Chapter 22

West Franklin

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Organization of the Old Township of Franklin from Territory in Buffalo and Sugar Creek -- Limestone Township -- First Election in West Franklin -- First Owners of Land Tracts -- Transfer of Property in Early and Late Years -- John Shields' Bequest to the Free Presbyterian Church of Worthington -- His Wife's Gift -- The Craig Woolenmill -- Flouringmill -- Craigsville -- Buffalo Furnace -- Buffalo Woolenmill -- Regular Baptist Church -- James Barr and the Town of Worthington -- Early Assessment of the Village -- Incorporation -- Evangelical Lutheran Church -- U. P. Church -- M. E. Church -- Free Presbyterian Church -- Academy -- Schools -- Statistics -- Sketch of James Barr -- Local Geology.

The petition of divers inhabitants of Buffalo and Sugar Creek townships was presented to the proper court of this county, at June sessions, 1830, setting forth that they labored under great inconvenience because these townships were "entirely too large for the convenience of their inhabitants;" that, by laying out a new township to be composed of parts of both the old ones, the proposed new one would be a great accommodation to the people inhabiting it; and prayed the court to appoint "three impartial men to inquire into the propriety of granting the prayer of the petitioners," and that they should make a plot of the proposed township. The court appointed Elisha Davis, John Shields and John Thompson, whose report in favor of organizing the township of Franklin, signed by two of the viewers, Davis and Shields, was filed December 23, 1830. At the same sessions a remonstrance of some of the inhabitants of both these old townships against the organization of the proposed new one was presented and filed, setting forth: "That by an application of a few of the inhabitants of said townships an order for the erection of a new township out of parts thereof hath been granted," etc. They, therefore, remonstrated against the confirmation of the report because the old township of Sugar Creek would be left quite a narrow strip of its poorest parts, "incapable of supporting the poor, if any should unfortunately be so reduced, and it is generally believed that four or five paupers will shortly have to be supported by Sugar Creek township, and it appears as if the rich and wealthy parts were endeavoring to throw that burden on a few who are comparatively poor."

Franklin township was, nevertheless, organized with the boundaries reported by the viewers: "Beginning at a sugar tree on the bank of the Allegheny, being the southeast corner of a tract of land in Sugar Creek township, formerly owned by John Orr, but now by Archibald Dickey; thence west, 11 miles 26 perches to the Butler county line; thence by the Sugar Creek [line] 6 miles and 28 perches to a post on the south bank of a large run "-- the one next north of Rough run --" thence east in part along the line of Franklin election district 9 miles 110 perches to a post on the bank of the Allegheny river, 20 perches below the northeast corner of William Phillips' land; and thence by the Allegheny river, being the boundary of Kittanning township, the several courses and distances thereof to the beginning." That Franklin election district was formed in 1829 out of parts of Buffalo and Sugar Creek townships: "Beginning at the place where the southern boundary of depreciation tract No. 283" -- conveyed by William Linley to David Reed in 1815 -- "crosses Glade run; ;thence west to the Butler county line; thence by the line of said county to a point thereon west of the northwest corner of the tract on which Davis' mill was erected; thence east to the line of the election district of the borough of Kittanning; thence by said line to the place of beginning." The record of the first township election in Franklin is not accessible to the writer. At September sessions, 1857, was filed and read the petition of divers inhabitants of Franklin and Sugar Creek townships, for the organization of a new township out of parts of those two old ones, and Hugh Campbell, Joseph McCartney and James Stewart were appointed viewers, whose report in favor of the organization of the township of Limestone was filed and read, and the court, September 16, ordered a vote of the qualified electors of Sugar Creek township, of those residing both within and without the territory sought to be embraced within the new township, on the second Tuesday of November. That election was held, and resulted thus: Against the new township, 101; for it, 91. The boundaries of Limestone township were to have been: From the lower side of the mouth of Limestone run, past John Ambroses's house, west of an old house then on William McClatchey's land, to include the village of Middlesex, on to the land of Moses Dickey, on the line between the two old townships and through the territory of Sugar creek to J. Ellenberger's spring, and thence to a point on the Allegheny river near the foot of Earley's riffle, and thence along the river to the place of beginning, containing about 25 square miles.

A petition of numerous citizens of Franklin township was filed in the court of quarter sessions of this county, March 17, 1866, praying for a division of their township by a line beginning at a point on Daniel Shaffer's farm, and at the corner between schoolhouses Nos. 4 and 7, and running in a northerly direction, so as to follow the dividing line between the subdivisions of territory represented by schoolhouses Nos. 4 and 7, 6 and 9, and 5 and 8. Viewers were appointed the same day. This matter was continued June 9, and their report was filed and read September 4, and December 8 the vote of the qualified electors of the township was ordered to be taken on the third Friday of January, 1867, the return of which was filed January 19, showing 180 against and 176 for the division. Another petition for the division was filed April 8, and viewers or commissioners were appointed, whose report in favor of the division was filed May 25. The court, June 6, ordered the vote of the qualified electors of the district to be taken on the first Saturday of August, the return of which was filed November 6, showing 191 votes for and 33 against the division. The court, January 27, 1868, decreed, ordered and adjudged that Franklin township be divided , the new or eastern, to be called East Franklin, and the other or western part, to be called West Franklin, the area of the former being about 28 and that of the latter 26 1/4 square miles. Schoolhouse No. 11, commonly called Moore's, was designated by the decree of the court as the place for holding elections in East Franklin, and the house of Andrew Sample, in the borough of Worthington, in West Franklin.

At the first election held in West Franklin the following township officers were elected: Justice of the peace, William Claypoole; constable, R. J. Atwell; supervisors, Peter Kerr, J. T. McCurdy; school directors, Christopher Leard, for 3 years; J. C. Minteer, for 2 years; Peter Kerr , for 1 year; overseers of the poor, Christopher Leard, James Minteer; assessor, J. Y. Minteer; judge of election, J. C. Morrison; inspectors of election, James Claypoole, J. A. Minteer; auditors, John F. Brown, Samuel Dumm; treasurer, John Craig, Jr.; clerk, William Claypoole.

Turning to that portion of the Gapen map, in what is now the northwestern part of this township, is seen the eastern and minor part -- the major part being in what is now Butler county -- of a tract surveyed by John Gapen to Mahaffey "401" acres, the eastern portion of which on the other map bears the name of Hugh McElroy, 91 acres and about 51 perches of which, in this county, partly in Sugar Creek adjoining the Gapen surveys to Martha Craig. John Bond, William B. Clymer and Amos N. Mylert agreed, September 6, 1852, to sell to Dennis Boyle, which agreement was afterward consummated, and Boyle conveyed the last-mentioned quantity to Edward Boyle, August 22, 1870, for $400. The northwestern corner of this parcel is now occupied by C. Harrigan.

East of that Mahaffey tract there is an extensive vacant space N. E. and S. on the Gapen map, but on the other is an octagonally shaped tract, the northern part of which is in what is now Sugar Creek township, 229 acres and 18 perches, on which Bryan Kelly made an improvement and settlement in July,1799, which was surveyed to him by George Ross, April 19, 1802. His name does not appear in any of the records of this county, unless he was identical with "Barney Kelly," who was assessed with 100 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, in 1805, at $31, and in 1806, at $51. He must have resided on the northern part of his tract, for after the organization of Sugar Creek township his name is on its assessment list until 1812, when he removed to Butler county. For several years he packed iron, salt and other merchandise from east of the Allegheny mountains. The records of this county do not show the transfer of his interest in this tract of land to any one else.

Adjoining the Kelly tract on the east, on the Lawson & Orr map, is the tract about 400 acres, surveyed in the olden time to Cornelius Sweeney, on which Thomas Hindman settled probably in the latter part of the last century. He was assessed with that quantity of land, 1 horse and 2 cows, as early as 1805, at $202, the next year at $252, and continued to be assessed with a greater or less quantity until 1839. Two patents were granted to him, dated respectively February 23, 1836, and July 5, 1839. He and his son John conveyed 17 acres and 140 perches included in the first of the patents to James Brown, November 1, 1839, for $124. John conveyed 115 acres included in the same patent to Thomas McKee, August 12, 1840, for $924; 97 acres and 35 perches (in Sugar Creek) included in the second patent to Daniel Boyle, June 6, 1843, for $900; 98 acres and 14 perches of second patent to Th. McKee, May 13, 1846, for $864.06, and 150 acres of first patent to William Ramsey, September 8, 1846, for $3,000. McKee conveyed 115 acres and 80 perches to Andrew H. McKee, December 25, 1852, for $630, and 108 acres and 14 perches to James B. McKee, July 17, 1855, for $___, who conveyed the same to Augustus Uhl, the present owner, April 1, 1856, for $1,800.

Adjoining the Thomas Hindman tract on the southeast was one, 392 acres and 126 perches, on which Manassah Coyle made an improvement and settlement, probably about 1800. It was surveyed to him by Judge Ross, May 7, 1807, in whose notes of survey it is described as being adjoined on the northwest by Cornelius Sweeney and Thomas Hindman. Coyle was assessed, as early as 1805, with 400 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, at $216. He was assessed the last time with the land in 1808, and then at $427. It is noted on the assessment list of Sugar Creek township, in which this tract then was, "Transferred to Miles McCue." The patent to Coyle is dated June 5, 1811. August 19, 1812, he conveyed 140 acres to McCue for $590, and 196 acres to Enos McBride for $250. McCue, by his will, dated August 19, 1812, witnessed by his neighbors, Patrick McBride and Edward Wiggins, and proven by them and registered March 13, 1821, devised his parcel of the Coyle tract to his sons Neil and Roger, 21 acres and 117 perches of which they conveyed to James Brown, November 19, 1839, for $87.38. Neil and his family continued to occupy the residue until he conveyed it to his son William P., the present owner, November 9, 1863, and a portion of it thereafter until his death. The consideration for that conveyance was one of those mutual domestic arrangements by which the grantee agrees to maintain the grantor and his wife. In this instance the grantors, or parents, were to be furnished by the grantee, annually, with certain specified quantities of provisions, and allowed the use of certain rooms in the mansion-house, a certain quantity of pasturage and various other privileges, during their natural lives. In the description of the parcel thus conveyed, the Hindman tract is mentioned as the "Cornelius survey" -- the scrivener probably inadvertantly omitted "Sweeney" -- "and so mentioned in the Coyle patent," that is, as an adjoiner. The place of beginning in the boundaries of this parcel is at a corner on the line between the Wiggins and Coyle tracts, "ten rods west of the old Reu corner, including the Reu tract." The eastern portion of the Coyle tract included at least a part of what appears to be "Joseph Irwin's claim" on the Gapen map, and a narrow strip of it extends on the other map, across or to the eastern side of Little Buffalo creek. The parcel which Brown purchased from the McCues and Hindmans he conveyed to A. L. LeDoo, 139 acres and 114 perches, April 1, 1852, for $2,300, which, as containing 148 acres, more or less, he conveyed to James P. Hartman, March 29, 1865, and he to J. T. Hohn, the present owner, March 12, 1866, for $4,500. There was a schoolhouse on this Hohn parcel when Robert Brown lived in this neighborhood; Herman Cook, teacher. Among the pupils were J. E. Brown, and the late Neil McCue. McBride conveyed 50 acres of his parcel of the Coyle tract to Nathaniel Patterson, September 9. 1828, for $220, and 149 acres to John Y. Stewart, July 4, 1839, for $500, which his administrator conveyed to Philip Templeton, June 30, 1839, for $1,005.75. Patterson was first assessed with 100 acres and 2 cows in 1820, at $37, with a sawmill in 1822, and with that 50 acres parcel and a gristmill in 1826, and was assessed with the latter until 1861.

The tract, 340 acres, adjoining the one last above noticed, was settled and improved by Peter Pence about 1800 -- probably two or three years before. As early as 1805 he was assessed with 300 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, at $181, and the next year, with the same and an additional cow, at $186. By his will, dated November 2, 1811, and registered March 2, 1812, he did not devise any part of this tract to any one. It was assessed to his son Henry until he and the rest of his co-heirs conveyed their respective interests therein to Joseph Shields, March 9, 1833, for $50 each, except John Pence, who conveyed his interest to Shields, for the same amount, June 7, 1834, which the latter, by his will, dated June 17, 1852, and registered May 16, 1857, devised to his son David, who had conveyed 234 acres, including probably 30 acres of the tract east of Little Buffalo, to James B. McKee, March 31, 1850, for $2,500. There is an apparent discrepancy between the dates of the will and the last-mentioned conveyance. It is recited in the latter that Joseph had conveyed the land to David, November 2, 1845, and that the patent was granted to Joseph, December 20, 1813. The probability is that the patent for this tract was granted to Joseph and John Shields, June 9, 1836, for 330 acres and 156 perches, and the latter released his interest in 204 acres and 71 perches to the former, June 2, 1842, for $50, and that Joseph had either sold or agreed to sell the last-mentioned quantity to David, which he afterward devised to him.

On the Lawson & Orr map, adjoining the Pence tract on the south, is a narrow one of considerable length from east to west -- its western portion somewhat narrower than its eastern, and forming with its western adjoiner two angles, the southwestern one acute, and its northwestern one obtuse, containing about 170 acres, on which John Shields settled and established his tannery in 1816. The patent for this tract was granted to him March 7, 1828. By his will, dated September 10, 1862, and registered March 7, 1864, he devised his mansion-house and 170 acres and 114 perches of land to his wife, and a tract of 146 acres, adjoining that one on the north, to her during her life, which latter tract his executors, James Brown, of Slate Lick, and John Craig (of Samuel) conveyed to Martin Guiser, September 8, 1866, for $2,700. He directed his executors to sell a lot of 5 acres and 70 perches, partly in Worthington and partly in the township, and pay the proceeds of the sale to the elders of the Free Presbyterian church of Worthington at the rate of $40 annually, "for supporting the pastor, or supplies to the church for preaching the gospel." The amount paid to the elders for that purpose was $200.50. He directed that what remained after satisfying various legacies, to be paid to the treasurer of the American Missionary Society in the city of New York, to be applied to its charitable uses and purposes. If there should not be enough to pay all the legacies for which he had provided, he directed that the farm, on which John Stewart then lived, be sold as soon after his wife's death as could be reasonably done, and whatever remainder there might be, after discharging the legacies, to be paid over to the Iberia college, Morrow county, Ohio, under the control of the Free Presbyterian church. His widow, Mrs. Mary Shields, by her will dated December 6, 1864, and registered January 26, 1866, authorized her executors, John Boyd and John Brown, to sell all her property, personal and real, and, after satisfying her debts, expenses and divers legacies, to appropriate the balance to the trustees of the board of education of the Presbyterian church of the United States, to be "applied to the education of young men for the gospel ministry." Her executors conveyed 170 acres of her real estate to Findley Wilson, August 3, 1866, which he conveyed to Joshua Nickle, the present owner, June 29, 1868, for $3,000.

Southwest of the Kelley and Coyle and northwesterly of the Pence and Shields tracts, on the Gapen map, is one nearly a trapezoid in shape, on which are inscribed "Robert Jordan," "407.63" -- its southeasterly end being 221 and its northwesterly 144 perches long, traversed southwesterly by two parallel runs, the easternmost one nearly through the center, and the other one between it and the northwestern end of the tract. On the other map, the same tract has the inscriptions "Edward Wiggins, 408a," who made an early improvement and settlement on it. He was assessed with it, 1 horse and 1 cow, in 1805, at $111, and the next year, with an additional horse and cow, at $140. The patent for this tract was granted to McCall and Wiggins, November 5, 1819. They made partition and released to each other, June 25, 1825, McCall to Wiggins, 216 acres and 77 perches, and Wiggins to McCall, 191 acres and 86 perches. Wiggins conveyed 112 acres of his purpart to his son-in-law, William Blaine, January 7, 1843, for the proper and sufficient maintenance of himself and his wife during the rest of their lives. Blaine conveyed his entire parcel to William Denny, February 25, 1853, for $896, 39 acres and 155 perches of which he conveyed to Patrick Denny, June 21, 1864, who conveyed the same to James Kinsley, the present owner, May 21, 1866, for $425. William Denny conveyed the residue of his parcel, 72 acres, to Geo. S. Ross, the present owner, October 2, 1873, for $1,900.

The McCall purpart, containing by a later survey 201 acres and 64 perches, was included in the sale by McCall's heirs to Brown, Gilpin and Johnston, 163 acres of which Johnston conveyed to Peter Graff, October 5, 1857, for $1,304, and which the latter conveyed to Andrew Hindman, the present owner, October 27, 1864, for $2,100.

The northwestern end of the Jordan-Wiggins tract on the Gapen map is adjoined by the John Jordan tract 403 1/2 acres, about three fourths of its territory being in what is now Butler county -- the portion of it in this county making, with the county line, a heptagon in shape. This tract was improved and settled by John Donaldson, probably about 1797. He was assessed with 400 acres, 1 horse and 1 cow, in 1805-6, at $121. The patent for this tract was granted to him and McCall November 23, 1827. They having made partitions, McCall conveyed 150 acres and 53 perches, mostly on this side of the county line, to Donaldson, November 3, 1830, which the latter conveyed to Andrew Minteer, May 17, 1836, for $700, who conveyed the same quantity to James Minteer, November 17, 1840, for $700, on which he built a sawmill, in 1854, which was operated until 1859.

South of that tract was one for which a patent was granted to Samuel Milligan, March 6, 1838, who conveyed it to John Milligan, Sr., July 12, and he to John Milligan, Jr., subject to the maintenance of Joseph Milligan, who conveyed 30 acres and 40 perches to John Beemer, March 31, 1856, for $360, on which he afterward built a limekiln.

Southeast of the John Jordan tract is a vacant area on the Gapen map, except the inscription "John Ellis," which in some of the records is written "John Elliott." On the other map is a long, narrow, rather irregularly-shaped tract, 367 acres and 96 perches, the central part of which is traversed in a southeastern course by the Buffalo creek, on which James Hindman made an improvement and settlement in March, 1797, and which was surveyed to him by George Ross, December 15, 1801, to whom the patent for 368 acres and 40 perches was granted January 23, 1816, on warrant dated March 7, 1807. He was assessed in 1805 with 305 acres, 1 horse and 3 cattle, at $173. By his will dated July 9, 1845, and registered May 6, 1846, he devised the land in this tract and the parcels which he had purchased from John Griffin and Samuel S. Harris to his sons, Andrew, George, John and William, to each a specified quantity. John appears to have lived on the northwestern part of this tract, now occupied by Joseph Baker, to whom John had probably in his lifetime sold or agreed to sell 106 acres, reserving 13 1/4 acres for the benefit of his minor child, Margaret. The conveyance therefor to John appears to have been mislaid or lost, for his son, Joseph, and his daughters, intermarried with Philip Griffin and John P. Milligan, and their husbands undoubtedly intended to supply the want of that conveyance by making one to Baker, who singularly is the party of the first instead of the second part in their deed, which is not signed Griffin and his wife; and, again, those who signed that deed dated December 14, 1867, receipted for the purchase money, $900, to themselves. Perhaps an inadvertant contretemps of the scrivener.

South of that part of the John Jordan-McCall-Donaldson tract, mainly in this county, including, perhaps, parts of "McNitt's Claim" and "Improved Land" on the Gapen map, is a long, narrow tract on the other map, whose southeastern end projects eastward like the foot of the letter L, with the inscription "A. Smith, 400a." It was improved and settled by Mary Gallagher, whom Smith married. It, 1 horse and 1 cow were first assessed to him on the Buffalo township list in 1812, at $26, and the next year at $226. Smith and his wife, March 22, 1831, conveyed the southeastern end of this tract, supposed to contain 150 acres, "to be laid off by running a line along the fence that runs from the shop, near the turnpike road, in the direction of the said fence across the said tract." They conveyed that parcel to John Douglass for $200, which he conveyed to Archibald McCullough as containing 105 acres and 74 perches, March 1, 1837, for $527, to whom the patent for it was granted April 14, 1838. He conveyed it to James Walker, March 14, 1846, for $800, and the latter to Nicholas Clark, April 3, 1850, for $2,200. The 300 acres remaining after the sale to Douglass were divided by inquest, heretofore mentioned,*(1) into six purparts which, though varying somewhat in quantity, were each valued at $396.37 No. 1 was taken at the appraisement by James Minteer, as guardian of Andrew McCoy Smith, a minor child of James G. Smith, who conveyed it to Nicholas Clark, February 18, 1854, for $300; No. 2 by John, the eldest son of Abraham Smith, who conveyed its 37 acres and 138 perches to Nicholas Clark February 9, 1850, for $700; No. 3 by William Smith; No. 4 by George Morrison, alienee of Mary Van Horn, nee Smith; No. 5 by Hugh Daugherty alienee of H. N. Lee, who was the alienee of Joseph B. Smith, and No. 6 by Abraham Smith, Jr., by whom it is still occupied.

Southeast of the James Hindman and east of the Abraham Smith tract is unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map, but on the other the Patrick McBride, an irregularly shaped one, 384 acres and 91 perches, which was surveyed by George Ross to McBride, April 28, 1802, by virtue of his previous improvement and settlement. Its southeastern part is crossed by Big Buffalo creek. The patent for this tract was granted after Patrick's death, June 25, 1838, to Michal McBride for himself and to trust for the rest of the legal heirs of his father. Hugh McBride sold his interest in this tract to John Gillespie, who conveyed 116 acres and 100 perches to Nicholas Clark, June 2, 1848, for $1,000; 17 acres and 106 perches of which Clark conveyed to James Blain, April 2, 1858, for $925. Michael McBride conveyed about 20 acres to John McBride May 13, 1841, which the latter conveyed to William Blain, March 28, 1842, and which he conveyed to James Blain, February 16, 1863, for $300. Michael also conveyed 120 acres to John Blain, June 27, 1849, for $1,000.

South of the western half of the John Shields and east of the James Hindman and Patrick McBride tracts, on the Gapen to "Thomas Jordan," "418 3/4" acres, an octagon in shape, and traversed in a southeasterly course by the Big Buffalo creek, with three tributaries nearly parallel to one another, flowing into it from the north-northeast. on the other map are inscribed : "A. McCall and Sam'l Taylor, 400a." Taylor probably made an improvement and settlement on it before 1800. He was assessed with it, 1 horse and 1 cow, in 1805, at $121, and in 1806 at $125. The patent for it, $416 acres and 8 perches, was granted to McCall and Taylor, February 13, 1809. McCall conveyed 79 acres and 155 perches to Samuel Clark, August 14, 1838, for $159.88. The rest of McCall's interest in it was included in his assignment to Du Pont, and in the latter's reconveyance to McCall. Taylor's interest was levied on under a judgment in favor of David Edwards for $114, besides costs. Fi. fa. No. 17, of March term, 1825, inquisition held and property condemned. After returns of several writs, "not sold for want of a sufficient bid," it was finally sold by Jacob Mechling, sheriff, on seventh Pluries Vend. Ex. No. 80, June term, 1827, to Eben S. Kelly, 140 acres, for $202, which S. S. Harrison and wife, formerly Mrs. Kelly, and Eleanor, Emily and Mary Kelly, heirs of Eben S. Kelly, conveyed to John Craig, September 15, 1849, for $800, who conveyed 122 acres and 38 perches to Ludwig Guiser, July 18, 1856, for $730.55.

The residue of the McCall purpart, 208 acres and 82 perches, was conveyed by McCall's heirs to Brown, Gilpin and Johnston, 175 acres and 67 perches, of which they conveyed to Peter Graff, March 17, 1858, for $877.10, of which he conveyed l6 acres to William F. Rumberger, December 15, 1860, for $90; 10 acres and 47 perches to John Crawshaw, December 21, for $200; and 117 acres and 18 perches to Crawshaw and Frederick Ruth, April 7, 1865, for $1,307.

This tract was called "Samos": after an island, one of the Sporades, in the AEgean Sea, the modern Archipelago, near the western coast of Asia Minor, about midway between the site of the once magnificent and often rebuilt city of Ephesus and the island of Patmos.

Adjoining "Samos" on the east is unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map on which is inscribed "John Craig," but on the other map is a tract with boundary lines along its eight sides, the southeastern corner of which touches the northeastern corner of depreciation lot No. 250. In its southern part about sixty rods from its southwestern boundary is the junction of Big and Little Buffalo creeks, northeast, east and southeast of which is about one-fifth of its territory, its southeastern point being a very acute angle. It bears the name of William Stevenson, who occupied it several years for Craig. The improvements began March 1, 1793, and the settlement in October, 1795, and was surveyed to Stevenson by George Ross May 7, 1801. A warrant for 200 acres of it was entered in Deputy Surveyor Ross' office, December 24, 1794, which had been granted to Aaron Wor. Stevenson was assessed with 200 acres, one horse and 2 cows in 1805, at $77, and continued to occupy under Craig for several years. James Karr, Sr., was also an early occupant under Craig of a part of this tract. The patent for it was granted to John Craig, Sr., May 24, 1836. It had been settled by his son Samuel at or before the beginning this century, on the southwestern part of which on or near the left bank of Big Buffalo creek he erected a fulling-mill with which, 400 acres and 1 horse he was assessed in 1805, at $20, and in 1806 at $200. The carding of wool into rolls was begun here about 1814. The fulling-mill was assessed to him until 1821, when it and the 200 acres, with which he had been for several years assessed, were assessed to his brother, John Craig, Jr., who continued the fulling and carding until 1835, when, according to recollection of John Craig (of Samuel), his uncle, John Craig, Jr. and Robert Cooper entered into a partnership for manufacturing flannels, blankets and other woolen goods. The passing remark may here be made, that the patent for this tract of land was granted to John Craig, Sr., May 24, 1836. Cooper sold his interest in the factory to John Craig, Jr., and James Craig, September 1, 1837, by whom it was operated for several years. John Craig, Sr., conveyed 80 acres of this tract to John Craig, Jr., July 18, 1836, for $400. The factory building was burned, December 14, 1843, and a larger one was erected soon after on the same site. John Craig, Sr., by his will, dated September 5, 1836, and registered April 5, 1850, devised to John Craig, Jr., that part of this tract on which the latter then resided.

William F. Rumberger became a partner in the woolen factory in 1856, the firm name being Craigs and Rumberger, until James Craig sold his interest to him and John Craig, May 26, 1862, when he conveyed to them his interest in the factory and the 103 perches of land on which it is located, 1 acre and 77 perches, included in the patent to John Craig, Sr., and the 24 acres and 69 perches of "Samos," for $3,700. John Craig conveyed his interest in the factory and those 4 parcels of land to Rumberger, February 11, 1867, for $10,000. He and John P. Scott entered into a copartnership, which continued two or three years, when the latter sold out his interest, and David Gregg and ____ Richardson became partners and still do business under the firm name of Rumberger, Greggs & Co. On Friday night, December 15, 1871, just 28 years and 1 day after the last-mentioned fire, their factory was consumed by a fire caused by one of the employees attempting to fill a large ignited lamp. They soon erected a larger building on and adjoining the site of the old one, in which they manufacture daily, 1000 yards of flannel and numerous blankets. They have also started a stocking factory in the woolhouse on the opposite side of the road, which is capable of knitting, daily, 216 pairs of socks. Craigs & Rumberger furnished the troops recruited at Camp Orr with a large number of blankets, in the winter of 1861-2, for which, on account of some irregularity, they have never been paid. Rumberger, Gregg & Co. have since furnished the United States government with large quantities of flannel for the underwear of the troops.

This point began to be called Craigstown in or about 18__, and afterward Craigsville, which name it still retains. The first child was born within its limits March 30, 1809, who is still living.

The present flouringmill, about 13 rods below the woolen factory, on the right bank of the creek, was erected by John Craig, Jr., Joseph T. McCurdy, and Samuel S. Wallace, early in 1849, and they agreed August 20, that McCurdy and Wallace should pay Craig $166.66 1/2 for the 1 acre and 25 perches on which they had erected the mill, a three story frame structure, and he to execute to each of them a deed for the one-third part, so as to make them, respectively, equal owners. John Craig died suddenly soon after breakfast one morning, from neuralgia of the heart. His heirs conveyed the undivided two-thirds of the mill-property to McCurdy and the alienee of Wallace`s interest, Jos. Minteer, May 14, 1872, for $2,000, with the privilege of taking from the present dam, above the mill, whatever quantity of water may be necessary for the use of the mill and for damming the water back on that decedent`s land.

Preliminary to opening a store at Craigsville, John Craig, Samuel S. and John C. Wallace entered into an agreement, December 15, 1860, for the sale and purchase of two-thirds of 152 perches of the parcel devised by John Craig, Sr., to John Craig, Jr., for a "store lot," as it is elsewhere called, for which the latter agreed to pay $533.33. It was also agreed by them that neither of them should sell his interest without first giving the other parties the refusal, and, in case of disagreement as to the price of it, the matter should be referred to three disinterested men, two of whom should be chosen by the parties, and the third one by the ones thus chosen, whose decision should be final and conclusive, if excepted to by the retiring partner. The store was soon after opened, for John C. Wallace was first assessed as merchant in 1861. It was afterward transferred to Christopher Leard & Sons, the latter being first assessed as merchants in 1872. The present firm name is C. Leard & Sons.

The Craigsville postoffice was established here, November 23, 1869; William F. Rumberger, post master. The new schoolhouse, in lieu of No. 14 before the division of Franklin township, is situated on the public road on the lower or right-hand side of the creek about 100 rods below the grist mill.

The first separate assessment list of Craigsville is for this year, 1876, according to which there are 25 taxables; Physician, 1; clerks, 3; boss carder, 1; boss weaver, 2; laborer, 1; helper, 1; dyer, 1; engineer, 1; wool-sorter, 1; picker, 1; teamsters, 2; spinner, 1; blacksmith, 1; wagonmaker, 1; miller 1; weaver, 1.

Adjoining that John Craig tract on the west and southwest, and touching the southeast corner of "Samos," the northeastern and southwestern portions of which are traversed by Buffalo creek, and in the former portion is the mouth of Long Run, is a tract, octagonal in shape, whose original boundary, courses and distances are: Beginning at a post, thence along the John Craig tract south 60 degrees east 233 1/2 perches to a white oak; thence south 4 degrees west 175 perches to a black-jack; thence south 87 degrees west 159 perches to a corner on the west side of the creek; thence across the creek south 3 degrees east 120 perches to a corner on line of depreciation lot No. 250; thence south 70 degrees west 71 perches to a white-oak; thence north 20 degrees west 200 perches to a post; thence along vacant land north 24 1/2 degrees west 240 perches to a white-oak; thence north along "Samos" 4 degrees west 37 perches to the place of beginning.

"Surveyed on the 20th day of September, 1794, the above described tract of 433 as. & 59 P. & allowance of six pr cent situate on Buffalow creek in Armstrong township, Allegheny county, in District No. 8 -- the improvement began in March 1793. Surveyed at the request of Simon Craig. SIMON GAPEN. D.S."

"Dan'l Broadhead, Essq, surveyor general."

It is noticeable that Gapen was mistaken as to this tract being in Armstrong township, whose western boundary then was the Allegheny river. This tract was then in Deer township. There was a similar mistake in a description of the tract called "Senior," on the north side of the Kiskiminetas, either by the surveyor or the scrivener. The patent for this tract was granted to A. McCall and Stephen Sheldon, February 23, 1825. After Sheldon's death, McCall released, August 23, 1827, 160 acres of it to William Stevenson and Mary, his wife, she being Sheldon's daughter and sole heir, 110 acres of which she and her husband conveyed to John Craig, December 18, 1833, for $169, 4 acres and 39 perches of which he conveyed to Peter Graff, June 18, 1854, for $1 and other considerations.

Joseph McDonald and Samuel Richey were brothers-in-law and millwrights. The former was assessed as such and with 80 acres of probably this tract, one horse and three cattle, as early as 1805, at $38, and the latter was assessed that year, with his occupation, one horse and one cow, at $82. They built a two-story log gristmill, with two runs of stone, one for wheat flour and the other for chops, in the early part of 1810, on the creek, above the present bridge across the creek, on the K. & B. turnpike, with which, 20 acres of land, 1 horse and 2 cows, Richey was assessed, that year, at $107. Stevenson and his wife conveyed 50 acres and 9 perches of this tract to McDonald and Richey, January 19, 1829, for $150. The latter conveyed his undivided half to Elijah Horner, January 1, 1830, for $50, on which the latter laid out the town of Hornersville, and advertised the sale of lots to take place at 9 o'clock A.M., October 14, 1833. Among the conveniences of his proposed town mentioned in his advertisement were a gristmill, horsemill and sawmill in its vicinity, but did not make any sales, and conveyed his interest in that parcel of 50 acres and 9 perches to John C. McKinney, January 1, 1840, for $1 and other considerations, which passed by sheriff's sale in Vend. Ex. No. 97, March term, 1845, for $64.

McCall conveyed his purpart of this tract, 271 acres and 150 perches, to Horner, August 30, 1829, for $400, of which the latter conveyed 149 acres and 128 perches to McDonald, March 14, 1840, for $200, and 141 acres and 80 perches to McKinney, April 1, 1840, for $6,000, and McDonald, the same day, conveyed the quantity which he had purchased from Horner to McKinney for $2,000. McKinney conveyed the 50-acre parcel, which he had purchased from Horner and McDonald, and another tract of 273 acres, to Henry D. Rodgers and Roswell L. Colt as trustees for all the real owners, December 22, 1841, for $25,000.

That last conveyance in trust was after the erection of Buffalo Furnace on the southeastern part of this Simon-Craig-McCall-Sheldon tract, which is designated on the Lawson & Orr map as the Joseph McDonald tract, in 1839-40, by Nicholas Biddle, formerly president of the Bank of the United States; Henry D. Rodgers, the eminent geologist who had charge of the first geological survey of this state and was subsequently professor of geology in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, whose death, several years since, was deeply lamented by the scientific world; John C. McKinney, one of the corps of geologists in that survey; Roswell L. Colt, and perhaps one or two others, and of which McKinney was the manager. It was a steam cold-blast charcoal furnace, its stack 35 feet high and 8 feet across the bosh. The weekly product of this furnace, for the first few years after it went into blast, was 33 tons, the number of employees being 100. That furnace company became embarrassed. Judgments against it began to be entered in 1841, the number of which increased largely until March term, 1844. The furnace and the land, aggregating 563 acres, passed under the sheriff's hammer (Vend. Ex. Nos. 83 and 84, September term, 1844) to Reuben Bughman, Peter Graff and Jacob Painter, for $7,200. Its business was conducted from the fall of 1843 under the name of P. Graff & Co., who built a new charcoal furnace, with a better blast, and in which one ore of a better quality was used. The two furnaces, from 1846 and on, produced weekly, on an average, when in full blast, 80 tons, the number of employees being 150. The latter company, having been successful, closed their furnaces permanently in 1864. The present gristmill, brick, three-story, with four runs of stone, near the furnace, was erected in 1846.

The Buffalo woolenmill of Edward Firth and Peter Graff, situated on that part of the northeastern portion of this tract between the left or south bank of the run and the creek, was built in 1865. Its original dimensions, three stories, 70X35 feet, were increased in 1867 by the addition of 60X35 feet, and the same hight. The other original buildings consist of a ware and wool house, two-story, 50 X 25 feet, a stone dryhouse, 60 X 25 feet. In 1876 a new woolhouse and a new storehouse, each two-story, 40 X 35 feet, were erected. The machinery consists of 8 carding-machines, 2 self-acting mules, with 384 spindles to each, and a spinning-jack, with 180 spindles, used for twisting stocking-yarn, and for doubling and twisting yarn for cassimeres. There are 13 looms, wide and narrow, for weaving jeans, blankets, flannels, cassimeres and fine cassimeres. The mules and a considerable part of the other machinery, the latest and best, so far as known, were made in England. There is also all the other machinery required for fulling and finished those various kinds of goods. The average number of employees is 25. The quantity of wool used annually is 80,000 pounds. The blankets are of good quality. The kinds of cassimeres and flannels, all wool, are fine, medium and common. The chief market for these goods is in the western states.

Adjoining the last-mentioned tract on the northwest and "Samos" on the south is unsurveyed land on the Gapen map, but on the other a vacant tract, with boundary lines, with four sides, which, if the southern line of "Samos" were protracted a few rods westward, would change it into the shape of two isosceles triangles, one quite large, and the other, in the northwestern part, very small. Its land history is brief. The patent for it was granted to Samuel Clark, March 25, 1839, who conveyed 77 acres and 19 perches to Job P. Paine, April 28, for $525, which he conveyed to Peter Graff, April 3, 1849, for $600.

South of Patrick McBride tract, and southwest of "Samos," the Clark and McCall-Sheldon tracts, was a large scope of territory of about 800 acres, unsurveyed on the Gapen map, on which improvements and settlements were made, probably before 1800 by James Gallagher, Jr., and William Gallagher, in behalf of James Gallagher, Sr., of Derry township, Westmoreland county, which was subsequently divided into two tracts, containing, respectively, 435 and 400 acres. The northern one, as it appears on the Lawson & Orr map, is in shape nearly that of a carpenter's square, the northeastern corner of which touches the southwestern part of "Samos," the longer part or blade bordering on the southwestern line of the Clark and McCall-Sheldon tracts, and the shorter part of blade adjoining the McBride tract on the north and the Smith tract on the west. This tract was conveyed by John Orr, sheriff, as containing 434 acres, and described as adjoining John Simons and others, to Samuel Massey, November 1, 1808, having previously sold it to him for $80, as the property of James and William Gallagher on a judgment in favor of Alexander McConnell against them for $9.28 debt and 40 cents costs. Massey and Samuel S. Harrison were joint purchasers, and Massey conveyed his half part to Harrison, June 1, 1815, for $100, William Minteer occupying the land for them from 1809 until 1813. James Gallagher continued to assert his claim to this tract, which he conveyed to Philip Gallagher, July 27, 1826, for $100. The patent, however, was granted to Harrison, September 8, 1834, who conveyed 136 acres and 69 perches of the part adjoining the Smith tract on the west, to James Hindman, November 21, 1835, for $545.56, on which is the public schoolhouse No. 2, and 273 acres and 118 perches to John C. McKinney, March 2, 1840, for $2,463.18, which became part of the Buffalo Furnace property, that passed by sheriff's sale to P. Graff & Co., who conveyed 148 acres and 130 perches of it to Archibald McCullough, February,2, 1846 for $830.

South and southwest of that Harrison-Massey tract is vacant territory on the Gapen map. The other map shows the name of Isaac Bole in the southwestern part of it, who made an improvement and settlement there, and was first assessed with 100 acres of it, 2 horses and 2 cows, in 1815, at $131. Near the northwestern border is the name of "William Minteer, 150a," with which he was first assessed in 1813. Philip Gallagher conveyed the entire tract, 400 acres, to James Gallagher, April 27, 1826, for $100. The parcel on which Bole settled, after various transfers, became vested in Daniel O'Neal, May 9, 1868, in consideration of the maintenance of himself and wife during the rest of their lives and the payment of $300 to Hugh F. O'Neal. A patent for more than 200 acres of the western part of this tract was granted to William Minteer, Sr., March 30, 1836, 100 acres and 15 perches of which he conveyed to William Minteer, Jr., July 21, for $200, and 101 acres and 145 perches to John Minteer, April 15, 1857, for the proper maintenance of himself and wife during the rest of their lives.

West of that Minteer tract, in the unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map, is the inscription "Improved Land." On the other map is a trapezoidal tract "Samuel Clark, 151 1/2 a," which and probably other 100 acres were first improved by William Gallagher, who conveyed 100 acres to Abraham Smith, June 1, 1806, for $100. The rest of Gallagher's improvement was conveyed by John Orr, sheriff, to Thomas Lawson, December 9, 1807, who conveyed it to David Lawson and John Orr, March 23, 1812. Orr conveyed an undivided half part to Samuel Clark, October 13, 1814, which Clark conveyed to William Spencer, July 1, 1837, to whom a warrant was granted August 3, 1839, and a patent for 65 acres, August 7, 1849, 65 acres of which he conveyed to William Minteer, October 1, 1866, for $1,050. It is not apparent from the record to whom Lawson conveyed his interest in this tract.

Contiguous to that Gallagher improvement on the west is vacant territory on the Gapen, but on the other map, a tract of 414 acres, about three-fourths of it being in Butler county, which seems to have been surveyed to A. McCall and Jacob McGinley. A patent appears to have been granted for the 85 acres of it in this county to James Offutt, April 19, 1839, which he conveyed to James Sample, June 3, and which Sample conveyed to Joseph Williams, January 28, 1840, for $685. It is not apparent from the records to whom he conveyed the major part of this parcel before his death. His daughter Elizabeth conveyed the undivided one eighth of 12 acres of it to William Minteer, May 22, 1858, for $23. Peter Graff and Edward Manso, guardians of the minor children, conveyed one-half of 11 acres to David Goldinger, February 25, 1858, for $95, and 4 acres to Minteer, for $95.40. Graff, having purchased three-eighths of 9 acres from some of the heirs who were of age, conveyed the same to Goldinger, May 22, for $71, to whom Elizabeth conveyed her one-eighth, the same day, for $23.75.

Adjoining the two last-mentioned Gallagher and the McCall-McGinley's tracts, on the south there is one on the Gapen map, designate thus, "Joseph Brown, 484.110," but on the other, "A. McCall and James Sheridan, 394.114." About 80 acres of its northwestern part is in Butler county. The patent for this tract, called "Union," was granted to McCall and Sheridan, February 13, 1809. The latter settled on it probably before 1800. He was assessed with 400 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, in 1805, at $156 -- the next year with the land, 1 horse and 2 cows, at $132. John Sheridan was first assessed in 1818, and James Sheridan in 1824, with a distillery on this tract. McCall's undivided share of "Union" was included in his assignment to Du Pont, and in the latter's reassignment to McCall. McCall's heirs conveyed 74 acres 80 perches to James and Matthew Millen, June 30, 1846, for $896, whose interests subsequently became vested in William Millen, and 148 acres of it in the sale from McCall's heirs to Brown, Gilpin and Johnston, 86 acres and 121 perches of which the latter conveyed to William Minteer, Jr., July 5, 1849, for $690.50; 37 acres and 80 perches to John and Rody Rogers, February 27, 1862, for $281.25, and 12 acres and 80 perches, same day, to Margaret Dugan, in trust, for $93.75. James Sheridan left about 53 acres of his purpart to his grandsons, Bernard and William Sheridan, who made an amicable partition, August 26, 1858. William conveyed 26 1/2 acres of his purpart to Cornelius McFadden, January 17, 1859, for $500.

James Sheridan devised 200 acres to his son John during his life, who conveyed his life estate therein to Mark McLaughlin, March 28, 1837, for $30, and released his interest in 100 acres, more or less, to Hugh D. Sheridan, December 11, 1863, for $1. The only one of the Sheridan family now assessed with any part of "Union is Hugh.

Adjoining "Union on the east on the Gapen map is unsurveyed territory inscribed with "James Gallagher," on which Joseph Millen settled about, perhaps before, 1800. He was assessed as a settler with 257 acres of it, 1 horse and 3 cattle, in 1805, at $112. The warrant was granted to him, November 13, surveyed December 12, 1801, and the patent for 359 acres and 52 perches was granted to him, December 22, 1806. He conveyed 99 acres and 62 perches of it to his son James, March 21, 1828, for $200, which the latter devised by his will, dated March 13, 1844, and registered February 26, 1851, to his sons, Matthew and William, to be equally divided by a line through the center from east to west, which they still occupy.

Adjoining the Millen tract and "Union" on the south, on both of the above-mentioned maps, are three contiguous depreciation lots included in the purchases by McCall and McDowell from Joshua Elder, and which, in the partition between those vendees, were allotted to McCall. The easternmost one, No. 249, is a square containing 201 7/10 acres, the western part being traversed southwesterly by Buffalo creek, which Archibald conveyed to George C. McCall, June 23, 1817, and which the latter conveyed to John Way, of Allegheny town, January 26, 1819, for $1,400.90, and which his executors, James C. and Nicholas Way, conveyed to Alexander and Thomas McCullough, December 30, 1837, for $1,000.

This tract was called "Cheshire," after one of the counties in England, adjoining the northeastern border of Wales, whose northwestern part, like a tongue of land between the rivers Dee and Mersey, touches the Irish Sea. The city of Chester, Birkenhead and various other important towns and boroughs are in that county.

Adjoining "Cheshire" on the west is, on both maps, depreciation lot No. 246, containing 230 3/10 acres, which, like "Cheshire," was included in the sale to George C. McCall, who conveyed it to Richard McCall, October 27, 1830, for $716.96, whose heirs, by their attorney, Amos N. Mylert, agreed, January 19, 1851, to sell it to Matthew and William Millen for $1,200, which they agreed to pay. William F. Johnston, for himself, Brown and Gilpin, released and quitclaimed to them whatever interest he and they had in it, and a strip of the depreciation lot adjoining it on the west, May 31, 1859, for $100.

This tract was called "Plymouth;" like Plymouth, Massachusetts, called by the Indians Aceomack, where the pilgrims, who came over in the Mayflower, settled in 1620, and other towns of this name in the United States, this tract of land was named after Plymouth, in the county of Devon, in England, on the north side of the British channel.

Contiguous to "Plymouth" in the west, on those maps of surveys, is depreciation lot No. 245, containing 325 6/10 acres, which, in the partition between McCall and McDowell, fell to the latter, and in the partition between his heirs was allotted to Archibald Tanner, guardian, in trust for his wards, Laura M. and Sarah P. Tanner, daughters of Margaret Tanner, who was one of McDowell's daughters. Joseph McDonald had acquired some kind of an interest in it, for he and Jacob S. Garver agreed, April 20, 1804, to put Jacob S. Garver in possession of it, which was then decided as adjoining John Durning, James Sheridan, and Garver's "old place," for the term of two years, and have all the benefit of the improvements by paying an annual rent of $1, and give McDonald peaceable possession if required; and McDonald was to give Garver 50 acres of the northwestern part, for which he was to take out an office right. Garver remained in possession until his death. Those minor children by their guardian brought an action of ejectment to No. 6, of June term, 1834, in the common pleas of this county, against Garver for the entire tract, which abated, December 25, 1835, by reason of the defendant's death. McDonald sold his claim to the tract to Archibald McCall, who accepted 163 acres of it as a compromise between him and the plaintiffs, which purpart was included in the conveyance from his heirs to Brown, Gilpin and Johnston, who claimed that 40 acres of the eastern end belonged to "Plymouth," of which Johnston conveyed 73 acres and 96 perches to Daniel McCarren, October 1, 1861, for $515.20, and the same quantity to James C. McCarren, the same day, for the same amount.

This depreciation lot, like some counties and towns in this country, was named "Somerset," after the county of Somerset, in the southern part of England.

South of the southwestern part of "Somerset," on the Gapen map, is about one-third of a tract, which portion is on this side of the county-line, that was surveyed by Gapen to Joseph Brown, as containing 414 acres and 66 perches, which should be the same on the other map, but is not -- an inadvertant transposition of the one above it having probably been made, upon which Jacob McGinley made an improvement in the spring of 1797, and on which McCall obtained a warrant of acceptance. By an agreement entered into between McCall and McGinley, April 1, 1808, founded partly on another one of the preceding month, McGinley covenanted that he had continued his settlement and improvement for about 11 years, and McCall in consideration thereof, and to encourage McGinley to continue to faithfully perform his covenants, to convey to him 200 acres off the east side of this tract, by parallel to "the last boundary of survey," and the use of the improvements on the tract for ten years. McGinley agreed, May 16, 1823, to convey that parcel of 200 acres to Mary McGinley for $175, which was conveyed to her by McCall, after her marriage to Peter McAnamy, August 10, 1837, for $1, and which she and her husband conveyed to Patrick Coyle, August 22, 1837, for $950.

"Adjoining that Jos. Brown tract on the east, on the Gapen map, is one of the same shape and area, which was surveyed by Gapen on an improvement for Joseph Stone, on which Jacob McGinley settled, April 9, 1797, and McCall afterward obtained a warrant of acceptance. McGinley continued his settlement on it for several years. He was assessed with 400 acres and 1 cow, in 1805, at $106, and the next year, with the addition of 2 cattle, at $110. It was one of the covenants in the above-mentioned agreement, that he should have the use of the improvements on this tract for ten years. The patent for it was granted to McCall and McGinley, March 18, 1820. McCall conveyed his interest in this tract to his son, George A. McCall, July 8, 1834, and which was included in the latter's conveyance to William F. Johnston, July 10, 1847, who conveyed, March 28, 1857, 15 acres to Michael Kyle, for $110, and 50 acres and 14 perches to Jacob Yost, for $356, of which he conveyed 14 acres and 158 perches to Kyle, April 9, 1867, "to finally settle disputes between the parties as to lines and boundaries between them," which were run by J. E. Meredith, September 18, 1861. Other purchasers of other parcels of this tract were John McDade, Patrick McGonagle and Thomas Patterson, portions of which are in Butler county.

Adjoining the last-mentioned tract, the Stone-McCall-McGinley on the east, and "Somerset" on the south, on the Gapen map, is unsurveyed territory, but on the other, a tract of 400 acres, traversed southeasterly by Long run, on which Thomas Johnston, who was county commissioner of this county in the year 1807-8-9, made an early improvement and settlement, with which (at 600 acres), 1 house, 2 lots and 2 cows, he was assessed, in 1805, at $262 on the Buffalo township list, which then included that of the town of Freeport. The next year he was assessed with only 400 acres, 1 lot and 2 horses, at $150. He continued to be assessed with these 400 acres, a horse and cows, until 1812. The next year, Henry Weaver was assessed with 300 acres "for the land that Thomas Johnston formerly held," and with which quantity he continued to be assessed for the next three years. The records do not show any conveyance of any part of this tract by either Johnston or Weaver, with the exception that, by the will of Thomas Johnston, a resident of West township, Huntington county, Pennsylvania, dated July 20, 1847, and registered in Armstrong county, February 1, 1855, after making several bequests, he devised "all the residue and remainder" of his estate to his third and youngest son Joseph, whom he appointed his executor. Portions of this Johnston tract are now occupied by Barney Kerr and James Callahan. Schoolhouse No. 1 is situated on it.

Adjoining that Johnston tract on the east and "Plymouth" on the south, unnamed on the Gapen map, but on the other to "William Kier and Alexander McKinney, 440a.," to whom it was originally surveyed on warrant of March 16, 1807. It is a very irregularly shaped tract, having thirteen sides, its southwestern part extending over the line between this and North Buffalo township. The warrant was granted to Andrew Kier and Catherine his wife, nee Miller, June 7, 1824, who conveyed their interest in it to David Beatty, John Keener and others, which they conveyed to other parties, and they to others until the interest of the warrantees became vested in the following patentees: Joseph Barnes, James Campbell, John C. Duffey, Henry Hartman, Michael Kyle and Charles C. McClatchey, to whom the commonwealth granted its patent April 25, 1873, for 440 acres, on the payment of $98.60, besides the amount paid by Kier and McKinney.

East of the northwestern part and northeast of the eastern projection or tongue of the Kier-McKinney tract in a western bend in the Buffalo creek, is the name of John Craig on unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map, but on the other a tract with ten sides, "114a.11p," south of the southwestern part of "Cheshire" and the southeastern part of "Plymouth," the major part being on the east side of the creek, for which a warrant was granted to John Craig, April 4, 1793, all his interest in which, "at the mouth of a run emptying into Buffalo creek, commonly known by the name of Glade run," he conveyed to Robert Long, June 25, 1807, for �55, and which the latter by his will, dated June 7, 1848, and registered October 19, 1852, devised to his daughter Elizabeth McGary, during her life, and to her children after her death, by whom it is still retained.

East of the Kier-McKinney tract and below the Craig-Long tract, is unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map, but on the other is one containing 440 acres, traversed southeasterly by Buffalo creek, with 150 acres in the western part of which Samuel Walker was assessed from 1809 until 1812, when that quantity was transferred to George Hollobough and assessed to him until 1818, and then transferred to John Hoover and assessed to him until 1830, and was then transferred to David Hoover, and assessed to him until 1832, when it was transferred to John McClain, who was thereafter assessed with 200 acres.

William Beatty was first assessed in 1816 with 150 acres of its southeastern part, partly in what is now North Buffalo township, adjoining the parcel which he had purchased from David Hall, and which, after 1824, was assessed to his son David, to whom it was devised. The rest of this tract on the northeast side of the creek was settled, probably before 1800, by Jacob Garver, who was assessed with 200 acres in 1805 at $80, and thereafter with quantities varying from that to 400 acres, until 1830. The records do not show what disposition, it any, he made of this interest in it before his death. Jacob Garver, Jr., was for years assessed with 100 acres. On the county and township map of 1860 appears on this part of that tract the name of "Jac. Graver," (sic) and on the township map of 1876, "Garver Est." There does not appear to have been any administration on his estate.

Adjoining that Beatty-Garver-Walker tract on the "vacant land" on the Gapen, but on the other map a tract containing 400 acres, on which Thomas Hooks made an improvement February 25, 1793, and a settlement March 10, 1796, and which was surveyed to him, by Deputy Surveyor Ross, July 3, 1801. The patent for this tract, called "St. Thomas," was granted to Hooks, June 3, 1804. He was assessed with 200 acres of it, 2 horses and 2 cows, in1805 and 1806, at $128. he conveyed 200 acres of its southern part to David Hall, Sr., miller, January 9, 1806, for �10; 153 acres and 13 perches of which the latter conveyed to George Long, the same day, for $366, where the latter probably resided when he was county commissioner in 1811-12-13. Hooks conveyed 216 acres of "St. Thomas" to Allen and Robert Hooks, May 3, 1831, for $200, the half of which Allen conveyed to Daniel and Hugh McCreary, March 15, 1834, for $280, of which they conveyed 62 acres and 110 1/2 perches to Robert C. Claypoole, August 5, 1854, for $1,000, and 69 acres and 13 perches to George Miller, March 26, 1861, for $124.46.

(As there is a considerable scope of other territory in this part of what is now West Franklin township vacant, except the numbers of some of the depreciation lots on the Gapen map, it will not be referred to until the Gapen surveys be again reached. Until then the readers may consider the other map before them.)

Adjoining "St. Thomas" on the other map is depreciation lot No. 260, surveyed October 20, 1785, one of the Holland tracts, for which, 200 9/10 acres, a patent was granted to Samuel Holland, August 14, 1830, and which he conveyed to James Campbell, Sr., November 22, for $400, who conveyed 101 acres and 30 perches of it to James Campbell, Jr., November 15, 1844, who conveyed 53 acres and 24 perches to Valentine Bowser, January 7, 1854, for $650, and 52 acres and 110 perches, two days later, for the same amount, or $1,300 for the two parcels. James Campbell, Sr., conveyed 101 acres and 30 perches of No. 260 to his other son, Samuel, for $1 and "natural love and affection," August 4, 1830, who, by his will, dated August 4, and registered August 15, 1871, devised the part "next to the Bradford farm" to his son Jacob, and the part "next to the David Claypoole farm" to his son John, i.e. the northwestern part of "Moorefields."

Adjoining No. 260 on the east and the eastern part of "Moorefields" on the north is depreciation lot No. 264, 201 1/10 acres, called "Springfield," for which a patent was granted to John McCoolbach, January 22, 1792, and was a part of the real estate which he authorized his executors to sell. Dr. Samuel McCulloch, his sole surviving executor, agreed to sell it to Peter Groff for $562.17. The purchase money was paid to that executor in his lifetime, who died without executing the deed. Hence his administrator, John S. McCulloch, conveyed it to Groff, June 4, 1849, for $1 -- being the tract of which the latter conveyed 3 acres and 39 perches to Samuel H. Bowser, April 1, 1854, for $100, and154 acres and 6 perches to David Shaffer, March 23, 1855, for $924, who conveyed 50 acres and 70 perches thereof to Elizabeth Fails, June 18, 1857, for $200. William Anthony's store, with which he was first assessed in the fall of 1870, is near the township line in the southern part of No. 264.

Adjoining the last-noticed depreciation lot on the north is depreciation lot No. 265, 203 9/10 acres, which also belonged to John McCulloch's estate, and which John S. McCulloch, administrator, conveyed to James B. and Robert O. Porterfield, June 5, 1849, for $1,019.50. James B. conveyed his interest therein to Robert O. Porterfield, March 23, 1852, for $239, and the latter to John Shields, the next day, 103 acres and 15 perches, for $1,700, which Shields conveyed to John Brown, April 1, 1862, for $2,500.*(2) James B. Porterfield conveyed 103 acres and 15 perches of the western part to James Clark, April 21, 1855, which the latter conveyed to George Monroe, September 5, 1863, and he to Robert Noble, April 28, 1866, for $2,600.

Adjoining No. 265 on the west is another square tract, 202 acres and 62 perches, in the southern part of which is the junction of the run that flows through Worthington into Buffalo creek, which was improved and settled by Abner Bradford about 1796-7. He was assessed with 270 acres, 2 horses and 2 cows, in 1805, at $210, for which a warrant, as recited in a conveyance of a portion of it -- perhaps the patent was meant -- was granted February 2, 1836. A primitive log schoolhouse was built on this tract before 1820. The first school in it was taught by a Mr. Jack, who was followed by Mr. Speer, and he by Mr. Russell. Bradford, by his will, dated April 13, 1829, and registered March 2, 1841, devised this tract to his sons, John and Samuel, who were to live together on it and properly maintain their mother during the rest of her life, and if they should not prefer to continue to live together after they were twenty-one years of age, they were to divide the tract between themselves as equally as possible, but if it could not be divided without injury, it was to be appraised by three honest and judicious men, and the one who should take it at their appraisement should make the other secure for his undivided half. They occupied it together as long as both lived. They conveyed 1 acre along its eastern line to James Campbell, David and John Claypoole, "the building committee or trustees of the regular Baptist church, called 'Union,' and their successors," April 2, 1845, for $1, on which the present frame edifice is located. This church was organized by 20 members of the regular Union Baptist church in North Buffalo township, who withdrew from the latter, April 18, 1846, for that purpose. The original members of this church, then, were Elizabeth, Mary, Peter and Sophira Bowser, Mary, Sarah and William Bradford, James and May Campbell, David Claypoole, Jr., Jane, John, Mary Ann, Nancy, Sarah, Samuel, Samuel, Jr., Susannah and William Claypoole and Catherine Martin.

John Bradford died intestate and without lineal heirs, so that the entire tract, except the church lot, became vested in his brother Samuel, who conveyed 136 acres and 59 perches of the eastern part to John Bonner, June 24, 1868, for $1,185.

Adjoining the Bradford tract on the west, "St. Thomas" and the Garver part of the recently noticed 440-acre tract on the south, the Craig-Long-McCreary tract on the west, and the southeastern part of "Cheshire" on the northwest, is a tract with ten sides, several of which, like those of most other multi-lateral tracts, are very short, on which James McCullough made an improvement, January 26, 1793, a settlement in February, 1797, and which was surveyed to him by Deputy Surveyor Ross, July 4, 1801, containing 373 acres and 44 perches, for which a patent was granted to him March 8, 1804. He conveyed 73 acres of its eastern part to Abner Bradford, January 6, 1814, for $10, 50 acres of which the latter conveyed to Robert Long, March 23, 1818, for $100, and was first assessed with his sawmill in 1828. The records do not show that McCullough conveyed any other portion of this tract in his lifetime. By his will, dated May 25, 1838, registered September 21, 1841, he gave his sons Alexander and Thomas "all the plantation on which" he then resided , subject to the maintenance of his son George during the rest of his life and of daughter Anne during the rest of her life, or until her marriage -- she "to have the free and undisturbed possession of the house" while single, and the payment to each of his other sons, Archibald, John and Samuel, after the death of George and the marriage of Anne. Schoolhouse No. 4 (before Franklin township was divided), in the forks of two public roads, is in the eastern part of this tract. The major portion of the original tract is now assessed to Alexander and T. B. McCullough.

Adjoining the McCullough tract on the north are depreciation lots Nos. 250 and 256, both rectangular parallelograms, their longest sides extending from north to south. The former's northwestern corner is traversed by the Buffalo creek. It adjoins "Cheshire" and the McDonald, afterward Buffalo Furnace, tract on the west. Patents for it and its adjoiner No. 256 were granted to William Todd, October 13, 1786, who conveyed them to Abraham Nilson, March 28, 1789, to whom they were assessed, as unseated, at 40 cents an acre, in 1805 and 1806. Nilson, by his last will, dated July 6, 1798, and probated in New York, devised both of these tracts to his only child Martha, who afterward married Joseph Thompson. They being residents of the townland of Islandmore, in the parish of Ballywillin and county of Londonderry, Ireland, by their letter of attorney, dated July 1, 1826, empowered James Stewart, who was "about to proceed to the United States of America as a general agent," to sell both of these tracts. He conveyed No. 250, 351 4/10 acres, called "Williamsburgh," to John Young, February 22, 1827, for $150, who by his last will, dated November 17, 1833, and registered March 26, 1835, devised all his "plantation of land, with the appurtenances," to his son-in-law and Elizabeth his wife, and his daughters Isabella and Nancy, to be divided equally between them at the expiration of five years, subject to the payment of a legacy to his grandson, James Young McCullough.

James Stewart empowered the late Judge Bredin, of Butler, Pennsylvania, to sell the other tract, No. 256, which Thompson and his wife, by John Bredin, their attorney-in-fact, conveyed No. 256, 339 6/10 acres, called "Toddsborough," thus: 100 acres of the northern part to Peter McAnamy, March 18, 1828, for $175, who conveyed 53 acres and 122 perches to Jeremiah Hare, May 1, 1829, for $12, and which Chambers Orr, sheriff, conveyed to James Sample, June 18, 1834; 2 acres and 38 perches of which Sample conveyed to Peter Graff in July, 1849, for $75; McAnamy conveyed 124 perches to John Ross March 21, 1829, for $6, and another parcel of 49 acres and 49 perches to Hare, July 11, 1831, for $12; and 50 acres to John Young, January 11, 1831, for $100, which parcel was ordered to be sold by the orphans' court after Young's death, and was purchased by Christopher Foster, his son-in-law, and conveyed to him June 20, 1843, which, with other 33 acres and 43 perches, having become vested in Rev. Henry S. Ehrenfeld, he conveyed the same to Peter Graff March 5, 1859, for $4,000,which, with 101 acres and 80 perches additional, Graff conveyed to George W. Benton, September 26, 1863, for $7,250. Thompson and wife, by their attorney-in-fact, conveyed 134 acres and 73 perches of the central part of "Toddsborough" to Henry and John McAnamy, April 4, 1828, for $175, which James Douglass, sheriff, conveyed to Samuel Porterfield, September 21, 1830, for $201, which was described in the levy as consisting in part of 43 acres cleared, 6 of which were meadow, with an orchard, 2 cabin houses, 1 cabin barn and a cabin stable thereon, which that vendee conveyed to John Porterfield, February 18, 1831, for $225. Thompson and wife, by their attorney, conveyed 100 acres and 34 perches of the southern part of "Toddsborough" to David Cambell and Baker Grafton, April 4, 1828, for $175, which they conveyed to Samuel Porterfield, March 5, 1849, for $170, which, with other 29 acres and 131 perches, he conveyed to Aaron Benton, September 26, 1863, for $4,700, and emigrated to Champaign county, Illinois.

Adjoining the southern half of "Toddsborough" on the east is a tract of 223 acres and 70 perches, whose eastern portion is traversed by the stream flowing northwesterly into Buffalo creek, a short distance above Firth & Graff's woolen factory. John Hall made an improvement on it February 24, 1793, and it was surveyed to him June 30. George Brown also made an improvement on this tract, called "Oakland," in January, 1793, and an actual settlement in April 1796, which was surveyed to him by Ross, deputy surveyor, January 31, 1801, and for which the patent was granted to him, March 2, 1805, and which he conveyed to James Claypoole and his son George Claypoole, April 16, for $893.75. They afterward made an amicable partition of "Oakland" "by a line running east and west, or nearly so; and the south side or part of said tract by the said division by lot or otherwise, free to said James Claypoole, as his part of said land," who, by verbal agreement, sold 30 acres in the southeast corner of his purpart to his son James, which the other heirs of James Claypoole, Sr., released and quit-claimed to James Claypoole, Jr., of Beaver county, Pennsylvania, September 8, 1829, for "divers valuable considerations," and which the latter conveyed the next day to Alexander Findley for $63.75. A glance at the township maps of1860 and 1876 shows that the major part of "Oakland" is still in the possession of the descendants of James Claypoole, Sr., and George Claypoole. One hundred and eight acres of the latter's purpart are still assessed to his son James, from whom the writer obtained the statement that his grandfather, James Claypoole, Sr., was the first white settler in what is now the borough of Kittanning, and an early settler on the manor tract, from which he and his family removed to "Oakland."

Adjoining "Oakland" on the east is depreciation lot No. 266, one of the numerous tracts in this and other counties which became vested in Gen. Andrew Porter, a citizen of Montgomery, Pennsylvania, a proficient surveyor and engineer, who was a captain in the Pennsylvania regiment of artillery in the revolutionary war, and with his company in common with the devoted patriots of other regiments or companies endured the terrible hardships in camp at Valley Forge.

Depreciation lot No. 266 is one of the tracts which Andrew Porter conveyed in his lifetime to his son, George B. Porter, who by his last will, dated March 29, 1830, devised to his wife, Sarah H. Porter, and which she conveyed as containing 196 acres and 100 perches, as surveyed by J. E. Meredith, to George Monroe, January 5, 1842, for $1,771.

Adjoining No. 266 on the north is depreciation lot No. 267, 225 9/10 acres, called "Sugar Tree Grove," which was surveyed by Joshua Elder, October 14, 1785, sold at public auction to John McCulloch, who released it to Andrew Porter, to whom the patent was granted, January 22, 1792, who conveyed it to his son, George B. Porter, in 1812, for $1 and "natural love and affection," and he to Washington Ross, September 10, 1829, for $775.

Adjoining "Sugar Tree Grove on the west, "Oakland" on the south and the northern part of "Toddsborough" on the north and east is an octagonal tract on the Gapen map, 366 acres and 72 perches, surveyed by Gapen to David Bell. Gilbert Wright settled on this tract in the early part of 1807, Archibald McCall having obtained a warrant of acceptance for it. He, by his attorney, Thomas Collins, and Wright entered into a written agreement, June 18, the terms and conditions of which were: That Wright had settled on it; that McCall and he should divide the land between themselves; that the "one-half to be the estate of said Wright and to be laid off at the end where he has improved, and the other to be Archibald McCall's;" that Wright should make due proof of his settlement, and McCall should, at his own expense, take out the patent, or, if it should issue jointly, they should execute to each other deeds of partition agreeable to their contract. The patent was granted to both of them, February 3, 1809, in which the tract is called "Mount Lorenzo." In 1811 the site of Worthington was so thickly covered with blackjacks and underbrush that one could not see through them, and forty years ago the former were so thick on other parts of "Mount Lorenzo," on what is now Peter Kerr's farm, that the chain-carriers for the surveyors were obliged to crawl on their hands and feet in carrying the chain through them, and rattlesnakes were abundant.

Judge Barr erected a sawmill on that Glade run within the limits of "Mount Lorenzo," about 1808. It was first assessed to his son William in 1809, and was in the course of a few years removed and a distillery erected on its site, which was first assessed to James Barr, Jr., in 1813, and was noted the next year "not in use." It was removed and on its site James Barr, Jr., erected a gristmill with one run of stone, which was operated for several years. Some vestiges of it are still visible. Not many years since the buhr-stones used in it were on or near its site.

James Barr, Jr., was assessed as a "schoolmaster" on the list for Buffalo township in 1806-7, but just where his school was is not known. The entire tract was included in McCall's assignment to Du Pont. The latter, by his attorney, the late Judge White, conveyed 202 acres of it to James Barr, a son of Judge Barr, December 31, 1830, for $1. Wright conveyed his entire interest in "Mount Lorenzo" to Barr, March 22, 1831, for $670, and McCall's heirs conveyed their ancestors' purpart, 164 acres and 67 perches of the eastern side, to Neven and Peter Kerr, June 20, 1844, for $99.35.

Barr, soon after perfecting his title to the purpart which he purchased from Wright, laid out the town of Worthington in the spring of 1829, on that part of "Mount Lorenzo" adjoining the northern line of "Toddsborough," consisting of 38 lots, each one-fourth of an acre, east and west of several acres traversed by a northern tributary of Glade run, and all of them north of the Kittanning and Butler turnpike, 19 of them between Ross street and Virgin alley, the latter 14 feet wide, and the other 19 between that alley and the turnpike, the course of the pike and Ross street being nearly east and west, and both intersected at right angles by Bear and Brown (now Church) streets, each 30 feet wide, and Glade alley, 14 feet wide, about midway between the two last-mentioned streets. In the original plan*(3) of the town there are 3 lots varying in their areas, south of the pike and west of Bear street. The sale of lots, soon after they were laid out, were cried by William Cowan. The traveling facilities of this region were increased about that time by the construction of the Kittanning and Butler turnpike.

The records do not show many sales of these lots by Barr in his lifetime, or by his executors, to whom he gave power to sell in his will. Barr, before his death, conveyed lot No. 24 to William Q. Sloan, April 2, 1831, for $22, and the same No. to James Gallagher, April 30, for $23.50, which the latter, the same day, conveyed to Samuel Hutchinson for $50, to Levi Bowser Lot No. 20, May 9, 1831, for $15, and he to Christian Kemen, July 21, 1836, for $17; to David Claypoole, May 9, 1831, lot No. 11 for $4; to John Craig, lot No. 27, for $8. Barr, by his will dated September 26, 1822, and registered August 24, 1833, authorized his executor, David Barr, his brother, and Joseph Shields, to sell to the highest and best bidders all the lots of ground in the town of Worthington sold at the sales, and the purchasers had not at the time of his death complied with their contracts, and that the part of his plantation adjoining that part, "Toddsborough," then occupied by Jeremiah Hare, and adjoining the land of David Barr, near the culvert, "over the run which flows through David Barr's meadow," enough to pay all his debts, and devised the rest equally to his six children, subject to affording his wife as comfortable a living as possible out of his plantation. His executors conveyed lot No. __, "on which the blacksmith-shop is erected," to Samuel Hutchison (one of the sheriffs of this county), March 19, 1835, for $15.52. They conveyed 40 acres and 40 perches of the plantation to David Johnston, September 22, 1838, for $100. The decedent in his lifetime had agreed to sell to his brother David 82 acres and 52 perches, which agreement was so far executed as that the purchase-money had all been paid before his death, but the deed had not been made. The proper court decreed a specific performance of that contract, and that the other executor make and execute a deed therefor, which he did, November 15, 1841.

The first separate assessment list of the "taxable inhabitants in Worthington" appears in the assessment list for Buffalo township for 1832, the assessments having been made in the latter part of 1831. Fourteen lots were then assessed to eleven persons, six of them at $5 each, 4 at $10 each, 1 at $25 and 1 at $50, aggregating $145. As none of these lot-owners were assessed with either occupations or personal property, it is probable they were all then non-residents of Worthington. This town, the next year, was in Franklin township, when its separate assessment list showed one person having an occupation, Christian Kenson, weaver, whose occupation and the lot he had purchased from Levi Bowser were valued at $60 and one of Samuel Hutchison's lots, and the "house and stable" on it, at $58. George Claypoole's lot was valued at $58. All the others at $4 and $8 each.

The growth of Worthington in population and in the various trades and occupations was for years quite slow. James Sample was first assessed with his lot on the south side of the turnpike and west of Bear street, in 1833-4, and with a tavern stand in 1837-8; William C. Piper as the first merchant in 1837-8; Charles Foreman and John McDonald as the first tailors, and Matthias Burnheimer as the first shoemaker, in 1838-9; Robert Staley as the first blacksmith in 1840-1; Robert Armstrong, first wagonmaker; Jacob McDonald, first carpenter, and William Cratty as the first tanner in 1841-2; John McDonald as the second landlord in 1842-3. As late as 1845 the number of taxables did not exceed ten. Its being a point on the stage route from Freeport to Brady's bend (sic) and Clarion and its proximity to Buffalo Furnace contributed somewhat to the maintenance of its life and business.

The petition of thirty-four inhabitants of the town of Worthington was presented to the court of quarter sessions of this county December, 1854, representing that there was a large number of children in their town who needed schooling, but labored under great inconvenience on account of their schoolhouse being a mile or more distant from their homes; that the taxes collected off the inhabitants of their town ought to be applied to the repairs of its streets and alleys, but were expended on the roads of the township, to the great inconvenience and damage of the inhabitants of the town and the traveling public; and praying the court to incorporate their town into a borough under the act of April 3, 1851. The grand jury approved of their application, and the court approved it December 6, but took off the approval on the 8th but ordered and decreed, March 15, 1855, that the town be incorporated into the borough of Worthington and established the boundaries specified in the petition: Beginning at or near an apple-tree on John Shields' lot, which is the northeast corner of the borough; thence south 100 perches to a post on Peter Kerr's land; thence north 83 degrees east 20 perches to a post on Peter Kerr's land; thence west 238 perches to a post on Henry Ehrenfeld's land; thence north 20 degrees east 228 perches to a post on James Barr's land; thence east 140 perches to the beginning, containing 254 acres, 2 roods and 20 perches, as protracted by R. L. M., including portions of "Mount Lorenzo" and "Toddsborough." The election officers appointed by the court were: A. D. Keely, judge; Jacob Mechling, constable; J. G. Clark, H. S. Ehrenfeld, Joseph C. King, John McNarr and James Monroe, town councilmen; James Barr and Samuel Monroe for three years, school directors; John T. Ehrenfeld, assessor; David Landis, borough auditor, and John Blain and Samuel Lego, overseers of the poor.

The borough contained the next year after its incorporation nearly 70 taxables, 3 blacksmiths, 2 carpenters, 3 clerks, 2 coachmakers, 1 cabinetmaker, 6 farmers, 1 grocer, 1 harnessmaker, 1 huckster, 10 laborers, 2 merchants, 1 manager, 1 preacher, 1 miller, 1 physician, 3 shoemakers, 1 saddler, 1 teacher, 1 tanner, 1 theological student, 1 tailor, 1 wagonmaker.

The Evangelical Lutheran church of Buffalo Furnace (changed to Evangelical Lutheran church of Worthington) was organized in 1847 by Rev. George F. Ehrenfeld. Its first officers were: Peter Graff, elder; John Barr, William Blain and John Schantz. Its original members: James Barr, Sr., John and Susan Barr, Peter and Susan Graff, George Hutley, Jacob and Barbara Mechling, Mary C. Mechling, John and Elizabeth Porterfield, Nancy Porterfield, Francis and Sydney Regis. Its pastors have been Rev. George F. Ehrenfeld from 1847 until 1848; Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeld from 1848 until 1858; Rev. F. Ruthrauff from 1858 until 1859; Revs. C. Witmer and H. J. H. Lemicks until 1867, and from then the present one, Rev. J. W. Schwartz. This church in 1876 has a membership of 120; Sabbath-school scholars, 125.

For about two years the congregation worshiped in a small chapel at Buffalo Furnace. The present edifice, brick, 42 X 52 feet, ceiling about 15 feet, erected in 1849, is situated in that part of Worthington about 20 rods east of the western borough line, in the western part of "Mount Lorenzo." The lecture room is in the upper story, a building near the church edifice, in which the teachers' county institute was held in April, 1860, whose lower story was formerly used as a public schoolroom. A young lady who taught the school there one winter had occasion to flog one of her juvenile male pupils. His irate father the next day rushed into the schoolroom and gave her, as indiscreet parents sometimes do under like circumstances, a severe scolding, and intimated that if she were not a woman he would flog her. She promptly replied, "Oh, you needn't make that an excuse. Try it and I'll flog you." He didn't try it.

The Associate, now the United Presbyterian, church here was organized in 1848. It depended the first year upon supplies. Rev. J. N. Dick, D. D., was its first pastor. He preached here semi-monthly until 1851. Then there were supplies for two years. Rev. John Jamison was pastor for about three years, then supplies for nearly a year, when Rev. Thomas Seaton became pastor and continued as such six or seven years -- supplies two years, followed by the present pastor, Rev. J. L. Grover. The number of members in 1876 is 77; Sabbath-school scholars, 50. The church edifice, frame, one-story, ceiling 12 feet, 40 X 40 feet, is situated on lot No. 9, which adjoins Ross street on the north, and Brown, now Church, street on the east.

The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 1849, and its first pastor was Rev. Mr. Cooper. Rev. Mr. Tiballs, one of his successors, was in the war of the rebellion. Membership, in 1876, is 80, with a union Sabbath school. Its edifice, frame, one-story, 40 X 35 feet, ceiling 12 feet, is situated on lot No. 15, adjoining Glade alley on the west and Ross street on the north, which Samuel Porterfield, December 26, 1849, for $50, conveyed to John Blain, Peter Mobley, Elijah Newton, James B. Porterfield, James, Samuel and Thomas Scott, trustees in trust that they should "erect thereon a place or house of worship, for the use of the members of the Methodist Episcopal church." This lot was conveyed by James Barr to Joseph Claypoole (of David), May 5, 1831; by Claypoole to Francis Dobbs, February 16, 1842, and by Dobbs to Porterfield, March 3, 1848.

The Free Presbyterian Church, of Worthington, was organized by authority of the Presbytery of Mahoning, March 10, 1850, and at first consisted of 12 members, who withdrew from the Old School Presbyterian denomination on account of their conviction of the crime and injustice of the institution of slavery in the United States, and especially its proposed extension by the abrogation of the Missouri compromise line. Hence, although they adhered to the tenets of the Old School Presbyterian church, except what they deemed its pro-slavery sentiment, they separated and organized from the one they had left by the qualifying word "Free."

Its stated supply until 1860 was Rev. George McIlhenny, and thereafter until 1866 Revs. T. S. and J. W. Moffit. Its edifice, frame, one-story, ceiling 12 feet high, about 40 X 40 feet, situated partly in Worthington and partly in West Franklin townships, on the northern line of the borough, being equally divided by that line, was erected in 18__ on that parcel of "Mount Lorenzo" conveyed by James and Samuel Monroe to the church, 1 acre, December 26, 1852. The anti-slavery pastor, church members and congregation that worshiped here felt and manifested a deep interest in the political as well as religious affairs of our country. They did not hesitate to open the doors of their temple of religion to the political assemblages of the anti-slavery element, uninfluential as it then was with the great mass of the American people. A convention of those belonging to that element, or the "Free Democracy of Armstrong county," was held in this church edifice July 4, 1853, of which Robert Robinson, of Kittanning, was chosen president; John Craig, of Franklin township, and Dr. J. E. Stevenson, of Kittanning, vice-presidents, and Robert M. Kiskadden, of South Buffalo, secretary. On motion of its pastor, Rev. George McIlhenny, Rev. William Smith and Dr. S. A. Marshall were appointed a committee to draft resolutions, who reported the following, which were adopted:


WHEREAS, In the judgment of this meeeting, the time has come in which the cause of humanity and equal rights demand at our hands a full, free and determinate position in their defense, such as was maintained by our Pilgrim Fathers for the right of all mankind: Therefore, Resolved, That we acknowledge no affinity with any of the old political parties of the day, nor can we hope for their aid in preventing the curse of slavery from blighting the hopes of the free territories of our nation. Resolved, That the free democracy having adopted a platform consistent with the Declaration of Independence and maintaining the truths therein exhibited, it is our duty and the duty of those who hold these truths to support that party. Resolved, That, trusting in the rectitude of our cause and the help of our God, we will do all in our power to advance the cause of equal rights under the broad banner of the free democracy of the nineteenth century. Resolved, That, the growing opposition to American slavery, both at home and abroad, the increasing popularity of anti-slavery literature, the unabating energy of the free democracy throughout the states, and the facilities now enjoyed by means of the press for scattering our principles broadcast over the land; and, above all, the healthy sentiments inculcated from many pulpits of our country, give us strong hope that the triumphs of the free democrat may be nearer than we or our political opponents had supposed. Resolved, That we will use all honorable means in our power to elect our candidates for the different offices in our county and district. Resolved, That we hereby approve the nominations of the Harrisburg convention, and will support them to the extent of our power. Resolved, That the freedom of more than 3,000,000 of our colored brethren from degrading and cruel bondage and bitter prejudice is a cause next in importance to the procuring of our liberties by our revolutionary fathers. Resolved, That in view of the evils arising in our country from the use of and traffic in intoxicating drinks, it is the opinion of this meeting that the interest of our state demands a prohibitory liquor law, and has no right to license any class of men to traffic in an article so ruinous to itself and its citizens.
The last and only other resolution was in reference to signing the proceedings of the convention by the officers, and publishing them in the Kittanning and several other papers.*(4) Several animated addresses were delivered during the session of the convention.

The feeling of hostility to the encroachment of slavery continued to deepen, widen and strengthen in this county as well as in other portions of the free states, and a sequel to that convention was another one, held at the court-house in Kittanning, Thursday, September 30, 1855, to organize a Republican party. It will be borne in mind that the American, or, as it was commonly called, the Know-Nothing party, had carried the elections in this county and various other parts of the country by immense majorities in 1854; and that the next year it had made open nominations -- in this county prior to the meeting of the last-mentioned convention. That first Republican convention in this county was organized by electing Dr. David Alter, of Freeport, president; John Craig, of Franklin township, and Alexander Henry, of Kittanning, vice presidents; and Dr. S. A. Marshall, secretary, and by appointing Josiah Copley, Rev. William Galbraith, Rev. William Smith, Hugh Reed and John Burford a committee to prepare business and report resolutions, who reported the following:


WHEREAS, A crisis has arrived in the history of the country which has made the question of slavery paramount to all other issues in its politics, a crisis forced upon us in the first place by the abrogation of the Missouri compromise, followed, as it has been, by a series of outrages upon the people of Kansas territory, unparalleled in our history. It was therefore Resolved, 1. That the people of the Free States owe it to their brethren in Kansas to stand by them and aid them by every means in their power, with the border ruffians Achison and Stringfellow, for the avowed purpose of forcing slavery upon them against their will. 2. That if the people of the Free States expect to do anything effective, they must stick together. The people of the south do so in favor of slavery; we must do so in opposition to it. 3. That to this end we give the right hand of fellow-ship to every man, of whatever party, who affiliates with us in this great struggle. 4. That we cordially adopt the platform of the late Republican convention, at Pittsburgh, as our declaration of sentiments. 5. That we deem it inexpedient at present to put in nomination candidates for the legislature and for the several county officers to be chosen at the ensuing election, because it is the opinion of many friends of liberty that the gentlemen put in nomination by the American party agree with us in sentiment on the great question of slavery, but in order that there may be no doubt on that question. 6. That a committee of three be appointed to correspond with such of them, and draw from them a full and explicit declaration of their sentiments, so that such correspondence be published. 7. That in taking this course we do not wish to be understood as approving of the organization or of the peculiar principles of the American or Know-Nothing party. All the foregoing resolutions were received and adopted. The following minority report of the committee was read, and, after some spirited discussion, was rejected: Resolved, That this meeting proceed to nominate a Republican ticket for this county, independent of the Democratic and American parties, and that they approve of the nomination made by the state convention for canal commissioner.
The president of the convention appointed Dr. S. A. Marshall, James M. Brown and Josiah Copley a committee to correspond with the candidates of the American party. That committee presented each of these candidates with a copy of the foregoing fifth and sixth resolutions, with pointed questions as to whether they were hostile to the further encroachment of slavery, in favor of the repeal of the fugitive slave law and the restoration of the Missouri compromise, to which the committee received satisfactory answers -- from Darwin Phelps, candidate for assembly; Andrew J. Faulk, for county treasurer; William W. Hastings, for county commissioner, and Hamlet Totten, for county auditor. Thus all the anti-slavery elements became consolidated in the Republican party, which, in this county, sprung from the proceedings of that convention. The writer remembers the hearty and pleasant greetings of some of those original anti-slavery men, as he met them in Kittanning just after the convention had adjourned. They were gratified. A good old John Craig, with a smiling countenance, said, "We rejoice that we now can act together on this great political question." He, James Walker and other kindred spirits had the still higher gratification of knowing, ere they left for "the better land," that one of the compensating results of the war of the rebellion was the restoration to freedom by President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation of the four millions of dusky slaves, whose bondage they had so long lamented and abhorred.

A congregational meeting of that Free Presbyterian Society was held August 26, 1866, by which it was unanimously resolved: "That we, as a congregation, respectfully request the Presbytery of Allegheny (O.S.) to take us under their care and grant us supplies, and we will endeavor to seek the peace, the purity and prosperity of the church." That request was presented to the Presbytery at Brady's Bend, October 16, by John Craig and James Stephenson, elders, and the request was cheerfully granted. This church had previously been called Buffalo, but afterward Worthington. At the reconstruction of Presbyteries this church was assigned to that of Kittanning. Rev. A. S. Thompson was ordained and installed as its pastor for half time, November 20, 1867. Its membership in 1876 was about 75; Sabbath-school scholars about 90.

The farmers and some others of Franklin and adjacent townships held an agricultural meeting on Wednesday and Thursday, October 4 and 5, 1865, on the farm which Joseph M. Jordan sold to James and Samuel Monroe, that part of "Mount Lorenzo" adjacent to the Free Presbyterian church, at which for so limited a local one, there was a very creditable display of animals and agricultural and mechanical products.

James Barr, Jr., was assessed as a "schoolmaster" in 1806-7, whose school was probably on or near "Mount Lorenzo."

Worthington became, of course, when incorporated as a borough, a separate school district, and a frame schoolhouse of adequate size was erected in the obtuse angle formed by the junction of Ross street and the public road extending northeasterly through the northeastern corner of the borough. Its statistics for 1860: One school; average number of months taught, 4; teachers, male, 1; monthly salary, $20; male scholars, 24; female scholars, 37; average number attending school, 48; cost of teaching each scholar per month, 41 cents; levied for school purposes, $127.25; levied for building, $127.25; received from state appropriation, $24.95; received from collectors, $122; cost of instruction, $80; fuel, etc., $18.66. For 1876 -- one school; number months taught, 5; male teacher, 1; monthly salary, $35; male scholars, 28; female, 37; average number attending school, 37; cost per month, 64 cents; levied for school and building purposes, $188.41; received from state appropriation, $53; from taxes and other sources, $192.24; paid for teacher's wages, $175; for fuel, etc., $43.62.

The Worthington Academy organized in 1852, and was at first called the "Buffalo Institute." Its first principal was Mr. C. J. Ehrehart, a graduate of Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg. He taught during the winter of 1852-3.

In the fall of 1853, Mr. W. F. Ulery, of the same institution, took charge of it and taught until the next spring. In 1856, Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeld, who had resigned as pastor of the Lutheran church at Worthington, taught one term.

From this time until 1868 the academy was practically dead. In the spring of that year, Messrs. S. Knipe and E. S. Heaney, graduates of Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, resuscitated it, and for several years it was in a very prosperous condition. They taught one summer, and were succeeded in the fall by Mr. E. H. Dickenson, of Connecticut, who taught until the spring of 1870. His successor was Mr. S. Crist, of Washington and Jefferson College, who taught one term in 1871.

Mr. S. H. Culp, of Pennsylvania College, was his successor in the summer of 1873.

He was succeeded by Mr. J. C. R. Ewing, of Washington and Jefferson (now a foreign missionary in the Presbyterian church), who taught in 1874.

Mr. M. Cunningham followed him, teaching during that winter and the next summer.

Mr. J. T. Young, of Washington and Jefferson, took charge of the academy in the spring of 1878, and taught during three successive summers. The first year he taught alone; the second, he was assisted by Mr. A. C. Good, of the same institution (who is also laboring in the foreign missions work, under the care of the Presbyterian Board), and the third year he was assisted by Mr. J. P. Wiley.

Mr. N. Donaldson, of Washington and Jefferson, assisted by Mr. Wiley, taught during the summer of 1881, and he in turn was succeeded, in 1882, by Mr. H. Wallace, of Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pennsylvania.

In the last 15 years one prominent aim of the institution has been to qualify young ladies and gentlemen for teaching, and its success has been marked in this direction. It has also fitted a number of young men for the higher classes in college and for professional life; and it numbers among its former students some who are reflecting great credit on the academy in which they were trained.

Worthington postoffice was established February 12, 1840, with John McDonald, postmaster.

The vote of Worthington, February 28, 1873, was 4 for and 21 against granting liquor licenses.

The cemetery was laid out on the lot given to the town for that purpose by Joseph M. Jordan.

The assessment list for this borough for 1876 shows the number of taxables to be 62; blacksmiths, 2; carder, 1; cabinetmaker, 1; carpenters, 4; clerk, 1; farmers, 13; gardener, 1; manufacturer, 1; merchants, 4; millwright, 1; miner, 1; ministers, 3; painter, 1; peddler, 1; saddler, 1; shoemaker, 1; tailor, 1; tanner, 1; tinner, 1; wagonmaker, 1.

The population of this borough in 1860 was 213. In 1870 it was: native, 202; foreign, 14.

Adjoining "Mount Lorenzo" on the north and east, and "Sugar Tree Grove" on the north, on the Gapen map, is open territory, on which is inscribed the name of "John Titers." On the other map is an octagonal tract, "395a 131p," to which James Barr removed from the Manor soon after 1800, and on which he made an improvement and settlement. He conveyed his interest in it to Thomas Scott, of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, June 1, 1812, for $1,100, when its eastern adjoiners were John Campbell and William Moffit, and Isaac Lennington its northern one. About one-fourth of it is in what is now East Franklin township.

The first occupant of this tract, James Barr, was a prominent citizen of this state from his early manhood until his death. He was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1749, whence he removed to that part of Bedford county afterward included within the limits of Derry township in Westmoreland county; that is, he removed thither prior to 1773. He evinced his patriotism and devotion to the cause of the revolutionary struggle by aiding in the organization of what were then called "the associated battalions," or bodies of "Associators," which were raised for the defense both of the western frontier and the whole state and country. His fellow-citizens returned him as a member of the constitutional convention of this state, which met July 15, 1776, and framed the first constitution of the state of Pennsylvania. He was afterward appointed a justice of the peace. From 1787 until 1790 he was a member of the general assembly of the state, and opposed the calling of the convention of 1790 for revising the constitution. After the adoption of the constitution of that year he was appointed one of the associate judges of the courts of Westmoreland county, and a remonstrant against the attempt to impeach Judge Addison, who was then the president judge of the judicial district of which Westmoreland was then a part. The writer has not been able to ascertain when Judge Barr removed from Derry township to Appleby Manor, on the hill part of which he resided when he was appointed a trustee of this county, at or near where Thomas Montgomery now lives, until his removal to this tract, on which he was residing when this county was organized for judicial purposes, when he was appointed one of the three associate judges of the courts of Armstrong county, which position he held until December term, 1817. He died, as one of his descendants has informed the writer, in August, 1829, on that part of "Mount Lorenzo" then occupied by his son, David Barr.

Patents for different portions of this tract were granted to Thomas Scott, respectively, July 7, 1815, and February 29, 1816. He gave the principal portion of this tract to his children in his lifetime. He conveyed 100 acres of the quantity included in the first patent to his son James, June 22, 1821, for $1__, who having died intestate, his heirs conveyed to William Hindman, April 1, 1872, for $5,500; 95 acres to David Barr, October, 17, 1822, for $1, of which James Barr, guardian of the minor children of Titus Barr, conveyed ___ acres to William Galbraith, March 15, 1875, for $1,040; 128 acres to his son William, February 5, 1828, for "natural love and affection," which having become vested in Henry Drake, his heirs conveyed as containing 135 acres and 10 perches, to Robert Huston, March 5, 1872, for $6,100.

North of the Barr-Scott tract is unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map bearing the name of "Timothy Lennington," who must have settled on it before Gapen made the surveys of some adjoining tracts. On the other map it is a surveyed tract, nearly square, "400 1/2 a," about one-fourth of which is in what is now East Franklin. It was surveyed to Lennington on a warrant, dated August 6, 1801, to whom the patent was granted March 6, 1802, who soon after conveyed 99 3/4 acres of the southern or southeastern part to Rev. John Boyd, which was his place of residence while he was pastor of the Slate Lick and Union Presbyterian churches, and which, after his removal from this county, he conveyed to William Stevenson, September 30, 1811, for $400. The witnesses present at the execution of the deed by him were Judge Barr, and that of Mary his wife before Jacob Bamber, associate judge of the courts of Guernsey county, Ohio, October 14, 1811, and which Stevenson conveyed to his son Alexander, April 17, 1818, for $1, whose sons John and Johnston conveyed a portion to Jas. Stevenson, September 3, 1849.

Timothy Lennington conveyed other parcels of this tract thus: 99 3/4 acres to his son Isaac, August 5, 1808, "for and in consideration of the good services" done by him to his parents, and which the latter conveyed to James Summerville, May 17, 1817, for $455; 201 acres to his son-in-law, Francis A. Regis, his daughter Jane's husband, in consideration of his maintenance and the payment of from $1 and $10 to $50 to his sons and other daughters, respectively, aggregating $124, from the payment of which he, by his will, dated February 27, 1849, and registered February 14, 1853, released him; and the heirs of Jonathan Titus also released their interest in this parcel to him, August 3, 1854, "for a full and valuable consideration." Regis and wife conveyed 148 acres to Joseph T. McCady, March 27, 1855, for $1,500.

Adjoining that Lennington-Titus tract on the west and "Mount Lorenzo" on the north is a hexagonal tract, "410" acres on the Gapen map, which had been surveyed by Gapen to "Samuel Parr," on which James Simmeral made an improvement and settlement March 5, 1796, which was surveyed to him by Deputy Surveyor Ross, July 6, 1801, which survey was disputed by Hugh Lennington to whom and A. McCall it was resurveyed, "411a 8p," March 14, 1805, by virtue of previous improvement and settlement, with 200 acres of which and four cattle James Simmeral was assessed in 1805-6 at $82. Its central part is traversed in a westerly course by Lennington run. It is not apparent from the records whether Hugh Lennington abandoned or sold his claim. The patent for the entire tract was granted to McCall and Simmeral as tenants in common, October 29, 1829. They made partition and McCall conveyed to Simmeral 212 acres and 25 perches, June 26, 1832, on which the latter and his family resided until his death. By his will, dated September 18, 1841, and his codicil, dated September 9, 1851, and registered August 19, 1854, he directed his executors, John Craig and Thomas McCullough, to sell 99 acres of the eastern part of the tract and divide the money equally among six of his sons and two of his daughters, which those executors accordingly conveyed to James, John, Joseph and Josiah Summerville, May 22, 1856, for $1, 800. The testator devised 100 acres "off the south side of the mansion tract" to his daughters Fanny and Hannah.

The first schoolhouse erected within the present limits of West Franklin, log, about 16 X 16 feet, was situated about fifty rods south of Lennington run in the forks of the crossroad near William Younkins' house, about 60 rods southwesterly from schoolhouse No. 5, as the schoolhouses were numbered before the division of Franklin township.

McCall conveyed 100 acres of his purpart to Ann M. O'Connor, March 14, 1843, for $800, 26 acres and 133 perches of which she conveyed to Azel Summerville, March 31, 1846, for $707, which the latter conveyed to William Younkins, April 9, 1868, 4 acres of which Younkins conveyed to Rev. J. Y. Burwell, March 31, 1870, and which the latter reconveyed to Younkins, April 5, for $550. She also conveyed 30 acres to Jane Garraway, July 10, 1855, for $1,000. McCall's heirs conveyed 115 acres of this purpart together with parcels of other tracts to P. Graff & Co., April 16, 1845, of which Graff conveyed 115 acres and 78 perches to Leander Henry, November 2,1855, for $524, and which with another parcel constitutes a part of the 295 acres and 71 perches which Graff conveyed to John T. Ehrenfeld, November 28, 1870, for $3,500.

Adjoining that McCall-Simmeral tract on the northwest is "vacant" land on the Gapen, but on the other map, a heptagonal tract, "241a, 135p," on which William Stevenson made an improvement in April, 1800, and a settlement April 10, 1802, and which was surveyed to him by Ross, deputy surveyor, April 24. This tract must have been abandoned by Stevenson. A warrant for it was granted to Joseph Shields and others, December 2, 1837, on which it was surveyed to them by Meredith, deputy surveyor, December 14.

Adjoining that last-noticed Stevenson tract on the north is unsurveyed territory on the Gapen, but on the other map two surveyed tracts traversed by Long run, an eastern tributary of Little Buffalo creek. The western one, "192a 94p" was first settled by James Kerr, Sr., who was assessed with 190 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, in 1805, at $103.50, and in 1806 at $94.50. He conveyed the interest which he had acquired in it as an actual settler, under the claim of Patrick Hervey, to Samuel Shields, in 1815-16, who conveyed a portion of it to James Kerr, Jr., and John Kerr, and they to John Shields 19 acres and 127 perches, November 28, 1823, for $79. The patent for most of it was granted to Joseph Shields in trust for the heirs of Samuel Shields, April 9, 1827, and for another portion in trust for those heirs and John Craig, Sr., April 14, 1838, 18 acres 90 perches of which Craig conveyed to Joseph Shields, May 8, 1839, for $92,80, having, on April 27, released 82 acres and 70 perches to Joseph Shields in trust, as aforesaid. Samuel Shields died intestate and his son, Joseph, inherited the residue of this tract, who conveyed 128 acres and 52 perches to John Leard, July 7, 1840, for $1,500, and to whom his widow released her dower or third therein, February 26, 1848, for $1, the same being now in the possession of Christopher Leard.

Adjoining that Kerr-Shields-Leard tract on the east in the unsurveyed territory on the Gapen map, is on the other an octagonal tract on which Daniel Sloan made an early improvement and settlement, and was assessed with 190 acres, 2 horses and 1 cow, in 1805, at $113.50, and with the same and an additional cow the next year, at $119.50. He was thereafter assessed with 180 acres of the land until 1810, which was for several years thereafter assessed to his son, James, and was in 1817 placed on the unseated list, on which it was continued until 1819. David Sloan's heirs, of Marion county, Indiana, conveyed their interests in it to the present owner, James Claypoole, September 2, 1845, and April 23, 1846, for $60 for each one's one undivided one-seventh of 170 acres and 40 perches.

Adjoining those Sloan-Claypoole and Kerr-Shields tracts on the east, on the Gapen map, is an octagonal tract "432.30," surveyed by Gapen to "Samuel Wallace," its center traversed westerly by Long run. Wallace's interest probably became vested in Archibald McCall. On the other map is the same shaped tract with "400a" and "Ab'm Lenonton" on it, who improved and settled it while he was a single man, perhaps before 1800. He was assessed with that quantity in 1805-6, at $100. The patent for it, 440 acres, was granted to McCall and Lennington, February 13, 1809. They having made partition, McCall by his attorney, Collins, released 140 acres and 54 perches of it to Lennington, February 13, and Lennington to McCall 299 acres and 106 perches, September 5, and the same day conveyed his purpart to John Mounts, who had erected his gristmill thereon in 1806, from which a public road was opened to "Boyd's upper meeting-house," as surveyed by Robert Cogley, in the winter of 1808-9, for $500, who conveyed the same to Anthony Gallagher, September 22, for $350, to whom it was assessed until 1858, and thereafter to Joseph Gallagher until 1863, and was conveyed by Jonathan Myers, sheriff, to Ross Mechling, September 14, with about 100 acres cleared, log dwelling-house, double log barn, apple and peach orchard. McCall's purpart of this tract, called "Hartford," was included in his assignment to Du Pont, who reconveyed it to him, January 17, 1833, and which his heirs, by their attorney, Chapman Biddle, conveyed 115 acres and 78 perches and 278 acres and 80 perches of another tract to Peter Graff, April 16, 1845, for $4,700, which parcel was included in his conveyance to John T. Ehrenfeld.

The name of this tract is traced to Hartfort parish, in the county of Cheshire, England, through which passes in these later times the London & Northwestern Railway. The county and city of Hartford -- the latter being one of the capitols of Connecticut -- were so called after that township of Hartford, in England. The etymology of Hartford is hart, a stag, and ford, the passage of a stream, i.e., a shallow place in a river or other stream where harts cross.

A small portion of another tract*(5), on which James McDowell's sawmill was erected in 1846, adjoins "Hartford" on the east. Contiguous to "Hartford" on the north is the minor portion of a tract which will be noticed hereafter, and all of another, surveyed by Gapen to "Samuel Haslet," "202.8" acres, whose interest probably became vested in McCall. James Hanna was an early settler on this tract. He was assessed with it and 4 cattle, in 1805, at $112, and in 1806 with the land, 1 horse and 1 cow, at $110. The patent for it, 410 acres and 6 perches, called "Reserve," was granted to Hanna and McCall, May 16, 1807. Hanna conveyed his interest therein and 2 horses, 1 cow, 4 sheep, 7 hogs, 1 loom and tackling, and his household furniture, to Andrew McKee, June 24, 1807, for $300, who probably conveyed his interest in the land to Andrew Messenheimer, for McCall released 150 acres and 92 perches of his purpart of "Reserve" to the latter, July 2, 1841, for $1. Messenheimer conveyed the same to Presley Irwin, August 12, for $800, 58 acres and 20 perches of which he conveyed to Jacob Hepler, November 6, 1849, for $406.87. J. E. Meredith, Irwin's administrator, conveyed 51 acres and 7 1/2 perches to Peter Graff, April 7, 1854, which he conveyed to John Koller, December 2, 1859, for $600. McCall's purpart of "Reserve" was included in his assignment to Du Pont, in the reconveyance from Du Pont to him, and in the conveyance from McCall's heirs to William F. Johnston, 100 acres of which the latter conveyed to John Buzzard, March 26, 1856, for $800; and 100 acres to Peter Graff, September 13, 1859, for $800, of which Graff conveyed 90 acres to Grace B. Dickson, September 29, 1868, for $500, and, same day, 12 acres and 121 perches to John Keller for $165.83.

Adjoining the northern part of "Hartford" and the southern part of "Reserve" on the west, unsurveyed on the Gapen, but surveyed on the other, is a hexagonal tract, almost a rectangular parallelogram, "442a 30p," on which Joseph Shields made an improvement in February, 1793, a settlement in April 1797, and to whom it was surveyed by Ross, deputy surveyor, April 24, 1802. The patent for it was granted to him December 20, 1813. He conveyed 17 1/4 acres to Christian Kenson, October 23, 1827, for $____. By his will, dated June 17, 1852, and registered May 16, 1857, he devised 50 acres of his "mansion tract" to his son David; to his daughter, Mary Adams, 10 acres, on which she then lived; 20 acres to his daughter Elizabeth; directed 100 acres to be sold by his executors, and the proceeds to be equally divided between his six daughters and his son Joseph; and devised the rest of the "mansion tract," supposed to contain 226 acres, to his son, Robert Shields, who conveyed 2 acres and 129 perches thereof to Godfreed Guiser, January 12, 1867, for $300.

Schoolhouse No. 6 is situated in the forks of a northeastern tributary of Little Buffalo creek, at the crossroads, on this Shields tract.

Adjoining that tract on the north is a hexagonal one, nearly a rectangular parallelogram, "420" acres, surveyed by Gapen to "Nicholas Day." On the other map is the same shaped tract, with the same quantity of land, and on its face the names of "Philip Templeton and A. McCall." The patent for the entire tract was granted to McCall, November 22, 1837, was included in the conveyance from his heirs to Johnston as containing 413 acres and 25 perches, of which he conveyed 100 acres and 127 perches to Peter Graff, October 5, 1857, for $1,200.50; and 200 acres and 89 perches to Francis A. Regis and Joseph B. Shields, March 17, 1858, for $1,604.

West and northwest of that Templeton-McCall tract is unsurveyed territory on both maps, included, perhaps, in "Joseph Irwin's claim," partly in what is now Sugar Creek township, the central part of which is traversed about due south by the Little Buffalo, with 100 acres of which Nathaniel Patterson was first assessed in 1820, to whom J. E. Meredith, deputy surveyor, surveyed 193 acres and 90 [70] perches, December 12, 1837, being a very irregularly shaped tract, with twelve sides, which became vested in Philip Templeton (of Philip), and was returned on warrant, dated December 14, 1865, and surveyed December 26, and to whom the patent was subsequently granted.

Geological. -- Within the limits of West Franklin township the section extends upward from the Pottsville conglomerate into the lower barren group, thus embracing all the lower productives. The area of the lower barrens is confined to the southeast and northwest corners of the township. The area of the Pottsville conglomerate stretches from McKee's schoolhouse (No. 6) on Little Buffalo creek southward to the milldam above the Buffalo mills, and thence westward up the Big Buffalo past Craigsville to A. Hindman's. In all this area it is closely confined to the region of the creek, being in fact only just lifted above the water's edge. The lower productives have therefore a wide outspread in this township. The outcrop of the upper Freeport coal skirts the edge of the lower barren area, passing just above Worthington into East Franklin. So far as investigated, it has little thickness here, and its limestone is not of much consequence. The same is true of the area of this coal found in the northwest corner of the township. But the lower Kittanning coal is persistent as a workable bed, usually about 3 1/2 feet thick. The ferriferous limestone is in good condition and has the buhrstone ore on its top. Both were used in the Buffalo Furnace, which also used some ore from the Freeport deposit, found in the hills west of the stack.

Structure. -- An important anticlinal axis traverses the township from northeast to southwest, crosses the Big Buffalo near Craigsville and extends across the Little Buffalo below the mouth of Long Run. It is the axis which crosses the Allegheny near the mouth of Red Bank. -- Platt.

The upper Freeport coal on the hillside, over the turnpike, near Buffalo Furnace, on the west bank of Buffalo creek, is 18 inches thick. The Kittanning coalbed is there below it, which used to yield 3 1/2 feet of pure non-pyritous coal. The ferriferous limestone is there 15 feet thick, blue and solid, above which is an orebed, accompanied by very little buhrstone. The Tionesta sandstone appears there in the bed of the stream with the ferriferous shales and workable Clarion coal above. -- Rodgers.

The population of West Franklin, in 1870, was, native, 1,205; foreign, 109; colored, 0.

Number of schools in 1876, 8; average number of months taught, 5; male teachers, 2; female teachers, 6; average monthly salaries of both male and female, $30; male scholars, 263; female scholars, 160; average number attending school, 249; cost of teaching each per month, 73 cents; tax levied for school and building purposes, $2,355.60; received from state appropriation, $243.66; from taxes and other sources, $2,690.50; cost of schoolhouses, $25 paid teachers' wages, $1,200; fuel, etc., $401.58.


1. See Sketch of North Buffalo
2. Which he conveyed to his son John F. Brown, May 7, 1877, for $1 and natural love and affection.
3. Recorded September 20, 1848, in deed book, vol 16, p. 316.
4. Vid. Kittanning Free Press, July 14, 1853
5. Vide East Franklin

Source: Page(s) 472-495, History of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania by Robert Walker Smith, Esq. Chicago: Waterman, Watkins & Co., 1883.
Transcribed September 2001 by James R. Hindman for the Armstrong County Smith Project.
Contributed by James R. Hindman for use by the Armstrong County Genealogy Project (

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