions which were successfully designed

to captivate the popular eye. The Whig party in Bedford

provided the following attractions:


1. A log cabin was erected on the lots-on Pitt street, now

occupied by Dr. Gump's office and the several shops and stores



up to the alley. It was large enough to hold several hundred

people, and here nearly every evening mass meetings of the Whig

party were held and bitter partisan harangues delivered. (2).

They had a frame of a large ball constructed some fifteen feet in

diameter and covered with canvas, containing all manner of political

mottoes. Whenever a meeting was held this large ball was

rolled along the roads to the place of meeting. However, it failed

to make many trips. (3). A small log cabin was placed in a

wagon and hauled from place to place whenever there was a

meeting to be held. On the top of the cabin sat a man with a live

raccoon on a pole. (4). Wherever there was a meeting to be

held it was arranged to have one or more wagons on hand, with

barrels of hard cider which was dealt out to all callers free of

charge, at the rear end of the wagons.


All the large bills announcing these meetings contained a

life-size of a coon. I remember seeing Jasper E. Brady, a member

of Congress, of the Franklin district, in Chambersburg in 1840

sitting on top of a log cabin mounted on a wagon with a live coon,

in the great Whig procession. The battle cry was "Tippacanoe

and Tyler too." These spectacular devices had their effect upon

the masses and General Harrison was elected by a large majority

over Martin Van Buren. After his inauguration only a few weeks

had transpired when he was taken ill very suddenly and passed

away on April 4, 1841, sorrowfully mourned by the whole nation.




James K. Polk was elected to the presidency over Henry Clay

under the war cry of "Polk, Dallas and the tariff of 1842." The

excitement in this campaign lacked all of the spectacular exhibitions

which characterized the Harrison campaign of 1840. But

both parties held large mass meetings in Bedford and large delegations

came to both meetings in wagons, carriages and on horseback

from all parts of the county. The young Democrats generally

carried poke stalks for canes.


During his term of service as President, Job Mann, our Congressman,

prevailed on him to visit Bedford Springs. He came

here with Mr. Mann and spent nearly a week. He was given a

cordial reception by the citizens of Bedford without respect to

party. Mr. Mann, General Bowman and other prominent Democrats

desired to take him to Schellsburg as old mother Napier

gave him upwards of 300 majority. So a large party of Demo-




crats including the above named persons and William T. Daugherty,

Samuel H. Tate, James Reamer, Joseph F. Loy, Francis C.

Reamer, myself and many others whose names I do not remember,

accompanied the President to Schellsburg. We stopped at

the hostelry of that old Berks county Democrat, Isaac Mengle, who

gave us an elegant dinner. The people of Schellsburg and the surrounding

country came in troops to welcome him. The President

expressed himself highly delighted with the trip, the warm hospitality

and cordial reception of the people and the well-cooked

and plentiful dinner. We returned to Bedford late in the afternoon,

and the carriage in which I rode broke down and our party

did not reach Bedford until late that night.


I cast my first presidential vote for James K. Polk In 1844.

At the time of the election we had no daily papers nor telegraph

wires. We depended altogether on the news brought by the daily

stage coaches. I remember for hours and for days the news was

very uncertain as to the result of the election. Finally after several

days of suspense a great many of us remained up until three

o'clock a. m. waiting for the arrival of the mail coach when Dr.

Jonas McClintock, of Pittsburg, jumped from the coach and before

we could ask him he announced that New York had gone for Polk

and that secured his election. It is unnecessary to relate how

some of the waiting party were rejoiced and how some others were

dejected. A few days thereafter the Democrats had a barbecue

and roasted a whole beef in Major Sellers' meadow near Boydstown.





Soon after the termination of the Mexican war in which

General Zachary Taylor had so gloriously distinguished himself

he was nominated for the presidency by the Whig party. He

stopped at Bedford on his way to Pittsburg and the citizens of

Bedford and vicinity, irrespective of party, gave him a warm and

cordial reception. They also tendered him a grand ball at the

Bedford Springs Hotel and although I was a Democrat I was appointed

on the committee of arrangements and accepted the honor

with pleasure. His famous command in the hotly contested battle

of Buena Vista, "Give them a little more grape, Captain Bragg,"

won him a victory as triumphant over Lewis Cass as it did over

the Mexican army.


He was inaugurated March 4, 1849, and in 1850, a little over




one year, the nation was startled with the sorrowing intelligence

that the President in the inscrutable providence of God was

stricken down to the grave.


A short time before the arrival of General Taylor, Vice President

George M. Dallas also stopped at Bedford on his way to

Pittsburg. He was cordially received by the citizens of Bedford.

He was a candidate for the nomination to the presidency.




This distinguished statesman had been a regular attendant

at the Bedford Springs since 1840, and in consequence of his frequent

visits and his affable and agreeable manners he was well

known and had many warm personal friends in Bedford. When

he visited Bedford many distinguished statesmen and politicians

of all parties and from many sections of the union came here.

In 1856 he was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic

party. In that year the present Republican party was organized

in Philadelphia by a fusion of the northern Whigs, the Free Soil

Democrats and the Abolition party. They nominated Fremont for

President and the dissatisfied northern and southern Whigs nominated

Filmore. Mr. Buchanan was elected. When at Bedford

Springs he usually fixed a day to meet his friends at the Bedford

House in Bedford. But in the campaign of 1856 he received his

friends at my house on Pitt street. Mr. Buchanan continued his

visits to Bedford Springs during his occupancy of the presidential

chair and afterwards until his death. While here during his

presidential term every day he received a special mail pouch with

his mail. He signed many official papers at Bedford Springs.




After the defeat of the Mexican army by the Texans at the

battle of San Jacinto, Texas declared her independence, which was

acknowledged by the United States in 1837 and by England,

France and Belgium in 1840, but Mexico refused to do so. In

1845 Texas was formally annexed to the United States. Mexico

protested against it as an act of warlike aggression, and to guard

against a threatened invasion of the United States Gen. Zachary

Taylor, with his troops, was ordered to the southern frontier.

The Mexicans crossed the Rio Grande and commenced hostilities

on April 26 of that year. General Taylor moved forward in March

and crowned several splendid victories with the glorious triumph




at Buena Vista. Then President Polk called for a large number

of volunteers; two regiments were assigned to Pennsylvania but

many thousands of her patriotic sons promptly offered their services.

After the two regiments were filled, two additional companies

were accepted and assigned to the Second Pennsylvania

regiment, under Col. John W. Geary. Dr. Samuel D. Scott of

Bedford was made assistant surgeon.


"The Independent Grays" of Bedford, commanded by Samuel

M. Taylor, and Captain Caldwell's company from Mifflin county

were the successful companies. In February 1847 Captain Taylor's

company was accepted. It contained eighty men, besides

officers, "of the noblest and bravest sons of the county." The

gallant company left Bedford on May 22, escorted by many citizens

of the county in wagons and carriages as far as Stoyestown,

among them being the venerable Robert Fyan. Josiah E. Barclay

and I accompanied them to Pittsburg, where they arrived on May

28 and were immediately mustered into service. After reaching

Mexico, under General Scott this company performed valiant

service-was engaged in many hard-fought battles and entered

in the City of Mexico when it was captured.


A few members of the company were killed, many were

wounded, and a considerable number died of wounds and disease.

After the termination of the war, by the conquest of a large portion

of Mexico, the Second Pennsylvania regiment, including the

Independent Grays, were honorably discharged at Pittsburg on

July 10, 1848. A number of citizens of the county met the Bedford

company at Stoyestown and brought the remnant of the

weary and worn soldiers to their homes.


The officers were: Samuel M. Taylor, Capt., died December

6, 1847; David H. Hofius, 2d Lieut., Resig. November 18, 1847;

John Keefe, 2d Lieut., Resig. February 11, 1847; Lewis W. Smith,

Capt.; Biven R. Davis, 1st Lieut.; A. E. Schell, 2d Lieut.; James

 A. Sipes, 1st Sergt.; Jacob Picking, 2d Sergt.; George Leader, 3d

Sergt.; William Bishop, 4th Srgt.; John Feather, 1st Corp.; Allen

Sleek, Robert Taylor, Jas. Stewart, Corporals; Wm. Nulton, drummer;

Nathan McMullin, fifer. Their gallant Captain Taylor died,

after a brief illness, in the City of Mexico on December 6, 1847,

and his mortal remains now repose beneath the shadow of an ap-

propriate and deserving monument, erected by loving relatives

and friends, in the Presbyterian cemetery in Bedford.



In addition to Captain Taylor's company, Capt. Martin

Moore's company of infantry and Capt. Charles Campbell's

company of artillery (both of Franklin county) were largely recruited

in this county, and many young Bedford boys enlisted





In 1848 the first telegraph office was opened in Bedford, but

not until the citizens rented a suitable office for the company. A

few of us then contributed the necessary money and rented an

office in the old Watson building, where Mr. Covalt's store now

stands. Elwood Harmer was the first operator. He married a

daughter of Thomas B. Miller of Bedford.




The hundred years ending in 1850 were rounded out and

crowned with the erection of the grand little county of Fulton

by an Act of Assembly dated 19th of April, 1850, whereby all the

territory lying east of Ray's Hill and east Broad Top mountain

was taken from Bedford county


Before the separation Bedford county embraced an area of

1,485 square miles, or 950,400 acres of land, and a population of

30,619. After the separation-in 1850-Bedford county had

remaining, 1,003 square miles, or 641,920 acres, and a population

of 23,052. In 1850 Fulton county had 442 square miles, or 282,880

acres, and a population of 7,567. In 1900 Bedford county had a

population of 39,468 and Fulton county had 9,924. Bedford was

laid out in 1766, McConnellsburg in 1786.






Bedford County-Its Original Territorial Extent


Certain writers and compilers of Pennsylvania history have

assumed and stated that the County of Bedford, under the Organic

Act of 1771, was restricted to the territory lying and being in the

southwestern part of the Province, that is to say, it only Included

within its limits that part of the Albany Purchase of 1754 embraced

in the present counties of Bedford, Fulton, Blair, Huntingdon,

and parts of Centre, Mifflin and Snyder; and that part of the

Fort Stanwix Purchase of 1768 within the limits of the present

counties of Washington, Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland, Cambria,

Somerset, and parts of Allegheny, Armstrong, Indiana, Clearfield,

Clinton and Cambria, as shown by Map 2:


These statements are not sustained either by the law or the

facts of the case. They have arisen from an unwarranted construction

of the Act of 1771 and a confusion of the Purchase or

Treaty lines, made by the Proprietaries with the Indians, in the

exercise of their personal rights, with county lines established by

the General Assembly, with. the concurrence of the Governor.


The purpose of this article is to elucidate the subject and to

show, definitely, that not only the above-mentioned territory was

included within the bounds of Bedford county by the said Act of




1771, but that all territory embraced within the purchase from

the Indians by the Commonwealth, at Fort Stanwix in 1784, included

in the present counties of Beaver, Lawrence, Mercer, Crawford,

Butler, Venango, Warren, Forest, Clarion, Jefferson, Elk,

Cameron and parts of Allegheny, Beaver, Armstrong, Erie, Indiana,

Clearfield, Centre, Clinton and part of McKean, were also

included within the limits of Bedford county, as shown by Map 1.


Before entering into the heart of the subject it will be necessary,

for a proper understanding thereof, to consider, briefly, several

preliminary and pertinent questions arising under the charter

for the Province, the concession and frame of government established

by William Penn.


The Charter, Concession, and Frame of Government

On the 4th of March, 1681, Charles II granted a charter for

the Province of Pennsylvania to William Penn, constituting him

Proprietary and Governor thereof. As Proprietary, he was made

the absolute owner of the lands within the Province, with full

power and authority to purchase and sell the same, according to

his own pleasure and for his own use. As Governor, he was invested

with full civil power and authority, and was enjoined to

perform certain public duties and obligations. Among his enumerated

public duties was the obligation to establish a system of government

for the Province, with the approval of the freemen

thereof, subject to fealty to the Crown. By virtue of the powers

and obligations contained in the charter, William Penn, before

leaving England, prepared a system of government and a concession,

dated April 20, 1682, which he submitted to the freemen of

the Province for their approval, and they approved the same.

The frame of government provided for a General Assembly,

to be chosen yearly by the freemen, with power to make and

enact the necessary laws; and that these laws "shall be in this

style, viz: By the Governor, with the consent and approval of

the freemen in General Assembly met." It also contained provisions

for Courts of Judicature, the appointment of Judges, the

erection of towns, boroughs, cities and counties by law.


Penn's Personal Rights

When Penn arrived in the Province in 1682, he found the

entire grant of land in the possession of the Iroquois, or Six

Nations of Indians, and their subject tribes, with the exception of

a few settlements of Swedes, Dutch and Finns on the banks of




 the Delaware river. He then announced the following rules in

regard to his treatment of the Indians:


1. That the title of the natives to the soil should be acquired

from them, by purchase and treaty. 2. That no land

should be sold until the title of the natives had been extinguished

by purchase. 3. That no settlement should be made or allowed

on lands outside of the treaty or purchase limit. 4. That the

Indians should not sell any of their lands to any other person

than the Proprietary. In a moral aspect, the possession of the

soil by the Indians was good beyond controversy yet, in a legal

aspect, according to the barbarous usages of the nations of

Europe, who then recognized no other right than their own

strong arm and invincible power, the Indians were considered as

having no right whatever to the lands, because they were not



The grant to Penn contained no reservation of the right of

the Indians to the soil, and while he considered that he had an

absolute grant of the land yet, at the same time, in his love of

justice, in his wisdom and magnanimity, he recognized their

claim to the soil subject to the encumbrance that they could not

sell the same to any other person than himself or his successors.

The Indians, by various treaties, agreed to this arrangement.

But, notwithstanding the above-mentioned rules, the whites persisted

in settling on the unpurchased lands of the Indians. In

consequence of this persistence, and in order to preserve peace

with the Indians, the General Assembly was invoked to enact the

necessary laws to enforce this policy. Many very stringent, even

drastic laws, were enacted between the years of 1700 and 1769

to protect the Indian lands from depredations and settlements by

the whites.


In pursuance of Penn's recognition of the right of the Indians

to the soil, and the several laws to protect this right, the

Supreme Court held that the soil belonged to the Indians and that

settlers could obtain no title to lands, prior to their purchase

from the Indians, by the Proprietary, either under the laws or the

proclamation of 1768. Moreover, the provincial authorities

forcibly compelled the removal of the white settlers from the unpurchased

Indian lands lying west of the Tuscarora mountains in

1750, and west of the Allegheny mountains in 1768, and burned

their cabins.




Penn's Purchase of the Indian Titles


In pursuance of his wise and humane policy, the titles of the

Indians to certain large tracts of land, were purchased by the

Proprietaries in 1682, 1718, 1736, 1754, 1758 and 1768. The

tenure of William Penn to the lands within the Province was by

free and common socage or by feudal tenure.


The Land Office


Penn, as Proprietary and absolute owner of the lands, established

a land office for the sale of lands and commissioned certain

officers to attend to the duties thereof. He received the proceeds

of the sale as his own property, and paid the expenses of

the land office out of his own estate. In like manner, when

treaties were made with the Indians and their titles in the lands

were thereby extinguished, he paid the purchase money out of

his own estate. In neither case did the Province defray any of

these charges. Judge Huston says, "The Proprietary most carefully

and zealously distinguished between his private and political

rights. His right to the soil and to dispose of it according to his

own pleasure, he never lost sight of. He no more allowed the

Legislature to interfere with this than our laws would suffer our

Legislature to interfere with the rights of our great or small

land owners, in the sales of what they hold in fee simple. * * *

But he resisted, and with the aid of the King and council resisted

effectually, all the attempts to interfere with him or his legal representatives,

as to the terms and conditions on which his lands

were disposed of, whether leased, sold or given away." (Huston

on L. T. P., page 5).


No land office was established by law until after 1776, when

the Revolution had changed the nature of affairs. Since that

time all lands have been sold under Acts of Assembly. It will

thus be seen that the Provincial Government had nothing to do

with the land office, or the sale of the lands, or the treaty of the

Indians for the purchase of their titles. These matters appertained

entirely and exclusively to William Penn as Proprietary.


Before the Revolution there were no Acts of Assembly that related

to the modes or terms of sale by the Proprietaries. Purchases

from the natives, grants, and reservations were conducted

at their will and pleasure. Judge Yates says, "The Proprietaries

kept their land office in their own way and transacted their own

business as they thought proper. They were jealous of every




interference with their land office and considered it subject to

their sole control."


The Erection of Counties


The policy of erecting new counties was purely and exclusively

a political or governmental one; it was in no way connected

with or dependent upon the individual authority of Penn, as Proprietary,

to make treaties and purchases of lands from the Indians.

While it is true that Penn and his Council exercised the

authority to erect the three counties of Bucks, Chester and Philadelphia

in 1681, before the election of the General Assembly, yet

after the meeting of the first General Assembly at Chester, on the

7th of May, 1682, all new counties were established by the concurrent

acts of the Assembly and the Governor. And thereafter

William Penn, alone, had no authority, either as Proprietary or

Governor, to create a new county. Upon a careful examination

of the several Acts of Assembly erecting new counties, up to the

time the Indian titles were entirely extinguished by the treaty

at Fort McIntosh in 1784, it will be found that, in every case, the

said counties were erected in response to the petitions of the

inhabitants, representing to the Governor and the General Assembly

"the great hardships they lie under by getting at so great distance

from the town where the Courts of Justice are held and

public offices kept, etc." Only six counties were formed prior to

1750 and up to 1784 when all the Indian titles in the Commonwealth

were entirely extinguished, only fifteen counties were



The following counties, which may properly be styled mother

counties, were organized so as to include all the territory in the

Province not already included in some other county, to wit: Chester in 1682; Lancaster, from part of Chester, in 1729; Cumberland, from part of Lancaster, in 1750; Bedford, from part of Cumberland, in 1771. Cumberlandcounty was bounded northward and westward by lines of the Province and southward by the Maryland line and York county.


The Provincial Government had several excellent reasons

for including all the land in the Province within the limits of

some county. 1. Any excluded territory would have had no

court of Judicature to enforce rights and punish crimes. 2. When

Cumberlandcounty was erected in 1750, the French claimed to

the crest of the Allegheny mountains, and Virginia, all territory




west of Laurel Hill and south of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers, and

in order to resist these claims the disputed territory was

probably included within Cumberland county and afterwards In

Bedford county.


It has been shown that, under the charter, the concession

and frame of government adopted by the freemen of the Province,

William Penn, as Proprietary, was the sole and absolute owner

of the land, with full authority to buy and sell the same, at his

own pleasure and for his own use; and, as Governor, together

with the General Assembly, constituted the Legislative branch of

the government. Therefore the enactment of a law erecting a

new county was as obligatory upon the Governor as upon the freemen

of the Province. There can be no controversy in regard to

the fact of the law, while there may be a difference of opinion In

regard to its interpretation. This point must be borne in mind

in the further consideration of the subject.


The Boundaries of Bedford County as Designated in 1771


In response to a petition of a large number of the inhabitants

of the western part of Cumberland county for a new county, the

General Assembly, with the concurrence of the Governor, on

March 9, 1771, erected the County of Bedford, with the following

boundaries, to wit: Beginning where the Province line crosses

Tuscarora mountain, and running along the summit of that

mountain to the gap, near the head of Path Valley; thence with

a north line to the Juniata; thence with the Juniata to the mouth

of Shaver's creek; thence northeast to the line of Berks county;

thence along the Berks county line northwestward to the western

bounds of the Province; thence southward according to the several

courses of the western boundary of the Province to the southwest

corner of the Province; and from thence eastward with the

southern line of the Province to the place of beginning. (By the

explanatory act of March 21, 1772, the territory lying between

Jack's and Standing Stone mountains was annexed to Bedford

county). It will be observed that the above Act of 1771 positively

declares that when the northeast boundary line reaches the

Berks county line, "it shall extend along the Berks county line

northwestward to the western boundary of the Province."


The Western Berks County Line


It will, therefore, be necessary to examine the Act of March




it, 1752, erecting Berks county, so far as it relates to Bedford

county, before the northern and western boundary lines of Bedford

county can be clearly ascertained. The northwestern boundary

line of Berks county is fixed as follows: "By a line at the

distance of ten superficial miles, southwest from the western bank

of the River Schuylkill, opposite to the mouth of a creek called

Monocacy, to be run northwest to the extremity of the Province."

This is plain language and clearly means just what It says, that

the line should be extended In a northwestward direction until

it reached the northern boundary line of the Province. As confirmatory

evidence of this position an old map, now in the Land

Office, made by William Scull, an experienced surveyor, In 1770,

shows, in addition to the three original counties of Bucks, Chester

and Philadelphia, the counties of Berks, Cumberland, York, Lancaster

and Northampton. On this map the line of Berks county,

designated in the act as the line to be run northwest to the extremity

of the Province, is drawn through to the northern line of

the Province, intersecting that line somewhere near the line that

divides the present counties of Warren and McKean. Therefore,

there can be no doubt that, by the extremity of the Province, the

General Assembly meant the charter limits thereof.


The extension of this Berks county line to the northwest extremity

of the Province will pass through the present counties

of Snyder, Union, Clinton, Cameron and McKean and thus will

throw all the counties west of that line and west of the Tuscarora

mountains, into Bedford county, to wit: Allegheny, Armstrong,

Beaver, Butler, Blair, Crawford, Cameron and Clinton in part,

Clarion, Clearfield, Centre, Cambria, Elk, Forest, Fulton, Fayette,

Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Lawrence, Mercer, Erie,

McKean in part, and Warren, Somerset, Washington, Westmoreland

and Venango. Having shown, conclusively, that the Berks

county line in question extended to the northern boundary of the

Province, in McKean county, it now remains to show that the

northeastern boundary line of Bedford county followed this line to

the same point in McKean county. It was clearly the legislative intent

that the eastern boundary line of Bedford county should follow

the said Berks county line until it reached the boundary line

of the Province in a northwest direction, and from that point of

intersection to run along the said northern boundary line of the

Province until it reached the western extremity of the Province,




and thence along the western and southern boundary lines to the

place of beginning.


The Extent of Bedford County Considered


It is difficult to understand the process of reasoning by which

the limit of Bedford county is confined to the southwestern part

of the Province. The parties who take this position assume that

under the Organic Act, when the eastern boundary line reached

the Berks county line, it should not follow along that line of the

Province, as required-but that it should diverge southwest to

the western boundary line of the Province, by following the purchase



To show the absurdity of this position it is only necessary to

mention the fact that this Berks county line was crossed by two

purchase lines prior to 1771, when Bedford county was formed,

to wit: the Purchase Lines of 1754 and 1768. Now if the Assembly

had intended that the Bedford county line should only follow

the Berks county line to a Purchase Line, and then diverge southwestward,

it would most certainly have prescribed which purchase

line was meant and the direction thereof. But as the act is

silent on this point there can be no fair inference drawn to sustain

their position. Moreover, if the purchase line of 1754 should be

followed, it could only go as far as the Allegheny mountain where,

under the release of the Proprietaries in 1758 to the Indians, this

Purchase Line terminated. And if the purchase line of 1768

should be followed, instead of going northwestward, as required, the

Bedford county line would run southwestward to the Ohio river,

in Beaver county, considerably over two degrees south of the required

northern boundary of the Province. It must, therefore, be

apparent to every discerning mind, that the words "thence along

the Berks county line northwestward to the western extremity of

the Province" in the Act of 1771, and the words "thence by the

Berks county line to the western bounds of the Province" in the

explanatory act of 1772, are mandatory, so that when the eastern

line of Bedford county intersects the Berks county line it shall

follow it northwestward to the northern boundary of the Province,

and thence to the place of beginning.


It is both irrational and contradictory to say that going

southwestward is going northwestward. But that is precisely the

dilemma in which these parties have placed themselves. It may

be proper to say here that the words "Province," "the line of the




Province," "the extremity of the Province," and "the bounds of

the Province" are invariably used in all state papers as referring

to the charter limits of the Province; and in no case are they

used as referring to a Purchase Line, or Treaty Line, made with

the Indians.


The same construction given to these words In the acts erecting

Cumberland, Northumberland and Westmoreland counties

should be given to the same or similar words in the acts erecting

Berks and Bedford counties. There is no instance given in any of

the Acts of the Assembly erecting new counties, in which a Purchase

Line is designated as a boundary line, up to February 23,

1773, erecting Westmoreland county, in which it Is declared that

when the eastern boundary line reaches the purchase line it shall

then go due west to the limits of the Province. In every case the

boundary line of the Province, or some natural monument, as a

mountain, hill or river, is mentioned. Only two reasons are given

in support of the claim that the purchase line should be followed.

These will be shown to be mere inference, without any foundation

in law.


Indian Treaty or Purchase Lines


The assertion that the Provincial Government in no case

erected a new county until the territory proposed to be included

therein had been previously purchased from the Indians, is untrue.

The fact is that not a single county was so erected until Washington

county was organized in 1781. Even in 1773, when Westmoreland

county was formed from Bedford county, it included a

considerable territory, to which the Indian titles were not extinguished

until the McIntosh Purchase of 1784, to wit: portions

of the present counties of Armstrong, Butler, Beaver, and Allegheny.

In the fall of 1749, just before the erection of Cumberland

county, there was a general discontent among the Indians

on account of the white settlers over-running their lands west of

the purchase line. And only a few months after the erection of

said county the Sheriff, with a number of Magistrates and officers,

was sent to remove the settlers and burn their cabins, which was

accordingly done. How then can it be claimed that the Province

never erected a county until after the Indian title had been purchased?

There is no relation whatever between a county line and

a purchase or treaty line. As already stated, a treaty or purchase

line was the individual act of the Proprietary. The erection of a




county was the solemn act of the General Assembly, with the concurrence

of the Governor.


The Formation of Townships by the Court


The other reason is based on the fact that the Court of Quarter

Sessions of Bedford county, at its first session in 1771 in

establishing new townships, included within them only the territory

embraced in the purchase of 1768, to which the Indian titles

had been extinguished. The reason for this course, by the court,

is manifest. The territory included within the new townships was

pretty thickly settled and the only wagon road in the Province,

from Carlisle to Fort Pitt, ran through this entire region, while

the excluded territory, afterwards purchased by the Commonwealth

in 1784 at Fort McIntosh, was a howling wilderness containing

thousands of Indians and no white settlers, and was without

roads. But the court made no decision that the excluded territory

was not included in Bedford county; in fact the question

was not raised. Moreover the judges of the court were all lay

judges. Judges learned in the law were not required until 1791.

There is, therefore, no force in either of the above reasons.


The entire western portion of the Province was included in

Cumberland county in 1750. This fact proves conclusively that in

establishing new counties the government did not consider the

question whether the territory had been purchased from the

Indians or not. That question only appertained to the settlement

or sale of land by the Proprietary outside of the purchase limit.

Therefore it cannot be soundly argued that the Fort McIntosh

purchase in northwestern Pennsylvania was not included in Cumberland

county in 1750, or in Bedford in 1771, because at those

dates the Indian title had not been extinguished. It was, in fact,

included in both of said counties by virtue of the acts erecting



In conclusion, it is claimed in this article that on March 9,

1771, all the territory within the Province of Pennsylvania, lying

and being west of the counties of Berks and Cumberland, was

embraced within the County of Bedford, (as shown by Map No.

1), excepting the Erie triangle. This territory was outside of

the Province and was claimed by New York, Massachusetts and

Connecticut, who ceded their respective claims thereto to the

United States,-New York in 1780, Massachusetts in 1785 and

Connecticut in 1786. Pennsylvania purchased the title thereto




from the United States on September 4, 1788; and the title of the

 Indians, January 9, 1789. (See article in full in Centennial Gazette,





Morrison's Cove


It is a thankless task to correct gross historical mis-statements

but it is a duty not to be shirked. "Jones' History of the

Juniata Valley," while otherwise a very interesting book, locates

the massacre in Morrison's Cove, which he calls "The Great Cove."

This is a glaring error--Morrison's Cove was never before so

called--this name properly belongs to McConnell's Cove, now in

Fulton county, and in all the old provincial records it is called

"The Great Cove" or "The Big Cove." The massacre took place

among the Scotch-Irish settlers in McConnell's, or "Big Cove,"

in 1755. On the other hand, Morrison's Cove was not settled

until after 1762 and then by the Germans. The massacre of the

Dunkards in Morrison's Cove was in 1777.


Mr. Jones also says that the name of the cove was changed

from "Great Cove" to "Morrison's Cove" as early as 1770, in

honor of a Mr. Morris. Now, the fact is more likely that the cove

was called after one of the several early settlers of the name of

Morrison, who settled on the head waters of the Juniata river.

The records show that in describing the eastern boundary line of

Greenfield township in 1798, "Morris Cove" is named, but I think

this was intended for "Morrison's Cove."




Church Services


The history of Bedford county of 1884 contains this unwarrantable

statement: "Although the earliest services of the Christian

religion, in what is now Bedford, were those of the Episcopal

church, being held by the chaplains of the British troops occupying

the fort (Raystown) in and prior to 1755, there was no organized

parish here until 1861."


The facts were these: the fort was not erected until early

in August 1758 by the advance column of Colonel Boquet's forces.

Among these was the Pennsylvania regiment consisting of 2,700

men, divided into three battalions, commanded by Lieutenant

Governor Denny--the first battalion under Lt. Col. Joseph Shafer,




Chaplain, Rev. Thomas Barton, Episcopalian; the second, Col

John Armstrong, Chaplain, Rev. Charles Beatty, Presbyterian; the

third, Col. James Burd, Chaplain, Rev. John Steel, Presbyterian.


Early in June all the above troops, except 100, left Carlisle

for Raystown and reached there early in July. Chaplain Beatty

arrived July 8, Chaplain Steel on July 12, but Chaplain Burton

did not arrive until July 23. The delay in the case of Chaplain

Burton was that nearly all the Pennsylvania provincial troops

were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, except a few Germans and

Huguenots, and they were dissatisfied with his appointment, and

asked for the appointment of Rev. Andrew Bay. Under these

facts it is absolutely certain that the first religious services at

Fort Raystown were held by Chaplains Beatty and Steel, as Chaplain

Burton did not get there until July 23, and he afterwards accepted

a chaplaincy in the British army. Here are the records: Pa. Archives, vol. 3, p. 447, 552; vol. 4, p. 483, 551, 556; vol. 5, p. 634, 750; vol. 6, p. 30; vol. 7, p. 226.


Rev. John Steel was commissioned as captain of a company

in 1755 and marched with his company in the attack on the Indian

village of Kittanning in 1756. After the war was over he

and Adam Hoopes, Indian interpreter, located warrants for lands

on ShawneeChabin (Cabin?) creek, near Schellsburg.




Rebecca Walter


Rebecca Walter, aged 10 years, and Casper Statler lived in

the same neighborhood in the Conococheague settlement in 1755.

One Sunday morning, while the mother was at church, the father

was killed, the buildings destroyed and three children taken captive.

Later, the baby was killed and Rebecca, though scalped, was saved

by a squaw. In 1762 the Indians surrendered a number of their

captives, among them Rebecca and her brother. Notice had been

given the parents of stolen children to be present. During the

seven years of captivity Rebecca had forgotten her mother tongue

and only upon hearing a hymn sung in her childhood did the little

girl recognize her mother.


In 1758-1759 Casper Statler was an ensign in Captain Woods'

company, in Fort Bedford, going to and returning from Fort Du

Quesne under General Forbes. Casper Statler, the ensign, and

Rebecca Walter, the scalped captive, were married after her re




lease and settled in Somerset county. My father, Peter Schell,

married their daughter Eleanor in 1808. Rebecca's brother preferred

to live among the Indians and ran back to them before

reaching Pittsburg. No word was ever heard in regard to him.




The Dismemberment of Bedford County


In 1772, the act erecting Northumberland county detached a

small area of Bedford county along the Little Juniata. In 1873

the act erecting Westmoreland county detached all the territory

west of Laurel Hill and the ridge dividing the waters of the Susquehanna

and Allegheny rivers to the purchase line.


September 20, 1787, old mother Bedford was further dismembered

by detaching Huntingdon county; April 17, 1795, by

the erection of Somerset county; 1798 the Little Cove (Warren

township) was annexed to Franklin; March 1, 1800, the territory

between Allegheny mountain and Little Allegheny was annexed

to Somerset; March 12, 1804, a portion was attached to Cambria;

February 1846 Greenfield and North Woodbury townships were

included in Blair county; April 19, 1850, the last partition was

made by including in the County of Fulton, all the territory lying

east of Ray's Hill and Broad Top mountain.






Ayr was erected about 1790. Dublin was formed from the

northern part of Ayr at October session 1767. At the same time

the townships of Bedford, Cumberland and Colerain were erected.

All five of the above named townships were included in Bedford

county by the Act of 1771.




Newspapers Published in Bedford County


1805-The Bedford Gazette was founded by Charles

M'Dowell, September 21 (Democratic). 1812-The True American,

founded by Thomas R. Gettys. 1827--The Democratic Inquirer,

founded by Thomas R. Gettys, now The Bedford Inquirer.

1850--The Jackson Democrat, founded by Sansom and Carpenter;

removed to McConnellsburg, after the erection of Fulton county.




The name was then changed to The Fulton Democrat. 1868--The

Bedford County Press, founded by J. C. Long & Company, at

Bloody Run (Everett), now Everett Press. 1881--The Bedford

Republican, founded by Lutz and Smith, who purchased The Inquirer

and the two papers were merged in the name of The Bedford

Inquirer. 1884--The Saxton Herald, founded by Thompson

and Wilson. 1890--The Hyndman Bulletin, founded by the--

Hyndman Bulletin Company. 1893--The Everett Republican,

founded by John C. Chamberlain. 1894--The Pennsylvania

Hawkeye, founded by Rev. L. M. Colfelt. 1905--The Osterburg

Press. 1905--The Mountain Echo, Jesse H. Claar, youngest editor

in the state, aged 15 years.




Iron Works


1806--William Lane built Lemnos Forge and Slitting mill

on Yellow Creek, two miles from Hopewell. 1812--Swope and

King built Bedford Forge on Yellow Creek. 1814--John Rea carried

on a cut-nail factory in Bedford. 1827--Elizabeth Furnace,

afterwards Bloomfield, was built at Woodbury by Swope, King &

Co. In 1845 the furnace was removed to Bloomfield; later to

Blair county and named Rodman Furnace. 1822--Hanover Forge

built by John Doyle, nine miles south of McConnellsburg. 1827--Hanover

Furnace built in the same place by John Irvine.


There are now five modern-built furnaces in Bedfordcounty,

two at Riddlesburg, two at Saxton and one at Everett. There

are none, at this time, in Fulton county. 1868--The Kemble Coal

and Iron Company built the first furnace at Riddlesburg and in

1869 built a second one. 1879--Robert Hare Powell of Philadelphia

began to build the Powellton Furnace opposite Saxton and

completed it in October 1882. It is now owned by Hon. Joseph

E. Thropp.


1874--The Everett Iron Company, Everett, was incorporated.

James P. Kimball, Jacob B. and Samuel D. Williams were the

prime movers in the organization. The company erected a large

coke furnace and purchased large acreage of coal and iron ore

lands In Bedford county. June 1, 1889, the said property was

conveyed to Hon. Joseph E. Thropp. Since that date Mr. Thropp

has carried on the business of making coke iron very successfully.

Lake ore is generally used.




When a few weeks ago I was asked to prepare this little historical

pamphlet in time for Old Home Week, I had no idea of

the irksome labor involved in the task of compressing several

hundred pages of manuscript into this small space, and, besides,

from the necessity of the case, I was confined to a naked statement

of facts, without comment, and forced to discard all collateral

matters, however closely related to the subject matter. I (unclear)

this crude and unmethodical sketch.


I desire to extend to all "Home Comers" a warm and cordial

welcome to Old Mother Bedford.



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