Chapter 21

North Buffalo

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Erection of the Township in 1847 - First Election - White's Claim - �The Green Settlement� - First Mill - Other Tracts of Land and Their Transfers - Baptist Church - Population Statistics - School Statistics, 1860 and 1876 - Industrial - Topography - Rock Structure

North Buffalo township was organized by dividing what remained of Buffalo after the organization of Franklin township in North and South Buffalo townships. That division was authorized by act of assembly of March 15, 1847, which prescribes that dividing line thus: Beginning on the Butler county line at the northwest corner of the then sub-schooldistrict No. 3 of Buffalo township; thence along the north line of that sub-schooldistrict to its termination on the land of John Rea; thence by a direct line to the southwest corner of a tract of land patented to Jacob White, then occupied by John Woodward, on the bank of the Allegheny river, for running which the county commissioners were to appoint a suitable person who was to return to them a draft of it, and the expenses to be paid out of the county treasury. The first election in North Buffalo township was directed to be held at the house of John Boney, Sr., conducted by James McCullough, judge, and David Beatty and John B. Smith, inspectors. The first election in South Buffalo township was prescribed by the same act to be held at the house of Andrew Srader, conducted by John Haman, judge, and William Hughes and James Tracy, inspectors. The people were to determine by their votes at those elections where the elections in each of these two townships should be thereafter held. The places thus designated were the Claypoole schoolhouse (no. 6) in North and the Sloan schoolhouse (No. 5) in South Buffalo township. The then collector of taxes of Buffalo was to be the one for North, and the county commissioners were to appoint one for South Buffalo township.

At the first township election in North Buffalo, held in March 1848, John Boney was elected justice of the peace; James Claypoole, judge, and James Kiskadden and Edward Manso, inspectors of election; Robert Galbraith, constable; John Barnett and David Beatty, supervisors; James Maxwell and Reuben Stonapher, school directors; Joseph Bullman and John Smith, Jr., township auditors; Jacob Arb and John Boney, overseers of the poor; and William Colwell, assessor.

There is a considerable area of territory along the river between the southwestern and northeastern corners of what is now this township, and extending back about two miles from the river in the southwestern and about three and a half miles in t he northeastern part, which appears to be vacant on the map of Stephen Gapen's surveys. In the southwestern part is an unsurveyed area noted as �White's claim�, on which Jacob White made an improvement in June, 1793, and an actual settlement in March, 1796, and 396 acres and 84 perches of which were surveyed to him by George Ross, September 16, 1801, the patent for which to him is dated February 1, 1820, the southwestern corner of which, at White's eddy, is the southwest corner of this township. This tract, as it appears on the Lawson & Orr map, is very nearly a rectangular parallelogram, extending northwesterly from the river, and including or interfering with the southeastern part of the McCall and Claypoole tract. White transferred or agreed to sell this tract to James Clemens, of Blockley township, Philadelphia county, in 1817, and conveyed it to him, May 2, 1820, for $2,553.51 1/2. Clemens devised it to his wife during her life or widowhood, and in the event of her death or marriage, to William and Kezia Henry. Mrs. Clemens having married, John and William Henry conveyed 100 acres and 132 perches to Jehu and Kezia Woodward, October 22, 1846, for $1, etc. Woodward was first assessed with a distillery, 400 acres and one horse, at $735, in 1832. William Henry conveyed 100 acres and 130 perches to James H. Claypoole, October 31, 1863, for $1,500, and the residue of the tract, May 19, 1865, 80 acres and 34 perches to Robert S. Connor for $1,604; 64 acres and 63 perches to Samuel B. Bruner for $680; and 101 acres and 126 perches to Andrew J. Bruner for $687.

Adjoining the southern part of that Jacob White tract on the east, in the unsurveyed area on the map of Gapen's surveys, is a tract containing, according to the Lawson & Orr map, 206 1/2 acres, in the northeastern corner of which is the mouth of Glade run, which was settled by James Sloan in 1816.

It and the island opposite have remained in the possession of Sloan's heirs until they conveyed both to Joseph B. Smith for the latter's hereinafter-mentioned mill property.

Adjoining that Sloan tract on the east and northeast is what has been known, since the latter part of the last century, as �the Green settlement�, in Gapen's unsurveyed area, extending along the Allegheny river from about 25 rods above the mouth of Glade run to within 15 rods below the mouth of Manor run, and on Glade run and its waters. That �settlement� on the Lawson & Orr map comprises five tracts: John Green's, 224 acres; James Green's, 226 acres and 130 perches; Samuel Green's, 220 acres and 30 perches; Daniel Green's, 210 acres and 150 perches, and Jeremiah and Samuel Green's, 150 acres, each of which probably contained more or less of a surplus. Warrants, as mentioned in the records, for the two first-mentioned tracts were granted to Samuel and William Green, April 21, 1794. They soon after settled on them - William on the lower one, the western part of which is traversed by Glade run, on which tract, on the river hill, between the river and the present public road, he laid out the town of Williamsburgh, in 1802, covering an area of about 15 acres, each lot containing one-fourth of an acre. The price of each lot was to be about $2. It is not known that more than one was sold, the purchaser of which was a man by the name of Hollander, who built a house upon it. It was intended to have the county buildings located here, and it is said that the ground was staked off for them by the first board of county commissioners, who afterward accepted the offer of Gen. Armstrong's heirs, at Kittanning. * In 1804 or 1805 he erected a log gristmill on this stream, about three-quarters of a mile above its mouth, with one run of stone, with which and one horse and two cows, he was first assessed at $150, in 1806, and the sawmill was erected soon after where the present gristmill is. The bolting-chest of the first gristmill was made of the trunk of a large, hollow buttonwood tree, which was divided into two equal parts, one placed above the other, with an interval of about two feet between them. The entire interval on one side was closed by shaved clapboards, and all on the other, except about four feet in the middle, which space was covered by a piece of homemade linen cloth, nailed on the upper, and which dropped on the inside of the lower part of the trunk so as to keep the flour from falling out of the chest. Instead of a leather belt, a rope made of straw was used, which required moistening to make it effective. People brought their grists to that mill from 10, 15 and 20 miles around. One of its customers was a little Irishman from Butler county, who fell asleep while waiting for his grist. As he awoke, he saw the large cog-wheel and the trundle-head turning between him and the moonlight which penetrated a crevice in the wall. Being alarmed, he screamed and yelled lustily. On being asked what was the matter, he replied, �I thought I was in hell, and the big devil and a little one were after me�. William Green continued to be assessed with that mill until 1816. He conveyed his tract, 224 acres, reserving the mill and the house in which he lived, to John Green, July 2, 1816, for $1. The latter was assessed with the grist and saw mills until 1822, when the former was leased to William Boney and to William Kelly. The present one was erected about 40 rods above the site of the first one, in 1828-9 - two-story frame, with two runs of stone at first, to which another has since been added. The gristmill was first assessed to Noah Bowser, in 1853. It and the sawmill were first assessed to Barnett, Bonner and Smith, in 1854, and the former continued to be assessed to them until 1857; from then until 1866 Bonner and Smith, and to Joseph B. Smith from then until now. On the right bank of this stream, about 50 rods below the mill, is the North Buffalo postoffice, which was established February 10, 1870, Miles J. Green, postmaster. This hamlet consists of about a dozen dwelling-houses and the mill, Green's store and Bricker & Co.'s blacksmith-shop.

Samuel and William Green conveyed the second or 226-acre tract to James Green, July 2, 1816, for $2, who retained to ownership of most of it during his life. He resided here while he was county commissioner, from 1827-8 to 1830-1, and before and after. When military parades were more in vogue in various parts of the county than they are now, his place was selected for some of them, especially of the battalion of which the late Andrew Arnold was major. James Green, by his will, dated August 31, 1842, and registered April 30, 1853, devised 80 acres of this tract, except a fourth of an acre which was reserved for schoolhouse lot, to his son Levi, and 120 acres more or less to his son Robert. The latter having died intestate, proceedings were instituted in the proper court for the partition of his real estate. The inquest found that it could not be advantageously divided into purparts, and valued it at $11,695.80. Joseph B. Smith, administrator of his estate, was appointed trustee to sell it. The sale having been confirmed, he conveyed the land, 164 acres and 19 perches, to George B. Sloan, September 8, 1873, for $8,401.50. Levi Green, by his will registered October 24, 1874, devised that part of his land north of Glade run, on which is the public schoolhouse No. 5, to his son Miles J., and the residue to his son James R. Green.

Samuel Green settled on the third of these tracts, 225 acres and 30 perches, in 1795, on which, where his descendant, James Green, now resides, on what is now the river road from Kittanning to Freeport, he built a log house, cleared two acres, which he sowed in wheat, to which he removed his wife and child the next year, James and John Green having settled on the two lower tracts about the same time.

In the southeastern part of this tract, opposite the central part of �Cast Off�, is what the Indians called a �medicine spring�. Its water has not yet been analyzed, but from what the writer has learned respecting its qualities, he infers it is strongly chalybeate. About fifty rods northwest of it on this tract is an artificial excavation in the rock, and about seventy-five rods northwest of the latter, on the James Green tract, is another, each about six inches in diameter and in depth, in which the Indians pounded, cracked and prepared their corn for making samp.

There was, in the course of three or four years, a sufficient number of children in �the Green settlement� and vicinity for a school. So the first schoolhouse within what is now North Buffalo township was erected on the above-mentioned second tract, settled by James Green. It was a log structure, sixteen feet square, and finished and furnished like other primitive temples of knowledge described in the general sketch of this county. Benjamin Biggs was the first teacher in that house, who taught spelling, reading, writing and about the first half of arithmetic. The text-books in orthography and reading were Dillworth's spelling book, the Testament and the Bible. Another log schoolhouse, with clapboard doors, was soon afterward built in place of the first one about ten rods northeast of it.

The Daniel Green tract, 210 acres and 150 perches, adjoined a small parcel of vacant land and parts of the above-mentioned James and John Green tracts on the northwest, on which Daniel Green made an improvement, June 2, 1793, and an actual settlement, April 7, 1796, and which was surveyed to him by George Ross, September 12, 1801, 201 acres and 32 perches of which he conveyed to Ross, February 4, 1804, for $250, which included a part of 100 acres more or less which William Green conveyed to Daniel the same day, for $10, and which then adjoined lands of John and William Jack and William McLaughlin, with which, and two horses and two cows, Ross was assessed in 1805 and 1806 at $212, and where he resided a part of the time while he was deputy surveyor and when he was appointed an associate judge of the courts of this county. He conveyed the same quantity which he had purchased from Green to John Boney, January 8, 1813, for $800.

Another part of �the Green settlement� consisted of a part of a tract adjoining the above-mentioned Samuel Green tract on the north and the Allegheny river on the east, on which Adam Morrow made an early improvement and settlement. Three hundred and sixteen acres and thirty perches, �including his actual settlement�, were surveyed to him by Deputy Surveyor Ross, November 2, 1801. William Parks was then a settler on this land for Alexander, who entered a caveat to the survey, alleging that Kelly had a prior right by an earlier and continued settlement. Hence there was litigation concerning it. Morrow employed William Ayres, then of Pittsburgh, as his attorney, and agreed, in case of his success, and also in consideration of his professional services in trying an ejectment for him in Allegheny county in 1800, to convey to Ayres a portion of this land. In pursuance of that agreement they made an amicable division of the tract, April 12, 1809, when Morrow conveyed to Ayres 139 3/4 acres, which he conveyed to the late Judge Young, March 22, 1811, and which the latter conveyed to James and Samuel Green, June 20, 1818, for $367.50, 70 acres of which James Green devised to his son Samuel Green. The commonwealth, in consideration �of the moneys paid by Adam Morrow�, to whom a warrant had been issued, April 25, 1814, granted a patent to Jeremiah and Samuel Green, May 9, 1857, who made partition between themselves, July 11, 1857, by a line beginning at a post 154 perches from the corner end on the Allegheny river, dividing it into equal parts, the eastern being taken by Jeremiah and the western one by Samuel. In the northeastern corner of the former purpart, about thirty rods below the mouth of Morrow's run, the Indians had a furnace for smelting lead, vestiges of which were heretofore visible. Some pieces of lead ore found hereabouts many years since led some persons to think that a vein of it exists in this region, which has not yet been discovered.

In this northwestern corner of the western purpart on Glade run is a mill-seat which Jeremiah Green leased to Jerome S. and Alexis J. Bonnett, July 27, 1858, at an annual rent of $25 for the term of twenty years, but in case the mill which they should erect should be burned or swept away and the lessees should �find it necessary to discontinue the sawmill business�, the lease was to be thenceforth �null and void in tall its parts�. The lessees erected a sawmill at that seat immediately after the execution of the lease, which was assessed to Alexis J. Bonnett, and which was soon after �swept away�, as noted on the first assessment list after its erection. It was soon rebuilt and was operated by him until his death, and was thereafter for several years assessed to his heirs. He had acceptably filled the position of American consul at Bordeaux, France, during President Pierce's administration.

Adam Morrow conveyed his interest in the northern part of the tract retrained by him to James Morrow, June 13, 1814, for $800. One hundred and fifteen acres having become vested in Jacob Keim, he devised the same, by his will, dated October 22, 1839, to his sons, to whom a patent was granted, May 8, 1857, and which they conveyed to Jerome S. Bonnett, June 25, and he to James Obey, February 28, 1859, for $3,000.

Adjoining the Morrow tract on the north was one of 354 acres and 91 perches, on which Samuel Kelly, tailor, made an improvement and settlement, March 2, 1796, and which was surveyed to him by George Ross, November 3, 1801, a small portion of which was then claimed by Adam Maxwell. Kelly's interest in more than 200 acres of it was conveyed by John Orr, sheriff, to George Armstrong, September 1, 1808, and by Kelly to him, February 24, 1809, and which he conveyed to John Campbell, December 22, 1813, for $500, who by his will, dated 15th and registered October 18, 1827 - and required him to resign his right to other land adjoining lands of William Barnett, Joseph Cogley and James Hampton - devised to his son Nathaniel, who conveyed 207 acres to Hugh L. Cooper, April 20, 1838, for $1,200, of which Cooper conveyed 104 acres and 142 perches to John and William Dick - on which the latter still resides and is still assessed with 26 acres - April 20, 1838, for $1,300. Cooper conveyed 107 acres and 145 perches to Robert Adams, August 13, 1842, for $1,250, which, with other 4 acres and 10 perches, he conveyed to Mrs. Mary J. Heiner, August 30, 1864, for $3,000. William Dick and others conveyed 73 acres and 85 perches to Robert McKee, April 22, 1875, for $2,757.42.

Next north on that Kelly-Campbell tract, on the Lawson & Orr map, are two contiguous tracts, one bearing the name of Henry Jack and the other that of James Hannegan, both containing 368 acres and 10 perches, which must have constituted the tract on which James Cogley, Sr., settled in or before 1797, and with which, or 100 acres of which, 1 horse and 4 cattle, he was assessed in 1805 at $94. He died intestate, and his son James conveyed his interest therein to Robert Brown, July 1, 1820, for $100, and his daughter, Mrs. James Fish, and her husband conveyed their interest therein to Robert Brown, July 10, 1820, for $100. In both of these deeds this land is described as being opposite the mouth of Garrett's run and adjoining lands of Dr. McCullough and others.

Next north of that Kelly-Campbell tract were two contiguous tracts, in the lower one of which, 186 1/4 acres, Henry Jack, and in the upper one, 181 acres and 180 perches, James Hannegan, once had inchoate interests, for both of which the late Robert Brown and James Cowan obtained a patent, June 16, 1837, and conveyed the latter to Henry Cowan eleven days afterward, for $325, on or near the northern line of which is public schoolhouse No. 4, or �Bunker Hill�, so-called from a fight between two belligerent individuals which occurred there many years ago. James Cowan retained the lower one of these two tracts, and died intestate, October 11, 1867. In pursuance of a writ of partition this tract was valued as containing 203 acres and 70 perches, at $5,250, and were taken by the decedent's son, Robert W. Cowan, at the valuation, and was ordered and adjudged to him, March 1, 1869, by whom it is still retained.

Adjoining the northeastern part of the tract which Brown and Cowan conveyed to Henry Cowan was the one to which Robert Cogley acquired a title by improvement and settlement commenced probably as early as, if not earlier then, 1800. He was assessed with 113 acres and 1 cow in 1805, at $73.80, and the next year with an additional cow, at $79.80. He resided on this tract until his death, shortly after which a writ of partition was issued, and the tract, 114 acres, was appraised at $795.15. No one having appeared, after the usual notice given in such cases, to accept it at the valuation, the court ordered the administrator, the late Robert Brown, who had purchased the interest of Joseph Cogley, the decedent's nephew, in his uncle's estate, January 31, 1831, for $100, to sell it, which he did, and conveyed it to James E. Brown, August 29, 1822, for $130, which the latter conveyed to -------- --------- November 14, 1836, for $1,000; he to Michael Truby, 180 acres, January 5, 1866, for $2,700.73; and Truby to Thomas J. Roney, 102 acres, August 28, 1869, for $2,700, and 80 acres to J.E. Brown, September 20, for $300.

The next tract north is depreciation lot No. 299, 307 1/16 acres, called �Greenfield�, about one-sixth of which is in East Franklin, for which a patent was granted to John McCulloch, merchant of Philadelphia, January 2, 1792, which, was his other real estate, he directed by his will, dated October 28, 1797, his executors to sell, and which his surviving executor, John S. McCulloch, of Baltimore, Maryland, conveyed to James E. Brown, February 25, 1850, for $6,000. The eastern portion of �Greenfield� is traversed diagonally by a run whose sources are on depreciation lot No. 303, hereinafter mentioned, ** nearly two miles northwesterly from the Kittanning bridge. Along that run in the southern part of �Greenfield� is �Whiskey Hollow�, so called from the distillery some distance above on that run, which was operated by John Truby, Jr., from 1817 till 1825, by Isaac Wible from then until 1827, and then by James Blair until 1830. Farther up that stream is what was formerly called �Mutton Hollow�, from the number of sheep formerly dispatched in it.

Adjoining �Greenfield� on the west, on the Lawson & Orr map, is a tract of 40 1/2 acres, whose eastern and northern lines are straight, but whose southern line is irregular, and forming with the eastern line a right angle at the southeast corner and with the northern line a very acute angle at the northwestern corner, partly in East Franklin, which was surveyed by Ross, deputy surveyor, to William McAnninch, February 11, 1806, and thereafter assessed to Matthew Hopkins until 1816.

West of �Greenfield� and south and southwest of the McAnninch-Hopkins tract, on the same map, is another irregularly-shaped tract of 70 acres, for which a patent was granted to Joseph Cogley, January 15, 1822, which, or at least 43 3/4 acres of which, he conveyed to David Huston, weaver, March 16, for $100, with 36 acres of which the latter was assessed until 1818, being in what is now East Franklin.

South and west of �Greenfield� and south of the last-noticed tract was another Joseph Cogley tract, hexagonal, whose area was much larger than that of his other one, on which he settled about 1805, and was assessed with 50 acres in 1806, on which he had previously erected his blacksmith-shop, which, before 1808, was the one most convenient to Kittanning, and to which its inhabitants resorted, the patent for which was granted to him and his wife, May 8, 1829. He ceased to follow his trade after 1821. He and his wife conveyed 67 acres of the former, and 69 acres and 20 perches of the latter tract to Robert G. Porterfield, September 6, 1836, for $1,150, which, aggregating on a more accurate survey 143 acres and 78 perches, Porterfield conveyed to Dr. Thomas H. Allison, September 7, 1868, for $5,000.

Adjoining those two Cogley tracts on the west was depreciation lot No. 287, 235 8/10 acres, called �Liberty Hall�. It was one of the ten tracts in what are now Armstrong, Allegheny and Butler counties, which were purchased from the commonwealth by Simon Fishbaugh, which Robert Ralston, of Philadelphia, his assignee in bankruptcy, conveyed to Walter Stewart, March 20, 1792, and which, with numerous other tracts in various surveyor districts, became vested in Robert Morris, Jr., all of which he conveyed to William Hunt, May 21, 1796, for �five shillings and other valuable considerations�.

�Liberty Hall� was sold by Adam Elliott, county treasurer, for taxes, who conveyed it to George Armstrong, December 16, 1810, for $30, and the latter to Hunt, August 25, 1813, for $10; which, among other tracts, the latter assigned for the benefit of his creditors to Lewis Clapier and Edward W. Robinson August 4, 1826, who by their attorney-in-fact, William Foster, of Meadville, conveyed it to Joseph Barnett, September 21, 1833, for $475, 50 acres and 20 perches of which the latter conveyed to William Barnett, December 5, 1836, for $125, and 10 acres and 64 perches to Joshua C. Bowser, July 21, 1849, for ------, �and building a barn�. The rest of �Liberty Hall�, 196 acres, was conveyed by David J. Reed, sheriff, to Dr. Thomas H. Allison, September 7, 1868, for $5,000, which with what he purchased from Porterfield, constitutes his noted stock farm***, which he began stocking with the Jersey cattle in 1868. He purchased 12 head of thoroughbred registered stock of this species in Philadelphia, in 1876, and he has sold a considerable number of calves, the rearing of which he has found pleasant and profitable, at from $60 to $100 each. His further purchases, this year, were: 7 head of young Shorthorns, for $1,000; 6 head of Holstein cattle, which he finds not adapted to the climate of this region; 28 pure-bred Merino sheep of the Alwood family, of the United States Merino Sheep Register, of Spanish descent. Adjoining �Liberty Hall� on the south was depreciation lot No. 286, 235 8/10 acres, which Benjamin Holland purchased from the commonwealth at public auction, probably at the Coffee-House, in Philadelphia, September 23, 1786, which is described in the patent as situated on Beaver creek, as Glad run was then called. His only lineal heir was his son Samuel, to whom the patent was granted, September 27, 1828, for $15.66, who conveyed the entire tract to William Barnett, November 8, 1828, for $240, on which he appears to have made an improvement and settlement in 1825, which he retained till his death, and which by his will, dated July 10, and registered September 13, 1838, he devised to his son John. He bequeathed legacies to his other children, and directed that if any difficulty should arise among his legatees respecting their legacies, �no suits at law should be brought, but the same should be referred to the order and determination of his loving friends, James Green, Sr., and Hugh L. Cooper�, and what they should �order, direct, and determine therein shall be binding and conclusive�.

South and west of the Holland-Barnett was the Adam Maxwell tract, 386 acres and 70 perches, skirted on the east by the above-mentioned Kelly-Campbell tract, on the southeast by the Morrow-Green tract, on the south by vacant land, and on the west by the Daniel Green-Ross-Boney and the hereinafter-mentioned William Jack tract. Adam Maxwell, as he states in his affidavit respecting the two routes for a public road from Freeport to Kittanning, �was appointed a spy by the state in the last Indian wars�, and his �route was from the mouth of Buffalo to the mouth of Limestone on the Allegheny river�, and that since he had come to live in this part of the country he had been three or four times supervisor. He probably made an improvement and settlement on his tract about 1796, at all events before 1805, for in that year he was assessed with the land, two horses and three cattle, at $318, and the next year at $258. He was one of the earliest elders of the Slate Lick Presbyterian church, of whom Rev. B.F. Boyle, in his historical sketch of that church says, he �was a godly man; he was spared to rule many years�.

The next schoolhouse after that on the James Green tract was a log one, with clapboard roof, was built on this tract about 1812, in which John Harris was the first teacher. Schools had been taught in private houses before its erection.

The warrant for this tract was issued to him December 10, 1813. He directed by his will, dated November 11, 1820, and registered September 26, 1837, that 80 or 100 acres be sold off the northeast end of the tract on which he then lived for the payment of his debts, but if it could not be sold to advantage that they be paid out of his personal property, and that quantity of land be equally divided between his sons Adam, David, James, John and William, and one-third of the rest of his land to James, and the residue to his other sons equally, to be laid off in such manner as they might think proper. James and the other heirs released their respective interests to John and William, August 21, October 11 and 27, and November 10, 1852, who conveyed 95 acres to Robert Dinsmore, August 23, 1852, for $950.

Northwest of �Liberty Hall� lay depreciation lot No. 284, 220 4/10 acres, called �Center Hill�, a part of whose area is in what is now East Franklin township, the patent for which was granted to William Findley, November 30, 1786, who agreed, June 21, 1815, to sell it to Joseph Bowser for $220, to be paid within four years with interest, but did not execute a deed before his death. Bowser having proved this contract before Frederick Rohrer, prothonotary of the court of common pleas of this county, December 22, 1825, as provided by the act of June 31, 1792, the court ordered Findley's executors to convey it to Bowser. He had agreed to sell one-half to Thomas Jack, and the other half to Matthew Cole for the purpose of realizing the purchase money which he had not paid to Findley or his executors. Jack having paid to the latter $275, the principal and interest, they conveyed to him 110 acres, November 28, 1836. Bowser was Cole's administrator, and by virtue of an order of the orphans' court of this county, sold his intestate's interest, and after confirmation of sale, conveyed 105 acres to William Toy, October 5, 1837, for $60, which the latter conveyed to Bowser for $1 and other considerations, which the latter conveyed to Alexander McNickle, April 10, 1838, for $250, which Chambers Orr, sheriff, conveyed to Robert Buchanan, of Cincinnati, Ohio, March 17, 1841, for $170, which the latter conveyed to William Shaffer June 6, 1855, for $535.80, and 71 acres of which he conveyed to James F. Crookshanks, of Butler county, March 29, 1862, for $600; he to Hugh C. Black, November 11, 1863, for $820, and he to Joseph Bowser, March 31, 1866, for $1,200, which is now assessed to Jacob M. Bowser. At the crossroads on this tract is the hamlet of Center Hill, containing about a dozen buildings, in which are the Dunkard church and cemetery. This church was organized about 1820. Services were at first held in private houses. Rev. George Hoke was the first pastor. Adam, David and Joseph Bowser and their wives and Elizabeth Swighart were some of the original twelve members. The present church edifice, frame, one-story, 40 x 48 feet, was erected in 1861. Members in 1876, ---; Sabbath-school scholars, 35.

Schoolhouse No. 3 is on the public road, nearly forty rods southeast of the crossroads, in its immediate vicinity.

Chambers T. Bowser was first assessed here as a blacksmith in 1871, and J.F. Crookshanks as a merchant in 1872.

Adjoining the �Center Hill� tract on the south was depreciation lot No. 285, 220 4/10 acres, for which a patent was granted to William Findley, November 20, 1786, and which he agreed in his lifetime to sell to Charles Bonner, who had settled on it before 1805, and who had paid Findley part of the purchase-money before the latter's death. Bonner's death occurred after Findley's. The latter's executors, in pursuance of that ante mortem agreement, conveyed this tract to Charles Bonner, in trust for the heirs of Charles Bonner, deceased, November 29, 1836, for $587, including the portion paid before their testator's death, nearly the whole of which is now owned and occupied by the last-mentioned Charles Bonner, who conveyed 1 acre and 6 perches of it to David G. Claypoole, March 27, 1874, for $103.75, and the same day, 1 acres to J.F. Crookshanks, for $100, and another parcel, 1 acre and 75 perches, March 7, 1876, for $88 1/8.

Adjoining �Center Hill� on the west was depreciation lot No. 275, 276 3/10 acres, called �Antrim�, for which a patent was granted to William Findley November 20, 1786, which he conveyed to Adam Bowser, June 21, 1815, for $736, the northern part of it being in East Franklin. The records show that 101 acres and 117 perches of �Antrim� became vested in Bowser's grandchildren, Francis and Jeremiah Donze, who made an amicable partition and mutually released to each other, may 9, 1866, thus: Francis to have 56 acres and 57 perches, then adjoining James Robinson on the north, Joseph Bowser on the east, and Mrs. Sarah Long on the south; Jeremiah to have 45 acres and 60 perches adjoining the public road extending through the middle of the tract, John Summerville on the north, Jacob Bowser on the west, and Mrs. Sarah Long on the south. Jeremiah conveyed 30 acres and 60 perches of his purpart to Lydia McCollum, April 1, 1868, for $1,500.

Adjoining �Antrim� on the south was depreciation lot No. 274, 276 3/10 acres, called �first Choice�, the patent for which was granted to Findley November 20, 1786, which he conveyed to Joseph and Samuel Bowser, one-half to each, June 21, 1815, for $224 for each half. Joseph conveyed 125 acres to David Sturgeon, April 19, 1866, for $4,000. Samuel conveyed 120 acres to Alexander Colwell, November 26, 1844, for $600.

Adjoining the two last-mentioned Findley-Bowser and Findley-Bowser-Sturgeon tracts, was a hexagonal one of 419 1/2 acres surveyed by Stephen Gapen to William Cain, on which William Jack made an improvement and settlement, August 9, 1799, of which 316 acres and 74 perches were surveyed to him by George Ross, September 12, 1801, for which a warrant was issued to Jack, March 16, 1807, who conveyed this tract to Jacob Weaver, June 3, for $282, to whom the patent was granted, January 16, 1809, to whom Thomas Jack conveyed whatever interest he had in it, October 14, 1817, for $10. Weaver conveyed this tract as containing 330 acres and 75 perches to Benjamin F. Weaver, January 31, 1831, for $1,000, who conveyed 316 acres and 75 perches of it to James Milligan, February 21, 1840, for $1,583.12 1/2, having conveyed 14 acres and 136 perches to John Boney, August 15, 1836, for $100. Milligan conveyed 80 acres and 120 perches to William McCune, February 21, 1840; McCune conveyed the same quantity to William Clark, September 26, 1848, for $731, and he to Joseph Claypoole, 29 acres, May 2, 1856, for $300. Milligan conveyed 40 acres and 150 perches to Joseph Bowser, August 4, 1845, for $122, and 95 acres to William F. Coyle, December 8, 1845, for $760; Coyle to John Barnett, the same quantity, March 27, 1850, for $765. Milligan also conveyed 100 acres to Samuel Ashbaugh, February 4, 1846, for $900, which the latter conveyed to William Huston, April 2, 1850, for $1,300.

Adjoining the western part of that Jack-Weaver tract on the south was a septangular one of 418 acres and 134 perches, including the southern part of Gapen's survey to Cain, on which John Jack, Jr., had made an improvement and settlement before it was surveyed to him by George Ross, April 26, 1805, one-third of the northwestern part of which was then claimed by William Jack. This tract was conveyed by John and Thomas Jack as containing 400 acres, more or less, to Joseph McCullough, boat-builder, of Pittsburgh, April 5, 1810, for $600. It and portions of the adjoining Daniel Green-Boney-Ross tract, making an octagonal-shaped tract 407 acres and 95 perches, appear to have been included in a survey, November 14, 1833, to McCall and McCain, on an order of the board of property of March 29, 1833, for which a patent was granted to McCall November 26, 1833. Partition having been made between him and John Boney, who had purchased from Ross and Green, McCall conveyed to Boney 150 acres �on the waters of Glade run�, September 30, 1834, for $1, and 100 acres, August 12, 1837, for $75.

Next south of the Jack-McCullough tract, on the Lawson & Orr amp, are two contiguous ones aggregating 201 acres and 11 perches - Benjamin and William White's - on one of which the former settled in 1812, in which year he was first assessed with 200 acres and 1 horse, at $210. The next year, 100 acres, 1 horse and 1 cow were assessed to William White, at $103, and 100 acres to Benjamin White,; so there must have been a division between them between those two assessments. Benjamin continued to be assessed with his part of the land until 1817, when it is noted on the assessment-list �transferred to Jacob White�. Both of those tracts are noted on the next year's assessment-list �transferred to Nathaniel Torbett�. The patent for the land included in those two tracts was granted to John Craig February 18, 1815, who transferred it to Jacob White, and the latter conveyed the 201 acres and 11 perches, which it covered, to Torbett, May 4, 1820, for $600, who, by his will dated April 28, and registered May 23, 1825, devised the same to the children of his deceased brother, Henry Torbett. �By sundry mesne conveyances, good and sufficient in law�, this property became vested in Robert McKnight, who conveyed it, 201 acres, to Thomas Roney, March 12, 1840, for $1,500.50. One of its boundaries is along the �line of Jacob White's old plow�.

Adjoining �Antrim� on the west was depreciation lot No. 272, 203 3/4 acres, called �Armagh�, the patent for which was granted to Joshua Elder, May 9, 1791, which, and his interest in 25 other tracts in this and other counties, he conveyed to Archibald McCall and Alexander McDowell, March 27, 1795, for $4,760 63/90. It was assessed as unseated to the latter, in 1805 and 1806, at $812. It bears on its face, on the map of Gapen's surveys, �A. McC.� and �203.9� acres. It must have fallen to McCall in the division between him and McDowell, for McCall conveyed the southern part of it, 120 acres, to Christian Bowser, December 20, 1835, for $420, who was first assessed with it in 1834. He conveyed this parcel to Joseph Bowser, April 16, 1839, for $360. The northern part of this tract is in the northwestern part of East Franklin township.

Adjoining �Armagh� on the south, on the map of Gapen's surveys, was another of the same size, blank in all respects except boundary lines, which, like its northern adjoiner, is a square. On the other map of surveys it bears on its face �No. 273�, and its quantity of land �203.9� acres. It was one of the tracts which Elder sold to McCall and McDowell, and in the division between them fell to the latter, whose heirs mutually and amicably agreed, June 26, 1833, that partition of their father's real estate in Armstrong, Butler, Venango and Warren counties, in this state, be made by Andrew Bowman, James Kinnear and Myron Parks. They first met July 22, 1833, and adjourned until the 30th. After adjusting the claims of two of the heirs, Parker and Thomas McDowell, they valued and allotted the various tracts to the respective heirs, No. 273 to Parker McDowell at $203, which he conveyed to John, Elizabeth and Mary Roudebush, July 15, 1837, and which they soon after divided into two equal parts, one of which was taken by John and the other by Elizabeth and Mary. That amicable partition was formally ratified by the heirs of John and Mary and by Elizabeth, February 2, 1855, �for the purpose of preventing difficulty from hereafter arising in regard to the partition aforesaid�. Christian and Elizabeth Roudebush conveyed Elizabeth and Mary's purpart to David Bowser, February 21, 1855, for $544.80, the heirs of John Roudebush released their respective interests in the other purpart to William Bowser, March 28, 1855, and May 15, 1858, for $100 to each.

South of that McDowell-Roudebush tract lay the eastern portion of a tract, nearly a rectangular parallelogram, its longest sides extending from east to west, bearing on its face on the map of Gapen's surveys �Joseph Collins, 419.130� acres, but on the other map �Jonathan Moore�, and the same number of acres. The patent was granted to McCall and Moore May 6, 1806, in which it is named �Dundee�. Those patentees made partition between themselves, and on June 18, 1807, McCall released 150 acres of the western part to Moore, and Moore 265 acres and 100 perches of the eastern part to McCall. Moore settled on this tract before 1805, and he was assessed with his purpart until 1809. He was, as before stated, elected an elder of the Slate Lick Presbyterian church in 1808, but �remained within the bounds of the congregation only one year�. He then emigrated to Ohio. His purpart was then assessed to Henry Brough until 1812, and then to his widow, Mary Brough, until 1814.

McCall conveyed 42 acres and 136 perches of his purpart of �Dundee� to Joseph Claypoole, October 29, 1832, for $128.55; 87 acres and 76 perches to James Earley, June 29, 1846, for $699; McCall's heirs to William F. Johnston, 109 acres and 114 perches, April 13, 1846, of which he conveyed 50 acres to Hezekiah Claypoole, August 6, 1852, for $328; 23 acres and 109 perches to Joseph Claypoole, August 9, 1853, for $153.72, and 35 acres and 87 perches to William Miller, for $231.

Adjoining the eastern or McCall purpart of �Dundee� on the south, on the map of Gapen's surveys, is a tract, a rectangular parallelogram, its longest sides extending from north to south, bearing on its face �John Sloan� and �419.130�, and on the other map �A. McCall and Hezekiah Claypoole�, and the same number of acres, its southwestern part seeming to lap over on to the Jacob White tract. Claypoole settled here prior to 1805. The patent for it was granted to him and McCall, March 8, 1820. They having made partition between themselves, McCall conveyed to Claypoole 180 acres of the southern part, July 17, 1835.

Hezekiah Claypoole and divers other early settlers in this part of the township were Baptists. As early as 1810 there was occasional preaching by itinerant Baptist clergymen at Jacob White's house at White's eddy, the first of whom was Rev. Speers. Arrangements were made several years later to secure a site for a church edifice, and an agreement was entered into by Nathaniel Bowser and Hezekiah Claypoole for that purpose, in pursuance of which the latter gave the former his bond in the penal sum of $300, the condition of which was, that Claypoole should make a good and sufficient deed for one-half an acre of the 120 acres of this tract, which McCall had agreed to sell to Peter Hammer in August, 1796, �for the purpose of building a meeting-house of the regular Baptist church, and for a burying-ground�. The boundaries of that half-acre as described in the conditions of that bond were: Beginning five rods southwest of the grave of Elizabeth Hammer, the former wife of Peter Hammer; thence around that grave, and thence to the lower east line of the survey of that 120 acres parcel; �thence the same with that it would be above, and thence to the beginning�. It is not manifest from the records that a conveyance of that half-acre was ever made for the above-mentioned purposes. For many years after that agreement was made, religious services were held at private houses, in later years at the house of James H. Claypoole. The present frame edifice, about 30 x 40 feet, built by David J. Reed, in 1852, and the burying-ground are on that half-acre, opposite the junction of two streams.

The Baptist church was reorganized October 19, 1841, at which time Hezikiah and Lucinda Claypoole, Archibald and Rachel Moore, Mary Geary, Mary Hazlett and Mary Bowser were among the members, who remained from the original organization. Other members were James H. Claypoole and his wife Isabella, David Campbell and wife, Joseph Claypoole and wife, Mary Claypoole, James Jack, Mary Ann Jack, Reuben McKenna, Hannah Claypoole, Sarah Jane Price, John Cook. Upon the 18th of April, 1846, twenty members withdrew and formed the Franklin church.

John P. Connor conveyed one acre of the land which he had purchased from Thomas Roney to Andrew J. Bruner and Wallace Claypoole, trustees of the Union Baptist church and their successors, in trust for the church, March 18, 1875, for $80.

Hezekiah Claypoole conveyed 64 acres and 94 perches of his part to Isaac Bowser, July 8, 1844, for $100. McCall's heirs conveyed their purpart, 254 acres, to James Claypoole, June 29, 1846, for $889.

Adjoining the last-mentioned tract on the west was one lying parallel with it and containing the same quantity of land - twin tracts, except on the map of Gapen's surveys, the latter has on its face, �John Scott & David Todd�, and on the other her map, �Leonard White�. White gave Archibald McCall a bond, dated August 16, 1796, in the penal sum of $500, in the consideration of which these facts are embodied: Scott and Todd made an improvement on this tract to whom Gapen surveyed it, and then transferred their interest in it to McCall, who had paid the purchase-money to the commonwealth and obtained a warrant of acceptance, but no patent for it could issue until the improvement, settlement and residence on it required by the act of April 3, 1792, had been effected. So McCall conveyed to White, the day of the date of that bond, 120 acres of this tract, �to be of good and bad according to the quantity and quality of the whole tract�, in consideration whereof White agreed to make the required improvement, settlement and residence, and pay McCall 1 penny, and before February 16, 1797, build thereon a house fit for the habitation of a family. It is said, though it is not apparent from the records, that White sold his purpart. He then moved on to McCall's and persisted in retaining possession. McCall, in order to regain possession of his 299 acres, brought his action of ejectment to No. 61, June tern, 1828, in the common pleas of this county, which resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff, March 16, 1830, on which judgment was entered on the 21st. By virtue of a second pluries habere facias, No. 2, September term, 1834, Chambers Orr, sheriff, removed the defendant, who still persisted in �holding the fort�, from the premises, and delivered possession to the plaintiff. The sheriff in his discharge of that official duty encountered the opposition of both the defendant and his wife, who continued to occupy their chairs after all their furniture had been removed, so that he was obliged to carry them off in their chairs by main force. The patent for this tract was granted to McCall for himself, James Kiskadden and James Matthews, March 9, 1820. McCall conveyed 119 acres and 150 perches of it to Samuel and May Hopkins, sole heirs of Andrew Kiskadden, of Highland county, Ohio, October 21, 1831, as their purpart in the partition which had been made - 113 acres to William Boney, March 6, 1841, for $1,130, which Boney conveyed to Joseph Wilson, April 28, 1843, for $1,400, Wilson to John Burford; Burford to L. N. Bartholemew, March 5, 1852, for $---, and Bartholomew to Jacob Bowser, June 20, 1853, for $---; 203 acres and 115 perches of this tract were included in the Brown-Gilpin-Johnston purchase from McCall's heirs, of which Johnston conveyed, April 15, 1852, 50 acres and 150 perches to William Bowser, for $433.08, and 50 acres and 78 perches to William Walker, for $429.15.

Adjoining the last-mentioned tract on the west is one on the map of Gapen's surveys bearing on its face �James Scott�, �403.48� acres, traversed from near its northwestern to its southeastern corner by Nicholson's run, and on the other map �Casper Early�, �440 a. 49 p.� Earley settled on it probably during the last half of the last decade of the eighteenth century. It was surveyed to him by George Ross, June 16, 1802, �by virtue of actual settlement and improvement�. He was assessed with 200 acres of it, a sawmill, 1 h9orse and 1 cow, as early as 1805, at $136, and he continued to reside on it �during his life as an actual settler�. A patent for the whole tract, the southwest corner of which is in South Buffalo, was granted to Archibald McCall, October 2, 1828, who, in pursuance of the partition which had been made, conveyed 215 acres and 123 perches to him, November 4, 1830. Earley, by his will, dated April 13, and registered May 18, 1829, devised 200 acres to his son, Casper, who was required to maintain his mother during her natural life, or so long as she remained unmarried, and his oldest son, John, during his natural life, and pay certain bequests to the testator's other children, who were enjoined not to oppress and embarrass their brother Casper in paying them - none of them was to demand more than $25 of his or her share annually. He bequeathed to �Rev. Mr. O'Neil, Roman Catholic priest, $25 for the good of my (his) soul, the greater honor and glory of God and support of his holy church militant on earth�.

Nearly all of Casper Earley's purpart of this tract remains in the possession of his descendant, Casper W. Earley. The only portion of it which he has sold appears from the records to be 1 acre and 89 1/2 perches, which he conveyed to the religious society called �the Holy Guardian Angel of the Catholic Church�, June 29, 1876, for $1 �and other valuable considerations�.

The McCall purpart is included in the Brown-Gilpin-Johnston purchase, and which (295 acres and 96 perches) Johnston conveyed to James H. Claypoole, April 12, 1853, for $1,884.80, of which Claypoole conveyed 50 acres and 9 perches to Isaac Steel and William A. Jack in trust for the heirs of James Jack, July 16, 1866, for $700.

Contiguous to the last-mentioned tract on the west on the map of Gapen's surveys is a hexagonal tract, the eastern line of which is the western one of the McCall-Earley tract, its bearings and length being 3 degrees west 400 perches, which corresponds to the bearings and lengths of the eastern and western lines of the three last-mentioned tracts. The width of the northern half of it is 200, and that of the southern half is 178 perches. The headwaters or sources of Pine run are in its northwestern and central parts, nearly two-thirds of the southwestern part of its southern half being in what is now South Buffalo township. This tract has on its face on that map �Geo. Smith� and �412.117�, but on the other map �Hugh Callen and A. McCall, now Kerscaddan�, and figures representing 412 acres and 117 perches. There were , within the memory of James Rayburn, vestiges of an Indian camp in its northwestern part. It was surveyed to McCall and Callen October 29, 1805. The patent for 409 acres and 31 perches, called �Last Night�, was granted to McCall and Callen, May 9, 1807, the latter having settled on it in March, 1796. He went, sometime afterward, to Westmoreland county, to get a wife, and during his absence John Cowan took possession of his cabin, of which he was informed by Mrs. Rayburn, at whose house he stopped on his return. He said nothing except to ask for something to eat. Partition having been made, McCall released to him, February 13, 1810, 160 acres of the western side, which then adjoined Enos McBride on the south, and Jacob Young and James Rayburn on the west, which Callen conveyed to �James Carskaadan�, March 16, for $640, which the latter conveyed to Samuel Beatty February 7, 1826; Beatty to James Ralston, June 25, 1827; Ralston to Margaret Reed, October 14, 1828; she to James Caldwell, January 24, 1829, for $500, and she having married Isaac Allsworth, they both released to Caldwell, March 8, 1833; 50 acres of which Caldwell conveyed to John Boyd, May 18, 1833, for $200.

McCall's purpart, 249 acres and 37 perches, partly in South Buffalo township, was included in his assignment to DuPont, who, by the late Judge White, his attorney, agreed, December 14, 1832, to sell it to George B. Sloan, and for which the latter agreed to pay $312. That agreement was subsequently consummated by deed from George A. McCall by his attorney, A. McCall, June 22, 1838. Sloan conveyed 50 acres to John Boyd, July 6, 1839, for $137.

Adjoining �Last Night� and the McCall-Earley tract on the north were two depreciation lots, Nos. 222 and 223, and adjoining No. 222 on the north, No. 221, both lying north of �Last Night� and No. 223 north of and adjoining the McCall-Earley tract. All is blank on the map of the Gapen surveys, except their boundary lines and numbers, and so on the other map except their respective quantities are noted, No. 221, with other land attached, �310�, and bearing the name of �John Galbraith�, No. 222, �200.6�, and No. 223, �220.2�. The earliest assessment lists of unseated land in Armstrong county show that at least one of them, No. 221, once belonged to Andrew Kennedy. The patents for Nos. 221 and 222 were granted to Anthony and John Kennedy, of Berks county, Pennsylvania. September 11, and No. 223 September 13, 1819. John having conveyed his entire interest in them to Anthony, the latter devised them to his executors during the natural life of his niece, Rebecca Joice, and after her death to her children, except Anthony Joice. In the course of human events the wife of Samuel H. Harrison and her brother, Andrew R. Joice, became the devisees. Mrs. Harrison and her husband and Andrew R. Joice and his trustee conveyed these three tracts to James E. Brown, March 19, 1849, for $4,000, who conveyed Nos. 222 and 223 to Peter Groff, April 8, 1858, for $5,379.25, of which the latter, as the records show, conveyed 102 acres and 100 perches to Robert Boyd, November 22, 1865, and he to William Barnett, April 10, 1867, for $3,489.25, and April 17, 1874, 14 acres and 2 perches to Samuel Dumm, for $460.50, and 83 acres and 28 perches to John Dumm, for $1,106, both of those parcels being parts of Nos. 222 and 223. Brown conveyed 100 acres of No. 221 to James C. Galbraith, November 21, 1859, for $800, and 16 perches and 24 perches to George McCracken, September 29, 1866, for $323. Nos. 191 and 192 were assessed to Andrew Kennedy on the list for Buffalo township until 1815, when it was discovered they were not in this county. No. 221 was noted on the assessment list for 1815 as seated, but by whom it was not indicated. Nos. 222 and 223 do not appear to have been on the unseated list after 1807, but the latter and NO. 221 were assessed to Andrew Kennedy at $82.80 and $88.80, respectively, in 1805 and 1806.

East of No. 221, north of No. 223 and the western portion of �Dundee�, on the map of the Gapen surveys, is a septangular tract, �425� acres, which Gapen surveyed to �Wm. Crawford�, but on the other map �A. McCall and Andrew Earley�. The patent for 422 acres and 92 perches, called �Copenhagen�, was granted to them, February 13, 1809, in the southern part of which, near the northwest corner of �Dundee�, are the forks of Nedulvis run. There was probably a partition between them, though the records do not show it, for Early continued to possess 200 acres of it. McCall's purpart was included in his assignment to DuPont of June 23, 1817, and which 259 acres, was included in the sale by McCall's heirs to Brown, Gilpin and Johnston, of which Johnston conveyed 107 acres and James Earley, October 21, 1853, for $751; 50 acres and 19 perches to Joseph Earley, August 21, 1854, for $338; 97 acres and 133 perches to John Leister, June 24, 1859, for $684.81.

Public schoolhouse No. 2 is situated on the Earley purpart of �Copenhagen�. The predecessor of the present one was burned on the night of the 5th or 6th of December, 1865 - the work of an incendiary, as all the books in the house were removed to a safe place before the conflagration.

Adjoining �Copenhagen� on the north, on the map of the Gapen surveys, is a quinquangular tract, �David Todd�, �406.80�, but on the other, �A. McCall and Jonathon Moore, 406.80�. The patent for that quantity, called �Moorefields�, was granted to McCall and Moore, February 1, 1809. George and Jacob Cornman appear to have been its first settlers, the former having been assessed with one horse at $10, and the latter with 50 acres of it at $25, first in 1811. They both continued to be afterward assessed with portions of it. David Leonard was first assessed with 60 acres of it and one horse in 1830 at $113. �Moorefields� was included in McCall's assignment to DuPont, but was subsequently reconveyed. McCall conveyed 406 acres of it, �except the settler's share as derived from and under Jonathan Moore�, to George and Jacob Cornman and David Leonard, July 9, 1835, for $300. It does not appear from the records that Moore ever returned to look after his �settler's share�. The Cornmans and Leonard conveyed 60 acres to Peter Shearer, October 8, 1841, for $300. Jacob Cornman ceased to be assessed with any part of �Moorefields� after 1842. His interest in 120 acres passed by sheriff's sale to J.M. Torney, who conveyed it to Alexander Colwell, March 29, 1842, for $265.53; Colwell to John Summerville, November 14, 1844, for $680, and Summerville to David Claypoole, the present owner, 125 acres and 57 perches, November 5, 1855, for $1,800. George Cornman and David Leonard conveyed 126 acres to Samuel Cornman, November 5, 1854, for $176 2/3. Jacob appears to have conveyed his interest in it to Samuel, December 7, for the latter conveyed 11 acres and 48 perches, which Jacob had before then conveyed to him, to James Claypoole, July 4, 1855, for $43.83, and which, with other 62 acres and 30 perches, Claypoole conveyed to Henry D. Weaver, August 1, 1863, for $1,080. Samuel conveyed to Lewis Cornman 62 acres and 30 perches, April 25, 1857, for $1, which the latter, two days afterward, conveyed to Frederick Bowser for $615.

A small parcel of land, containing about 85 acres, continguous to or a part of �Moorefields�, was granted to David Griffin by patent dated December 17, 1836, who devised it to his eldest son, John, by his will, dated January 20 and registered March 5, 1859, who still retains it, except the 4 acres and 80 perches which he conveyed to Chambers Claypoole, March 3, 1863, for $100.

To the west of �Moorefields�, on the map of Gapen's surveys, is a considerable area vacant, except in the eastern part, north of the before-mentioned depreciation lot No. 221, is the name of �David Hall�, so that David Hall, Sr., of �Mount Hall�, in what is now Kiskiminetas township, must have been here and acquired an inchoate interest in the 399 acres and 12 perches extending westward into the loop of Buffalo creek, before these surveys were made, and on which he soon after settled and built a gristmill, on the right bank of that stream, with which and the land and two cows he was assessed at $192 in 1805, and $214 in 1806. A small portion of his original tract is north of the present line between this and Franklin townships. The patent for this tract was granted to him July 7, 1815. He conveyed 100 acres and 29 perches to David Hall, Jr., January 12, 1817; 100 acres and 29 perches to Hugh Harkins, November 22, 1822, for $500; 56 acres to William Beatty, January 11, 1823, for $600; 88 acres and 7 perches to Samuel Porterfield, July 9, 1825; and the residue, 154 acres and 136 perches to David Hall, Jr., November 15, 1828, for $1,000. The latter conveyed 113 acres and 83 perches of his parcel to James Hall, April 17, 1857, for $750, and 120 acres to John A. Hall, January 23, 1858, for $200 and one-third of the annual crops of hay and grain raised thereon, and the use of the front room in the mansion house. It was here that Rev. David Hall, D.D., Indiana, Pennsylvania was born and reared, and caught magnificent ideas from the grand, picturesque scenery which abounds in this region.

The David Hall tract is traversed in a southwest course by Marrow Bone run, which is so named from a lick which is probably on Depreciation-Kenedy lot No. 227, which derived its name from this event that happened in the olden time: Two cattle strayed from a drove, perhaps of government cattle en route to Venango or Fort Franklin, which were afterward found at this lick, where they were killed and all the meat stripped from their bones, their bare bones being left at the lick. Hence it was called Bone Marrow lick.

Those familiar with this part of this township are aware that portions of the various parcels purchased from David Hall, Sr., are still owned by the descendants of his vendees. The last above-mentioned gristmill was on the parcel purchased by William Beatty, who was a miller. He devised by his will, dated March 14 and registered March 23, 1827, that parcel and other land to his son David, who purchased 150 acres of the tract, September 29, 1836, for $500, for which a warrant was granted to Catherine Kier, nee Miller, June 7, 1824. Seventy-three acres passed by sheriff's sale to Jackson Boggs, for $1,000, on which there was then �a sawmill in full operation, an old fullingmill now used as a dwelling-house, and a good seat for a mill�, which he transferred to his brother, David C. Boggs, June 17, 1865, for $500. That parcel and the rest of David Beatty's land have been known for many years as the �Beatty mill and farm property�.****

In the vacant area on the map of the Gapen surveys John Smith, one of the earliest justices of the peace in this county, made an improvement, February 23, 1793, and a settlement, March 3, 1796, and the tract on the other map, west of the Depreciation-Kenedy lots Nos. 221 and 222 and south of the Hall tract, 390 acres and 69 perches, was surveyed to him by George Ross, May 2, 1802. From 1800 until 1803 his house was the place designated by law for holding elections in Buffalo township, which then consisted of all that part of this county north and west of the Allegheny river.

John Smith's will, not dated, not signed, not witnessed, but proven by James Hill, Jr., and Abraham Smith, Jr., to have been in his handwriting, was registered December 27, 1830, by which he devised to his wife the mansion house and all improvements during her life, and, should she �think proper, to let Johnny work the farm and give her one-third part of the grain and hay or what she may stand in need of�, besides the household furniture; to his son Abraham �100 acres of the land next to James Hill and Patrick Callen's, in the forks of the run between me and David Hall�, 90 acres to Polly McElhaney, �or whatever she and her brothers may agree upon;� the place that was formerly Abraham Smith's to Betsey Bole; and the mansion house and 200 acres to �Johnny after his mother's death�. Letters of administration with the will annexed were issued the same day it was registered, to John B. Smith, i.e., �Johnny�. He and George H. Smith entered into an agreement, November 26, 1866, for the sale and purchase of the 100 acres on which the latter then lived, for $1,600.

Abraham Smith, Sr., the above-mentioned devisee, died intestate, and letters of administration on his estate were granted to his son, Abraham Smith, Jr., August 7, 1840. About nine years afterward proceedings in partition were had of this intestate's real estate, consisting in part of the 100 acres devised to him by his father, which was divided into two purparts, the one containing 46 acres and 71 perches, valued at $396.37, and the other 56 acres and 71 perches, $396.37, and taken by George H. Smith, the allienee of the intestate's daughter Nancy, intermarried with Bennett Dobbs.

About 75 rods below the southern line of the John Smith tract in the vacant space on the map of the Gapen surveys, is the name of �James Hill�, but on the other map, a tract in shape an octagon, all of whose angles are right, but whose sides are of different lengths, about one-third of whose area is in what is now South Buffalo, on which are �James Rayburn�, �429.80� acres, on which Raymond made an improvement in August or September, 1794, a settlement in March, 1796, and which was surveyed to him by George Ross, May 20, 1802. Alexander McKinney had acquired an interest in this tract, which passed by sheriff's sale to George Armstrong, June 22, 1816, for $500, �held�, as recited in the sheriff's deed, �in right of settlement made by James Rayburn, who is thereby entitled to 150 acres.� In the eastern part of this tract, about 25 rods west of the line between it and �Last Night�, was an Indian camp, the vestiges of which some of the old residents remember to have seen. The entire tract ultimately became vested in Raymond, to whom the patent for it was issued February 23, 1826. He conveyed 211 acres of it to James Ralston, December 15, 1832, for $1 *****, and by his will, dated June 1, 1837, and registered February 20, 1838, devised 118 acres to his eldest son, the present James Rayburn, agreeably to a division line which had been previously run, with which quantity he is still assessed, and 97 acres on the south side of that division line to his younger son, Matthew, with which quantity, less 5 acres, he is still assessed.

Adjoining the Rayburn tract on the west, in the vacant space on the Gapen map, is a tract on the other map, 317 acres and 130 perches, on which John Sipe settled in the spring of 1795, about half of the area of which is in this township. The patent for this tract, called �Honstorn�, was assessed to Sipe, January 16, 1809. The western portion of it is traversed in a southwesterly course by Sipe's run. As heretofore stated ******, he conveyed 209 acres thereof to Thomas Kiskadden, 11 acres and 130 perches of which the latter conveyed to James Hill, April 28, 1812, and November 20, 1826, for $32. Sipe conveyed 10 acres and 98 perches to William Hill, November 5, 1836, for $1 and the comfortable support of himself and his wife during their lives, and respectable burials after their death, with which quantity Charles is still assessed.

Adjoining �Honstown� on the north, on the Gapen map, is the name of �James Hill�, and on the other map his name and �364.25�, and the boundary lines, the eastern, southern and western ones being straight and of considerable length, but the northern ones shorter, making eight right or nearly right angles. James Hill settled on this tract in the spring of 1896. It was surveyed to him, by virtue of him improvement and settlement, by George Ross, May 18, 1802, and the patent for it was granted to him March 23, 1807. He conveyed 91 acres and 41 perches to Joseph Shields, October 16, 1830, for $1.50; 231 acres and 92 perches to Edward Wilson, april 11, 1836, for $3,062.46, on which is the public schoolhouse No. 1; 94 acres and 80 perches to Reuben Stonecipher, March 16, 1839, for $940.60, with which his heirs are still assessed, and 79 acres and 80 perches to Henry Fullerton, March 21, for $1,272, with 50 acres of which Jane Fullerton is still assessed.

A warrant was granted to James Hill, June 29, 1814, and the patent July 6, 1815, for 97 acres and 41 perches contiguous to the northwestern part of his other tract, which he conveyed to David Linton, October 9, 1840, for $1,000.

Adjoining those two Hill tracts on the north, in the vacant space below �Improved Land� on the Gapen map, is a very irregularly-shaped tract, having twelve sides, on the other map 383 acres and 95 perches, fully one-third of which is in the top of Buffalo creek, or on the right bank of that stream, on which Patrick Callen was an early settler. He made his improvement in November, 1793, and settlement in April, 1801; surveyed to him April 27, 1802. He was assessed with 360 acres, 1 horse and 1 cow, in 1804, at $110, the patent to him for which, called �Downpatrick�, is dated June 30, 1804. He conveyed 97 acres to Robert Morrison, January 8, 1811, for $321; 100 acres to John Callen, September 13, for 100 pounds; 91 acres and 51 perches to James and John Hill, May 8, 1819, for $274, �in good current bank notes�. Callen's executors, Hugh Callen and James Rayburn, by authority given them in his will, dated April 1823, and registered March 23, 1825, conveyed 180 acres of �Downpatrick� to Robert Houghton July 9, 1827, for $500. The parcel which Robert Morrison purchased was conveyed by him to John Morrison to George Hill, who conveyed same to Joseph Shields, August 10, 1829, for $500 �in Pennsylvania currency�, and which the latter conveyed to James Blain, April 18, 1839, for $500. Houghton conveyed the parcel which he purchased from Callen's executors to William Smith, February 12, 1830, for $800, which the latter reconveyed to him, October 8, 1831, for $58 �and other good and valuable considerations�, while Houghton conveyed to Charles Gense and Edward Manso, both of ------, Germany, October 1831, for $800, Gense having transferred his interest therein to Manso, who was a well-educated homeopathic physician, the first one of that kind in this region. The latter conveyed 195 acres, strict measure, to David Shields, March 29, 1856, ? 300. Shields conveyed 101 acres and 145 perches to James Blain, June 22, 1863, for $1,852; and 96 acres and 11 perches to Charles McClatchey, April 9, 1864, for $1,900. Adjoining the James Hill tracts and �Honstown� on the west and �La Maria Rosallie� on the north, on the Gapen map, is a tract, in shape a rectangular parallelogram, 306 X 193 rods, bearing on its face �Mordica McDonald�, and its western �versed by Buffalo creek, but on the other A. McCall & James Barr, �342a.129p. James Barr, farmer, as he is distinguished from Judge Barr on the early assessment list, was among the earliest settlers in this region. This tract was surveyed to him by George Ross, �by virtue of his improvement and settlement�, May 7, 1805, in which year he was assessed with 250 acres, 2 horses and 2 cows, at $99.50. He conveyed his interest in this tract and his �household property, goods and chattels� to James Steel, November 30, 1815, in consideration of keeping him and Martha his wife during their natural lives in a decent and Christian-like manner, and to be decently interred when they should depart this life. Steel did not comply with the conditions of that sale; for Barr conveyed his interest in this tract to David Ralston for the same consideration, reciting in his conveyance that Steel did �in no manner comply with his agreement, but shortly after moved his family down the river Ohio�. Ralston must have performed his part of that agreement, for the patent for this tract having been granted to McCall, November 30, 1835, he and Ralston made partition, and McCall conveyed to Ralston 185 acres and 67 perches of the eastern part, June 22, 1836, for $1, which must have been considered the share to which Barr had become entitled by virtue of his improvement and settlement. The purpart, 180 acres and 150 perches, retained by McCall passed by the sale of his heirs to William L. Johnston for himself and his co-purchasers, Brown and Gilpin.

Robert Richards, deputy surveyor, surveyed 315 acres and 132 perches, July 3, 1829, to David Ralston on warrant dated April 8.

Adjoining that McCall-Barr tract on the north, on the Gapen map, is a larger one, in shape nearly a rectangular parallelogram, which bears the name of �James Perry�, after whom Perry's Point on Buffalo creek was possibly named. The original warrant for this tract was issued to William Elder. On this tract on the other map are the names of �John McKean and James Barr�, and �402a.74p. McKean made an improvement and settlement on it, June 4, 1801, by virtue of which it was surveyed to him by George Ross, September 19. McKean was assessed with 300 acres of it, 1 horse and 1 cow, in 1805, at $96, and afterward until 1814 with 400 acres at $202. That year the assessor noted on his list opposite McKean's name, �Left the part�, meaning, probably, that he had left these parts. He was again assessed with the same quantity as �unseated�, at $300, in 1819, and at the same rate the next year, though it was not then noted as unseated. It is not probable that he resumed possession after leaving it in 1814. Eben Smith Kelly purchased the interest of McKean in 200 acres and 10 perches of the southern part, one-half of which he conveyed to Philip Mechling.

The patent for the entire tract was granted to Archibald McCall, August 15, 1838, who recognized the validity of the Kelly-Mechling title, for he purchased Mechling's interest before he obtained his patent, namely, October 31, 1836, for $100, and he conveyed 100 acres and 5 perches to Samuel S. Harrison, guardian of Kelly's minor children, October 15, 1842, for $1, which the latter transferred to his wards, June 17, 1850, after they had attained their majority, the whole of which ultimately became vested in one of them, who, with her husband, William D. Robinson, conveyed the entire parcel to Isaac L. and John Steel, May 10, 1854, for $1,050, which Isaac conveyed to John W. and Robert A. Kiskadden, the present owners, April 1, 1859, for $1,700.

Adjoining the last-mentioned tract on the north on the Gapen map is one 313 X 220 rods, on whose face are �John Caffey, 406�; its southeastern and some of its southern parts being traversed in a westerly and southwesterly course by the Buffalo creek, and a strip of its northern part being in what is now West Franklin township. It was settled, probably before 1800, by John Duffy, who was assessed in 1805 with 400 acres and 2 cows, at $92. �John Duffy's heirs� were first assessed with 400 acres, in 1816. By his will, not registered in this county, but mentioned in the conveyance of one of his heirs, he devised his interest in this tract to his son James and his daughter Catherine, afterward the wife of Henry Seymour. The patent for this tract to A. McCall is dated October 2, 1828. She and her husband conveyed her interest �in a piece of land on the waters of Buffalo creek, on which John Duffy, Sr., made a settlement, and on which he resided at the time of his death�, to her brother James, November 20, 1837, for $50, and to whom McCall conveyed 150 acres, September 17, 1838, for $1. James Duffy, Sr., by his will, dated February 20, and registered March 28, 1856, devised his real estate to his three sons, James, John and Lawrence, at the valuation to be put upon it by three men, the cleared and woodland portions to be respectively divided into three equal parts, which are now occupied by those three devisees. James Duffy was first assessed with a distillery in 1832.

McCall's purparts of this and the other last-mentioned tract were included in the conveyance from his heirs to William F. Johnston for himself, Brown and Gilpin, about 586 acres of which, in North Buffalo township, they agreed to sell to William L. Speer, proprietor of the Winfield Furnace, and for which he agreed to pay $3,326.74, and went into possession. John McDevitt kept a hotel on this land in the northwest corner of the township in 1859-60. The purchase-money not having been paid, an action of ejectment for its recovery was brought in the common pleas of this county. The case was arbitrated, December 18, 1858, and an award given to plaintiff for the above-mentioned quantity of land to be released on payment of the above-stated amount with interest, on December 18, 1859, and costs. No appeal having been taken, a writ of Habere facias was in due time issued and possession of the land delivered by Sheriff Sloan to the writer as plaintiff's attorney, May 1, 1860, a rather rough day for that season of the year, but not rougher than the land of which the plaintiff thus became repossessed. Three hundred and six acres thereof were conveyed by William Brown, county treasurer - a tax sale - to J.K. Finley and W.H. Jack, June 16, 1862, for $4.40, which they conveyed to J.E. Brown, in 1875, for $10.64, which had become vested in him after the partition between him, Gilpin and Johnston, February 1, 1866, and with which, as unseated, he is still assessed. Gilpin and Johnston conveyed 274 acres in the northeastern part of the tract, partly in West Franklin township, to John Lundy, of Pittsburgh, May 16, 1866, for $3,295.35.

The first piece of calico for wear was introduced into what is now North Buffalo by William Parke, who packed goods from east of the mountains, in 1805, for dresses for his wife and Mrs. James Green.

The vote of this township, February 28, 1873, was 94 against and 16 for granting license to sell intoxicating beverages.

The population of this township in 1850 was: White, 916. In 1860, white 1,175. In 1870, native, 1,024; foreign, 33. The number of taxables in 1876, 291.

In 1860, number schools, 6; average number months taught, 4; male teachers, 3; female teachers, 3; average salaries of both male and female teachers, $18.33; male scholars, 180; female scholars, 166; average number attending school, 200; cost monthly for each scholar, 35 cents; levied for school purposes, $513.95; levied for building purposes, $308.37; received from state appropriation, $77.22; from collectors, $468.25; cost of instruction, $440; fuel, etc., $38.23.

In 1876, number of schools, 6; average number of months taught, 5; male teachers, 6; average monthly salaries, $33; male scholars, 250; female scholars, 258; average number attending school, 337; cost per month, 78 cents; levied for school and building purposes, $2,581.45; received from state appropriation, $343.17; from taxes, etc., $2,272.77; teachers wages, $1,815; fuel, etc., $207.80.

According to a mercantile appraisers' list there are 3 merchants of the fourteenth class in this township in 1876. According to assessment list for the same year, those of other occupations, except agricultural are: Laborers, 32; blacksmiths, 2; carpenters, 4; schoolteachers, 3; wagonmaker, 1; miners, 2; plasterers, 2; stonecutter, 1.

Geological - The surface rocks here consist of lower barrens and lower productives, nearly 300 feet of the barrens being here represented, and covering the highlands about Slate Lick with smooth argillaceous shales. The hills along the river front are more forbidding in consequence of the massive condition of the Freeport sandstone which overlies the lower Kittanning coal. The ferriferous limestone is above water-level in this township only along Rough run and Buffalo creek, where it rises above the level of the stream-beds in obedience to the Craigsville anticlinal extending here across the Butler county line. The limestone is from 15 to 18 feet thick, with the buhr-stone ore in place. It was once operated here for Winfield Furnace. The Clarion coal is also here above water-level, 3 feet thick, which yields indifferent coal. The upper Freeport coal is nearly obscure throughout almost the entire township. The lower Kittanning coal is above the water-level for a brief interval along Buffalo creek in the region of Winfield Furnace and elsewhere along the river, below the mouth of Glade run, and under the stream-beds elsewhere in the township.

Structure - An anticlinal axis runs lengthwise through the township from northeast to southwest. It passes close to Center Hill; thence southward into South Buffalo township. The dips are gentle. - Platt

* See general sketch of the county.

** East Franklin

***Dr. Allison has since increased the area of his farm by the purchase of 60 acres from - Quigley and 100 acres from Samuel Crookshanks. In 1877, he bought 3 head of Ayrshires, and now has 8 of this species, which fatten easily and quickly, and are good milkers. In 1880, he has 48 head of Jersey or Alderney cattle, thoroughbred and registered; 16 head of shorthorns; sold a few calves at an average price of $65 each, and 8 head of Ayrshires.

****The Batavia postoffice, Charles McClatchey, postmaster, was established here June 26, 1877. David Beatty, by his will, dated August 9, 1878, and registered September 8, 1879, devised his land, in three spearate parcels to his three sons: taht on which the gristmill is to R.M. Beatty. His deviseees conveyed 160 acres, partly of the Hall and party of the Kier tracts, to Henry Exall, Jr., of Dallas, Texas, November 7, 1879, for $12,000, the price of a patent-right for a smoothing-iron which they purchased from him, or traded for their several parcels of land.

*****See sketch of South Buffalo.

******See sketch of South Buffalo.

Source: Page(s) 456-471, History of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania by Robert Walker Smith, Esq. Chicago: Waterman, Watkins & Co., 1883.
Transcribed January 2001 by Lisa Strobel for the Armstrong County Smith Project.
Contributed by Lisa Strobel for use by the Armstrong County Genealogy Project (

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